|To live is so startling, it leaves little time for anything else. - Emily Dickinson|
No. 214, 08 November 1993
RUSSIA YELTSIN WANTS TO SERVE OUT TERM. President Boris Yeltsin told media representatives on 6 November that he planned to groom a successor to the presidency for the presidential elections due in 1996, various Russian and Western media reported. Yeltsin said that he wanted to serve out his full term as president rather than holding early elections in June 1994, as he had decreed on 23 September shortly after the suspension of parliament. He denied, however, that he would stand for a second term of office. Presidential Chief of Staff Sergei Filatov said on Russian Radio on 6 November that the decree on early presidential elections had been a compromise forced upon Yeltsin which it was no longer necessary to implement. Yeltsin may be hoping that the future parliament will disregard his decree. -Wendy Slater YELTSIN MEETS MEDIA CHIEFS. Yeltsin met on 6-November with the chief editors of 25-Russian news organizations to discuss media coverage of the election campaign and other problems of the media, ITAR-TASS reported. On 29 October Yeltsin issued a decree urging equal access to the state-run media for all electoral blocs. Yet, many participants in the election campaign and the independent Russian press are complaining that the pro-Yeltsin election bloc, "Russia's Choice," enjoys far more extensive publicity than the others. On 5-November, even deputy chairman of Ostankino Television Valentin Lazutkin acknowledged charges of biased coverage, an RFE/RL correspondent reported. Talking to chief editors, Yeltsin again confirmed his support for complete freedom in the election campaign for all groups regardless of their political orientation. -Vera Tolz TWENTY-ONE PARTIES REGISTERED 100,000 SIGNATURES. By the deadline of midnight on 6 November, 21 parties and blocs out of the 35 which had initially registered their intention to participate in the elections had presented lists of the required minimum of 100,000 signatures in support of their participation. Many lists arrived at the last minute; according to ITAR-TASS on 6-November only seven parties had qualified by 8 p.m. Among the final 21, however, were both pro-democratic and opposition far-right and communist parties. Those failing to qualify included the liberal "August" bloc, which includes the Party of Economic Freedom. The nationalist Russian All-People's Union, meanwhile, made an official complaint that petition sheets had been confiscated from its headquarters on 6 November, allegedly by members of the security forces. -Wendy Slater BLOCS ENTITLED TO PARTICIPATE IN ELECTIONS. The blocs entitled to participate in the elections, as reported by Reuters on 7 November, are: Pro-communist Agrarian Party (500,000 signatures), liberal-centrist Party of Russian Unity and Concord (222,000), Russian Communist Party (187,000), pro-Yeltsin bloc Russia's Choice (200,000), Liberal Democratic Party of Vladimir Zhirinovsky (173,000), Yavlinsky-Boldyrev-Lukin bloc (170,000), Civic Union (150,000), Constructive Ecologist Movement (150,000), Russian Movement of Democratic Reforms led by St. Petersburg mayor Anatolii Sobchak (135,000), Dignity and Charity Movement (130,000), Women of Russia (130,000), Association of Independent Professionals (114,000), Democratic Party of Russia led by Nikolai Travkin (109,000), The Future of Russia-New Names (109,000), Russian All-People's Union headed by hard-liner Sergei Baburin (108,000), conservative Constitutional Democratic Party (103,500), National Republican Party (102,000), Consolidation Party (100,000), New Russia (100,000), Russian Christian Democratic Party (100,000), Transformation Party (no numbers given). -Alexander Rahr PREPARATION FOR ELECTIONS IN RUSSIA'S REGIONS. "Russia's Choice" bloc is fielding candidates in the overwhelming majority of Russia's regions. Regional pro-reform organizations are generally cooperating with the bloc in the election campaign. However, according to Radio Rossii of 1 November and Rossiiskaya gazeta of 5 November, the majority of the bloc's regional and local candidates are former deputies of the Russian parliament or regional and local soviets. In addition, most heads of regional administrations are running for seats in the new parliament. -Vera Tolz OBSERVER ON PARTICIPATION OF GOVERNORS IN ELECTIONS. Commenting on the participation of heads of regional administrations in the election campaign, political scientist Andranik Migranyan told Nezavisimaya gazeta on 4 November that by allowing governors (appointed by the president) to stand for parliamentary elections, Yeltsin made a political mistake. According to Migranyan, a parliamentary mandate will give heads of administrations a power base and legitimacy independent of Yeltsin, creating the situation that the president wanted to avoid by issuing a decree that cancelled popular elections of governors for the next two years and stipulated that governors would be appointed and dismissed only by the president. This decree was interpreted as an attempt by Yeltsin to ensure the governors' support for orders from Moscow by making them totally dependent on the president. -Vera Tolz CHECHNYA AND THE ELECTIONS. Deputy premier Sergei Shakhrai, who is also chairman of the State Committee for the Affairs of the Federation and Ethnic Relations, told correspondents that a joint statement, drawn up by the Committee and the Central Electoral Commission on 6 November, states that Chechnya is part of the Russian Federation and is therefore violating the Russian constitution by refusing to hold elections to the Russian Federal Assembly on its territory, Ekho Moskvy reported. Shakhrai said that Moscow was preparing to hold further talks with Chechnya, and that he and the committee would support any efforts to hold the elections in Chechnya. -Ann Sheehy KOMI, TATARSTAN LEADERS OBJECT TO NEW CONSTITUTION. The chairman of the Komi parliament Yurii Spiridonov said in Syktyvkar on 4 November that he did not rule out appealing to the world community over the dropping of the sovereignty of the republics and the federal treaty from the new Russian constitution, Interfax reported. Spiridonov said that, if the treaty was not included, he would personally campaign against the new constitution. Tatarstan President Mintimer Shaimiev told journalists on 6 November that he would not be taking part in the referendum on the constitution on 12 November, Radio Rossii reported. Shaimiev said that attempts to reduce the republic's sovereignty to nought was a fruitless exercise. -Ann Sheehy NO VIOLENCE AT OCTOBER REVOLUTION ANNIVERSARY DEMONSTRATIONS. Police forces took steps to prevent demonstrations to mark the anniversary of the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution in central Moscow, ITAR-TASS reported on 7 November. The Moscow and St.-Petersburg authorities had banned demonstrations for that day in their cities. Only a few hundred hard-line demonstrators disobeyed the ban. 1,500 communist followers met in the Medvedkovo forest in the north of Moscow and staged a demonstration there. Further demonstrations, with modest turnouts, were reported from other parts of Russia, such as Krasnoyarsk, Ekaterinburg and Volgograd, as well as in former Soviet republics. The biggest demonstration was reported from the Belarus capital Minsk with 7,000 demonstrators. The gatherings were conducted without violence. -Alexander Rahr RESTRICTIONS ON FOREIGN BANKS TO BE MAINTAINED. The Ministry of Finance has issued a statement to the effect that it will maintain current restrictions on foreign banks for up to 3 years, Interfax and Western agencies reported on 5 November. "Hasty access for foreign banks, which have vast experience and resources, could leave Russian banks in an unequal position," the statement explained. In an interview with Izvestiya of 6-November, First Deputy Prime Minister Egor Gaidar said that the government was looking at "supplementary steps" to regulate foreign banking activity in Russia. In the debate over limits on foreign banks, Russian Central Bank Chairman Viktor Gerashchenko has, atypically, been on the side of the angels in that he has consistently advocated greater access to the banking industry for foreign competitors, while the Ministry of Finance has recommended limiting foreign banks to 12% of all statutory capital in the commercial banking sector. -Keith Bush TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA GAMSAKHURDIA'S FORCES RETREAT. Georgian government forces took the town of Chkhorotsku late on 5 November and advanced west to occupy Gamsakhurdia's stronghold, Zugdidi on 6 November; Gamsakhurdia's forces retreated from Zugdidi without resistance and are reportedly concentrated near Gali in southern Abkhazia, Western agencies and ITAR-TASS reported. An Abkhaz government spokesman has denied this, according to Interfax. A curfew was introduced in Zugdidi and Georgian government troops withdrawn on 7 November to preclude friction between civilians and government forces; order in Zugdidi will be maintained by police and interior ministry forces. -Liz Fuller AZERBAIJAN ENLISTS AFGHAN MERCENARIES. Following a secret visit to Kabul in August by a top level Azerbaijani official, Azerbaijan has enlisted a force of Afghan mudjahedin to bolster its shambolic army in the fighting in the south of the country, The Washington Post and The Boston Globe reported on 8 November. The US press gives the number of Afghan mercenaries as between 1,000 and 1,500; however, Azerbaijani President Geidar Aliev referred to up to 10,000 Afghan veterans, reported Interfax on 5 November. Aliev's requests to the US, Iran and Turkey for military assistance were reportedly rejected. On 5 November the Azerbaijani parliament elected to the vacant post of chairman 48 year old first deputy premier Rasul Guliev, a prominent businessman and Aliev associate, according to a correspondent for Radio Liberty's Azerbaijani BD. -Liz Fuller CIS KOZYREV, ZLENKO MEETING. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev met with his Ukrainian counterpart, Anatolii Zlenko, in Odessa on 5-6 November, various agencies reported. The two discussed implementing agreements reached during the Massandra summit regarding nuclear weapons and the division and sale of the Black Sea Fleet. The sale of Russian gas and oil to Ukraine was also on the agenda. Both Zlenko and Kozyrev admitted that little progress was made in the talks. Russia and Ukraine have differing interpretations of the unratified Massandra agreement. Russia claims it covered the dismantling of all nuclear weapons on Ukrainian territory which should begin to be delivered to Russia by 1-January, while Ukraine excludes 46-SS24s from the accord and will not deliver them to Russia until an agreement on compensation is reached. In regards to the fleet, Russia claims it was agreed that Ukraine would sell its half to Russia to cover its energy debt, while Ukraine insists this had only been a proposal. -Ustina Markus CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE END-GAME FOR THE CROATS IN CENTRAL BOSNIA? INTERNATIONAL MEDIA REPORT ON 6-NOVEMBER THAT THE MAINLY MUSLIM BOSNIAN ARMY STAGED A CRACKDOWN ON CROAT MILITIA UNITS (HVO) IN SARAJEVO, WHICH HAVE BEEN HELPING DEFEND THE CAPITAL. The Croats were told to disband and join the Bosnian army, to which they have been vaguely subordinated on paper, although in practice the HVO is linked to the military of the Republic of Croatia. The traditional Croat-Muslim alliance collapsed in the spring, but joint anti-Serb defense has continued in Sarajevo, Gradacac, and a few other places. Meanwhile, Vecernji list of 5-November prints a letter by Croatian Foreign Minister Mate Granic to the UN, in which he warns that the latest Muslim offensive in central Bosnia could send as many as 150,000 Croatian refugees fleeing. But Vjesnik of 8 November says the powerful Istrian autonomy movement (IDS) is objecting to taking further migrants, while the latest issue of Nedjeljna Dalmacija attacks the IDS standpoint as stingy and unpatriotic. Finally, the central Bosnian HVO is reportedly regrouping in and around Kiseljak, just west of Sarajevo, but Politika of 8-November says cholera has broken out there. -Patrick Moore SERBIAN WAR AIMS SPELLED OUT? ALTHOUGH SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC HAS LONG BEEN ON RECORD AS SAYING THAT THE KEY ISSUE IS BORDERS AND THAT FRONTIERS ARE SET BY THE STRONG, OBSERVERS HAVE FREQUENTLY NOTED THAT NO OFFICIAL MAP OF SERBIA'S ULTIMATE WAR AIMS HAS EVER EMERGED. Politika of 8 November, however, publishes an article about a presentation by the Military-Geographic Institute and "some exceptionally important state and scholarly institutions" which includes a map that spells out what might be the Serbs' ultimate "borders drawn with guns." Bosnia-Herzegovina is shown as virtually completely Serb territory, while the Croats appear to have lost large chunks of Dalmatia as well. Croatia seems to be limited to a Slovenia-sized state based around Zagreb, including Dubrovnik plus Split and some sections of the Adriatic coast. Meanwhile, Vecernji list of 6 November runs a poll showing almost universal backing among Croats for President Franjo Tudjman's latest peace package, but considerable pessimism as to its implementation. In a final Croatian development, Reuters said on 5 November that far-right politician Dobroslav Paraga was acquitted on charges of high treason, which his supporters maintained was a thinly veiled form of political persecution. -Patrick Moore SERBIAN ELECTION CAMPAIGN UPDATE. Belgrade media on 5 and 6 November gave extensive coverage to the arrests of at least 17 members of the Serbian Radical Party (SRS) during the previous week. The men were accused of terrorizing civilians, illegal arms trade and rape. Most of them are key regional SRS leaders, and the move is widely regarded as an attempt to discredit the SRS and distance the ruling Socialists (SPS) from their nominal allies in parliament. SRS leader Vojislav Seselj told Radio B92 that most of those arrested were either expelled from the SRS as early as last year or left to join small right-wing extremist groups, while Vreme on 8 November quotes Seselj as saying the arrests are part of Slobodan Milosevic's pre-election campaign and a pretext for a state of emergency. Maja Gojkovic, SRS official and vice president of the Federal Assembly, told Borba on 8 November that the "Socialists have lost their heads" and warned that if the SPS "is prepared to fight to the end, then the SRS will reciprocate." Meanwhile, the SPS dominated government and representatives of various political parties and associations agreed on 5-November that Serbia's media must not favor any political party during the election campaign and that all parties should be given equal time; an agreement is expected to be signed this week. Key opposition parties, dissatisfied after the government refused their proposals concerning media coverage and the broadcasting of programs from the independent Studio B and Politika TV stations on the second channel of state-controlled Serbian TV, walked out of the negotiations. Broadcasts from the independent stations reach only about 25% of the electorate. -Milan Andrejevich ECONOMIC DILEMMAS FOR POLISH GOVERNMENT. On 6 November the finance ministry approved hikes of 10-12% in gasoline prices to secure budget revenues and bolster profits in the state petroleum industry. The 1993 budget scheduled energy price hikes for August and November, but the outgoing government put off the first round to avoid antagonizing voters and to saddle the election victors with the unpopular decision. Gazeta Wyborcza reported on 6-7 November that the government's next dilemma will be whether to lift duties on meat imports. If duties are not removed, pork prices are expected to rise 15% by year's end. The removal of duties would please consumers but antagonize peasant farmers; the issue may thus spell conflict within the ruling coalition. In other economic news, Poland's debt negotiator, Krzysztof Krowacki, said the change of government will not affect Poland's stance in debt-reduction talks with the London Club of commercial creditors. Finally, Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak presents his government program to the Sejm on 8-November, with the confidence vote to confirm the government expected on 9 November. Also on the agenda is Pawlak's urgent request that the Sejm postpone the deadline for the submission of the 1994 budget until 29 December. -Louisa Vinton CHANGES IN THE SLOVAK GOVERNMENT PROPOSED. On 5 November Slovak Premier Vladimir Meciar submitted to President Michal Kovac a proposal for reshuffling the Slovak government, which was worked out by the country's new party coalition. A coalition agreement between the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia and the Slovak National Party was signed on 23 October. Although the names of the new ministers have not been officially announced, international and Slovak media report that Jan Ducky, current chairman of the Slovak Union of Industries, will be the new minister of economy, replacing Jaroslav Kubecka. If approved by the president, the coalition government will have four new deputy prime ministers. Current Finance Minister Julius Toth will oversee economic affairs; Sergej Kozlik, now an official at the office of the government, will preside over the process of economic transformation; SNS Honorary Chairman Jozef Prokes will be responsible for Slovakia's integration into European structures; and Marian Andel of the SNS will oversee education, science, youth, and sports. Roman Kovac will remain the first deputy premier responsible for social policies. It is not clear whether Health Care Minister Viliam Sobona, who has been repeatedly criticized, will be replaced and whether the vacant post of privatization minister will go to Ivan Lexa, currently state secretary at the ministry. Earlier this year, President Kovac refused to accept Premier Meciar's nomination of Lexa to the post of director of the Slovak Information Service. -Jiri Pehe CZECH MINISTER BACK FROM TRIP TO FAR EAST. Minister of Industry and Trade Vladimir Dlouhy returned from a week-long trip to China, Vietnam and Hong Kong on 7-November. In an interview with CTK, Dlouhy said he signed a trade agreement with China and discussed the possibility of supplying China with parts for a new power plant. He also said Vietnam is interested in buying some 40 engines from the Czech Republic. In Hong Kong, Dlouhy officially opened an exposition of Czech industrial products. -Jiri Pehe KLAUS IN ROMANIA. Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus arrived in Romania on 7 November for a two-day official visit. CTK reports that Klaus will meet with Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu and President Ion Iliescu on 8 November. He is expected to sign several agreements on bilateral economic cooperation. In an interview with CTK on 7 November, Klaus said he resolutely disagrees with dividing former communist countries between good and bad, "as is often done in the West." -Jiri Pehe HUNGARIAN FOREIGN MINISTER TO ROMANIA. On 6 and 7 November Geza Jeszenszky, accompanied by his wife and six senior foreign ministry officials, paid an unofficial visit to several localities in the Transylvanian counties of Harghita and Covasna, where ethnic Hungarians are in the majority, Radio Bucharest and Radio Budapest reported. After attending a ceremony marking the 180th anniversary of the birth of Mozes Turoczi, a hero of Hungary's 1848-49 war of independence against Austria, Jeszenszky visited several towns, including the village of Ilieni, where an ethnic Hungarian Christian youth association is based. He was accompanied by Romanian Foreign Ministry State Secretary Marcel Dinu, the Hungarian ambassador to Bucharest, local officials, and by Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania Chairman Bela Marko. Jeszenszky, who had paid an official visit to Romania from 15-19 September, said that as a result of common work, "signs of a thaw" are beginning to appear in bilateral relations, yet he stressed the need for a rapprochement and a reconciliation.--Dan Ionescu and Alfred Reisch HUNGARIAN PRIME MINISTER RETURNS TO BUDAPEST. On 6 November Jozsef Antall flew back to Hungary after undergoing four weeks of medical treatment in Germany, Radio Budapest reports. Antall, who since late 1991 has suffered from non-Hodgkin lymphoma, a form of cancer, underwent a blood cell transplant in a Cologne clinic. His doctors described his current condition as good but said he must reduce his work schedule because of the side effects of radiation and chemotherapy treatments. The ruling Hungarian Democratic Forum party chaired by Antall faces crucial general elections to be held sometime between May and July l994.--Alfred Reisch NEW HUNGARIAN PARTY FOUNDED. Lajos Horvath and populist-nationalist writer Istvan Csurka were elected executive chairman and co-chairman, respectively, of the new "Hungarian Truth and Life Party, MTI reports on 6 November. Horvath described the HTLP, which today has some 4,000 members, as being a "moderately rightist, socially inclined and Christian bourgeois party." Csurka, who will be in charge of the party's strategy and political thinking, said the party was founded so as not no leave the Hungarian people without representation in their own country, as the present government has made a deal with the former communist elite and split the country into two camps, namely, the new elite and burden-bearing masses.--Alfred Reisch ROMANIAN DELEGATION TO WASHINGTON FOR IMF TALKS. An official delegation including Minister of State Mircea Cosea, head of the government's Council for Economic Coordination, Strategy and Reform, Finance Minister Florin Georgescu, and National Bank Governor Mugur Isarescu arrived in Washington on 7-November for a new round of talks with the International Monetary Fund. In interviews with Radio Bucharest on 4 and 6 November, Cosea admitted that the Romanian cabinet and the IMF disagreed on how to make the Romanian currency exchangeable on world markets. He said this was the main point delaying negotiations for a new standby credit for Romania and added that uncertainty about financial assistance from the IMF was discouraging foreign investors in Romania. Cosea said the IMF wants Romania to reach full currency convertibility immediately, while the Romanian government was favoring a more gradual approach, aiming to reach full convertibility by April 1994. -Dan Ionescu BULGARIA FIGHTS DRUG TRAFFICKING. After tightening border controls, Bulgarian customs authorities have so far in 1993 seized a total of 537 kilograms of narcotics, officials said on 5 November. Western and Bulgarian agencies quoted Margarita Evtimova, head of the National Custom's Service, as saying that 64 traffickers have been arrested in 51 hauls involving 503.8-kilograms of heroin, 33.3 kilograms of hashish, and smaller amounts of opium and cocaine. Evtimova pointed out that drug smuggling has in the past few years tended to become more international. Although Turkish nationals still top the list, citizens of other Balkan or East European states have begun to figure more prominently. While admitting that it is unclear how much narcotics are "slipping through the net," Evtimova said German statistics show that Bulgarian authorities are currently catching more smugglers than any other European state. Bulgaria has in fact long been regarded as the main conduit for drug trafficking to Western Europe. However, international top drug intelligence officers told the Washington Post of 6 November that the combination of less strict border controls in Eastern Europe and Balkan instability caused by the war in ex-Yugoslavia have spawned an "epidemic of drug smuggling" to the West through several new routes. -Kjell Engelbrekt DISARMAMENT IN BELARUS. Following an official visit to Washington, Belarusian Defense Minister Paval Kazlouski said Belarus is entitled to half of a $400-million fund provided by the US to help the former Soviet republics disarm, Reuters reported on 5 November. Kazlouski justified claiming such a large share of the fund because Belarus was the first republic to give up its share of the former Soviet nuclear arsenal. So far Belarus has received $59 million from the US to help cover the costs of removing 72 SS-25 missiles from its territory. That same day Reuters reported that Japan signed an agreement with Belarus to help the country dispose of its nuclear weapons. Last April Japan pledged $100 million to help the former Soviet republics dispose of their nuclear arsenals. The first meeting of a joint Japanese-Belarusian committee is due to be held in Minsk on 8-9 November to discuss this issue. -Ustina Markus MACEDONIA STOPS DEPORTING ALBANIANS TO RUMP YUGOSLAVIA. The Macedonian authorities have responded to public protests by "temporarily" stopping deporting ethnic Albanians returning from Sweden, Switzerland and other West European countries to rump Yugoslavia, Borba reports on 5 November. To date about 300 Albanians have been brought from Skopje airport to the Serbian border in special busses and handed over to the Serbian authorities. The deportations became a public issue when the ethnic Albanian Party of Democratic Prosperity, a member of the ruling coalition in the Macedonian government, protested against the "inhuman" procedure. Most of those refugees sent back were allegedly deserters from the Yugoslav army. Borba also reports on Macedonian attempts to mediate between Belgrade and "interested European countries" to facilitate the direct return of refugees to rump Yugoslavia. -Fabian Schmidt ALBANIAN DIPLOMAT POSTED TO MACEDONIA. Signaling Albania's willingness to discuss differences, on 5 November Tirana appointed Shaban Murati charge d'affaires, the highest position in its diplomatic mission to the Republic of Macedonia, MILS and Rilindja report. Murati is a former editor of foreign affairs for Zeri i Popullit and a former spokesman for the Foreign Ministry. Both countries are eager to establish regular diplomatic relations. -Duncan Perry RUSSIA SEES MOLDOVA AS OBJECT OF GREAT GAME. In its 30 October issue, the pro-Yeltsin Izvestiya quotes a Russian Foreign Ministry official who requested anonymity as questioning the Moldovan leaders' unwillingness to join Romania and suggesting that those leaders are controlled by unspecified outside forces. "Quite serious forces are involved in the game around Moldova," the Russian diplomat went on. "There are many more foreign agents per square kilometer in Moldova than there are in any other area of the former USSR." The newspaper also quoted unnamed Russian military specialists as implying that their planning for the area was premised on a possible Moldovan-Romanian joint attack on the "Dniester republic." Whether genuinely held or offered for public consumption, such views can only hinder the political settlement of the Dniester conflict and presage continuing pressures on Moldova. -Vladimir Socor LATVIAN SAEIMA REJECTS BILLS ON FORMER CP MEMBERS. On 4 November Latvian parliamentarians narrowly defeated two bills that would have placed restrictions on former members of the Communist party, especially on those who held leading offices. The bills were supported by the Latvia's National Independence Movement and For the Fatherland and Freedom factions. Justice Minister Egils Levits said though he believes such laws are essential, he abstained from voting since the bills under consideration need to be refined, and the relevant issues need to be discussed thoroughly by the public, Diena reported on 7-November. -Dzintra Bungs WORLD BANK DEVELOPS FIVE CREDIT PROGRAMS FOR LATVIA. BNS reported on 6-November that Basil Kowalski, director of WB Eastern Europe and Central Asia department, told the press on 5 November in Riga that five credit programs were developed for Latvia, focusing on agriculture, energy, industry, and environment. World Bank officials are also reported to have noted that the economic rehabilitation process in Latvia is gaining momentum and recommended that Latvia seek to raise the volume of investments in both the state and private sector. In a related development, the Latvian parliament ratified on 4-November a treaty with Taiwan on the mutual security of investments. -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Ann Sheehy and Sharon Fisher THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.RFE/RL Daily Report
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