|Upon the education of the people of this country the fate of this country depends. - Benjamin Disraeli 1804-1881|
No. 212, 04 November 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA GRACHEV COMMENTS ON DOCTRINE. At a press conference on 3 November, Defense Minister Pavel Grachev commented on Russia's new military doctrine. He criticized the defunct parliament for passing legislation damaging to the military, most notably by expanding draft exemptions and including a clause in the Law on Defense limiting the size of the military to no more than 1% of the total population. The draft exemptions are blamed by the military for causing an unprecedented personnel shortfall, and it is possible that they may be altered by presidential decree. Grachev's criticism of the limit on military strength raises doubts as to whether the current plan to cut force size to 1.5 million by 1995 will be implemented, or whether a larger force will be created. Grachev also noted that the doctrine will incorporate both offensive and defensive options, and that Russian military equipment capabilities will not fall below Western levels. His remarks were carried in Russian and Western news media. -John Lepingwell NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND THE NEW DOCTRINE. One striking feature of the doctrine is Russia's willingness to consider the first use of nuclear weapons. The non-first-use of nuclear weapons was a central feature of Soviet policy, at least in rhetoric, if not in reality. (Information concerning Soviet war plans that emerged after the collapse of the Warsaw Pact indicated that first-use was an option for Soviet planners.) However, the conditions under which such use might be possible are unclear. During Grachev's remarks, as carried by Radio Moscow, he noted that Russia would not use force except in self defense and that it would observe "the guarantees of not using nuclear weapons against signatory states to the nuclear nonproliferation treaty (NPT) of 1 July 1968, which do not possess nuclear weapons." The latter may be a veiled reference (or threat) to Ukraine, which has not yet ratified the NPT, and which claims to possess nuclear weapons. -John Lepingwell DOCTRINE WILL NOT BE PUBLISHED. Valerii Manilov, deputy chairman of the Russian Security Council, told ITAR-TASS on 3 November that the full text of the new doctrine will not be published, although some of its provisions will appear in the press. He noted that President Boris Yeltsin does not intend to address the country concerning the doctrine and that the means of implementing the doctrine have yet to be elaborated. -John Lepingwell KOZYREV ON EASTERN EUROPE. Speaking at a 3-November session of the Foreign Policy Council of the Foreign Ministry, Andrei Kozyrev said that Russia is radically revising and reconsidering its interests in Eastern Europe. The first stage of building a new relationship is complete, Kozyrev said, apparently referring to Russia's expressed desire to remove the "stumbling blocks left from the socialist period." Russia wishes to see Eastern Europe act as a bridge between Russia and Western Europe. Kozyrev reiterated Moscow's opposition to the expansion of NATO eastwards, short of Russia, as well as its desire to expand trade and economic cooperation, Interfax and ITAR-TASS reported. -Suzanne Crow YELTSIN ENCOUNTERS CONTINUING RESISTANCE FROM REPUBLICS OVER CONSTITUTION. At a meeting with the heads of Russia's republics and regions on 3-November to discuss the draft constitution, Yeltsin said he wanted their agreement on four points, namely that ministers and the heads of executive power in the republics and regions should be able to stand for parliament, that the federal treaty be excluded from the text of the constitution, that the words "sovereign" and "sovereign state" with regard to the republics be removed, and that the republics and other subjects of the federation should have equal rights, ITAR-TASS reported. Yeltsin also suggested that the members of the Constitutional Court should be reelected. After a two-hour discussion the vast majority are said to have approved the draft constitution "on the whole." The chief sticking point was the relative status of the republics and regions, with the republics still insisting on their superior status. In the hope of reaching a compromise a working group was set up consisting of the presidents of Karelia and Sakha (Yakutia), the mayor of Moscow, the head of administration of Leningrad oblast, the head of the presidential administration Sergei Filatov, and deputy premier Sergei Shakhrai. If it does not reach an agreement, Yeltsin himself will decide the issue. -Ann Sheehy BLOCS FACE PROBLEMS COLLECTING SIGNATURES. Most electoral blocs are facing a fiasco, said Fedor Shelov-Kovedyaev in remarks to a member of the Constitutional Assembly. He told the RFE/RL Research Institute on 3 November that neither Grigorii Yavlinsky's nor Sergei Shakhrai's blocs have come close to collecting the 100,000 signatures needed for participation in the parliamentary elections. The leaders of the Civic Union and the Christian Democrats, Arkadii Volsky and Viktor Aksyuchits, respectively, also said they have not yet collected the required signatures. Shelov-Kovedyaev said that people are afraid of supporting blocs whose leaders had been close to the dissolved parliament. He predicted that only the pro-Yeltsin bloc "Russia's Choice", the communists and the pro-fascist bloc of Vladimir Zhirinovsky would qualify for the elections. -Alexander Rahr MOSCOW BANS DEMONSTRATIONS ON 7 NOVEMBER. Russian and Western agencies said leaders of Russia's several communist parties met with Moscow city officials on 2 November to protest the city's ban on all public demonstrations marking the anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution on 7 November. The reason given was that some of the groups that planned to rally that day had sided with parliament. During the talks the party leaders said the ban could provoke violence. City officials said the ban would stay on rallies in downtown Moscow but permission might be given for the use of the Luzhniki sports stadium. -Elizabeth Teague YAKUNIN REMOVED FROM PRIESTHOOD. The Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church has deprived Gleb Yakunin of his priestly office because of his participation in the election campaign, Interfax reported on 3 November. The Moscow Patriarchate has banned clergymen from participating in the elections. -Alexander Rahr CHERNOMYRDIN REVIEWS THE ECONOMIC SITUATION. Addressing an extended cabinet session on 2-November, Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin described the current state of the economy as in "unsteady equilibrium," Russian and Western agencies reported. During the first 9 months of 1993, GDP and industrial output were 11% and 16.5% respectively lower than in the same period of 1992. The budget deficit in 1993 is expected to amount to 17-trillion rubles and while monthly rates of inflation have fallen, they remained high at 30% in August, 21% in September, and 19% in October. Chernomyrdin declared that the period of shock therapy was over, and that the worst was past, but warned of high unemployment to come in 1994. -Keith Bush FAVORABLE FOREIGN TRADE BALANCE. Chernomyrdin also reported that Russia expected a foreign trade surplus of $21.1 billion in 1993, after a 1992 surplus of $3.1 billion. Exports have held steady, while imports have been halved. This comes after the publication of a Western study, summarized in The Financial Times of 1 November, which calculated that Russian banks in mid-1993 held some $15.5 billion in correspondent and investment accounts in Western banks. The Russian banks have made less than $500 million of this available to customers within Russia because of a lack of mechanisms to ensure repayment. -Keith Bush BORIS FEDOROV ON THE RCB AND UNEMPLOYMENT. Finance Minister Boris Fedorov gave a wide-ranging interview to The Wall Street Journal and Handelsblatt of 1 November. He predicted major changes in the role of the Russian Central Bank, which could become "the most important part of the government." He indicated that the present chairman, Viktor Gerashchenko, will soon be removed and confirmed that he is still interested in the job. The government intends to curb or abolish subsidies to industry; this could raise the unemployment figure in 1994 to 10-million. However, according to Fedorov, it costs three times more to support an unproductive worker through industry subsidies than it does to pay him unemployment benefits. He put the total cost of cheap credits, price supports, and other subsidies for the agricultural sector at 10 trillion rubles in 1993, i.e., nearly 60% of the budget deficit of 17 trillion rubles. -Keith Bush AGRICULTURAL LOBBY SUBMITS ITS WISH LIST. The All-Russian Meeting of Regional Agricultural Executives has submitted an appeal to the government, The Journal of Commerce reported on 3 November. The appeal is seen as listing favors that the agricultural lobby expects in return for its acceptance of the land reform decree. The demands include the allocation to the farm sector of 15% of hard-currency revenues from exports (i.e., roughly $6-billion a year); the introduction of minimum purchase prices to correct the "scissors crisis" or imbalance between the prices of agricultural producer goods and purchase prices for produce; and the introduction of protective customs duties and the end of government subsidies on agricultural imports. An agriculture ministry official is quoted as saying that the lobby's demands may be met before the 12 December election. -Keith Bush TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA RUSSIAN TROOPS ABOUT TO LAND IN GEORGIA? GEORGIAN GOVERNMENT FORCES CONSOLIDATED CONTROL OVER KHOBI, SOUTHEAST OF ZUGDIDI, ON 3 NOVEMBER, AFP REPORTED. Radio Tbilisi claimed that ousted president Zviad Gamsakhurdia had moved his headquarters from Zugdidi to Gali, in Abkhazia, and that he had appointed an Abkhaz commander to replace Loti Kobalia as the leader of his troops. AFP reported on 3 November that a Georgian freelance cameraman working for Worldwide Television News was executed by Gamsakhurdia's men after being charged with espionage. Russian troops with tanks and armored vehicles were poised to land in Poti early on 4 November, reportedly either to protect international shipping or to help secure the functioning of rail links from the Black Sea to Tbilisi, Armenia and Azerbaijan, Interfax and ITAR-TASS reported. -Liz Fuller KAZAKHSTAN TO LEAVE RUBLE ZONE. Speaking at a press conference in Moscow on 3-November following talks with Russian Prime Minister Chernomyrdin, Kazakh Prime Minister Sergei Tereshchenko announced that Kazakhstan will leave the ruble zone before the end of this year because Russia is imposing "unacceptable conditions" i.e. maintaining large gold and hard currency reserves on deposit in Russia-for using the new ruble, Reuters reported. The two prime ministers signed a series of documents on economic cooperation covering trade payments, customs regulations and frontier crossing procedures, reported ITAR-TASS. -Liz Fuller CIS BALTIN SAYS BLACK SEA FLEET CAN BE REDUCED. Molod Ukrainy reported on 2-November that the Black Sea Fleet is to be reduced before it is divided between Russia and Ukraine. The commander of the fleet, Admiral Eduard Baltin, said in an interview that the fleet could be cut by 15-20% without decreasing its battle-readiness or harming the officer corps. Sources close to the fleet's staff say that a more radical reduction of 45% is sought. So far the press center of the Black Sea Fleet has not confirmed these rumors, although it is known that there will be a drastic reduction of the fleet. At the same time, the Ukrainian fleet continues to grow. At the end of November a small vessel, the "Lutsk," will be launched, and at the beginning of next year the construction of the cruiser "Bohdan Khmelnytsky" will be complete. -Ustina Markus CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CROATIAN FORCES ABANDON VARES. International media reported on 3 November that Croatian troops pulled out of the central Bosnian Croatian enclave in anticipation of a massive assault by Muslim forces. About 15,000 Croats took to the nearby fields and forests, and Foreign Minister Mate Granic told the UN Security Council that as many as 150,000 people could be forced to flee the region. Vjesnik of 4 November adds that Granic wants the UN to set up "safe areas" for Croat communities in central Bosnia under threat of Muslim attack. President Franjo Tudjman appealed to his Bosnian counterpart Alija Izetbegovic to stop the offensive, news agencies noted. Politika adds that the Croats fled the area via Serb-held territory, as had been the case with earlier groups of Croat refugees. The loss of Vares is likely to set off domestic political fireworks in Croatia, as did previous major losses such as Vukovar and Bosanski Brod. Tudjman and his "Herzegovinian lobby" have long been accused across the political spectrum of not doing enough for the Croats of central Bosnia. -Patrick Moore IZETBEGOVIC FIRES ARMY CHIEF-OF-STAFF. The Serbian dailies are mainly preoccupied with coverage of next month's parliamentary elections, but Politika on 4 November reports that Izetbegovic the previous day issued a decree on top-level changes in the Bosnian army. The most important move, namely the sacking of chief-of-staff General Sefer Halilovic, had been rumored for some days in light of new Prime Minister Haris Silajdzic's crackdown on warlords and gangsters, some of whom reportedly were close to the general. Halilovic is from the Sandzak and has long been regarded as an outsider by many Bosnians. His successor, General Enver Hadzihasanovic, the former commander of the Third Corps; the Fourth and Fifth Corps will also get new commanding officers. Politika says that the new appointees are "far more extremist" than their predecessors and notes that the new Fifth Corps commander, General Arif Dudakovic, is wanted in Croatia on war crimes charges for his role as a Yugoslav army commander during Belgrade's 1991 invasion of Croatia. -Patrick Moore PAPANDREOU CRITICIZES SANCTIONS AGAINST RUMP YUGOSLAVIA. Western agencies report that Greek Premier Andreas Papandreou called the UN embargo imposed on Serbia and Montenegro unfair and urged the EC to take a more balanced view on the conflicts in former Yugoslavia. The agencies quote Papandreou from an interview in the 3 November issue of Belgian Le Soir , in which he claims that the UN sanctions are "penalizing [only] one party" in the conflict. Papandreou's remarks come less than two months before Greece-which is the only Western country to entertain friendly ties with Belgrade-will assume the EC chairmanship. Papandreou said Greece's ambition during its chairmanship, which will last six months, is "to exploit the fact that Greece is a Balkan member of the EC." The new Greek Foreign Minister, Carolos Papoulias, on 7 November begins a tour which will take him to five Balkan capitals. After visiting Belgrade, Papoulias will go to Ljubljana, Sofia, Bucharest and Tirana. -Kjell Engelbrekt RUSSIA KEEN TO SUPPLY FUEL TO RUMP YUGOSLAVIA. AFP and TASS reported on 2-November that Russian authorities have sent the UN committee overseeing Security Council sanctions a letter requesting permission to sell natural gas to rump Yugoslavia. The Russian foreign ministry issued statements that Russia intends to provide rump Yugoslavia with fuel to be used solely for "humanitarian" purposes. Western media report on 4 November that the US may block Russia's attempt to ease sanctions because of fears that any fuel shipped to rump Yugoslavia may be used to heat private dwellings instead of schools, hospitals and other institutions providing humanitarian services. Stan Markotich WALESA, DEMIREL SIGN FRIENDSHIP TREATY. Polish President Lech Walesa and his Turkish counterpart Suleyman Demirel signed a bilateral friendship and cooperation treaty on 3 November in Warsaw, replacing an accord signed in 1923. An agreement on double taxation was also signed, PAP reports. Demirel is on a two-day state visit to Poland, his first foreign travel since taking office in May. During talks with Polish officials, Turkish Foreign Minister Hikmet Cetin pledged Turkey's support for Polish membership in NATO and said the Central European countries must not be excluded from European security structures. Walesa stressed that Poland and Turkey border with successor states of the former Soviet Union and need cooperative relations with Russia. They should work together, Walesa said, to ensure that Russia is both democratic and stable. Poland agreed to propose Turkey for observer status in the Visegrad group. Demirel is scheduled to travel to Gdansk on 4 November. -Louisa Vinton POLAND'S PRIVATIZATION MINISTER: NO TURNING BACK. At his first press conference since taking office, Privatization Minister Wieslaw Kaczmarek vowed to accelerate rather than slow the pace of privatization, PAP reports. Despite election campaign demands by coalition politicians for a review of alleged past abuses, Kaczmarek said there will be no inquiry into the performance of his predecessor, Janusz Lewandowski. Asked about the new government's decision not to submit to the Sejm the privatization portion of the "pact on state firms," Kaczmarek said the legislation will merely undergo minor revisions before resubmission. The long-postponed issue of "reprivatization" is a priority, he added, but restitution in kind will be avoided, and only those assets confiscated in violation of the law at the time will likely be restored. Kaczmarek said he opposes President Lech Walesa's proposal to distribute privatization coupons worth 300 million zloty to each citizen. He also denied that his ministry has been losing experienced staff since the "postcommunist" government was formed. -Louisa Vinton POLAND'S TRADE DEFICIT GROWS. Poland posted a $2.33 billion balance of payments deficit at the end of the third quarter of 1993, PAP reports. Imports exceeded exports by $1.915 billion. National Bank officials indicated, however, that the devaluation of the zloty in August is having a delayed effect and will show results only when statistics for October are released. Hard currency reserves remain strong, at a gross level of $3.8-billion. Bank officials said pressure for a further devaluation is misplaced and recommended other measures to encourage exports, such as tax incentives. -Louisa Vinton SLOVAK PRESIDENT IN BRUSSELS. Michal Kovac arrived in Brussels on 3 November, accompanied by Defense Minister Imrich Andrejcak and Foreign Ministry State Secretary Jan Lisuch. During the two-day visit, Kovac is scheduled to appear before NATO and the West European Union as well as the Belgian cabinet and parliament in an effort to "confirm Slovak orientation toward Western political, economic and security structures," TASR reports. Andrejcak said the Slovak army is already in a "high stage of readiness to join NATO;" the main barriers are soldiers' lack of knowledge of command languages and the need for new telecommunications devices for the battlefield. In a 3 November interview with the Belgian daily La Libre Belgique, Kovac called NATO "a safeguard of security" and his country's "number one priority." Regarding Slovak-Hungarian relations, Kovac said it is necessary to distinguish between those calling for the restoration of Greater Hungary and the official Hungarian representatives, who are "reasonable people." He said "both Slovakia and Hungary are aware that the EC and NATO are not ready to accept new members who are not capable of solving their discrepancies" and said Hungarian Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszki intends to visit Bratislava to negotiate an agreement on the official recognition of the Slovak-Hungarian border. -Sharon Fisher SLOVAK ECONOMIC NEWS. Statistical Office Chairman Rudolf Krc at a press conference on 3-November said that in September industrial production rose 3.7% over August, signaling a two-month upward trend after months of decline. Also in September, sales from industrial production reached 31 billion koruny (nearly $1 billion), which is 7.6% more than in August. Still, industrial production fell by 14.7% in the first three quarters of 1993 compared with the same period last year. Only 19% of industrial firms have private ownership, compared with 50%, 89%, 50% in the transport, commerce and construction sectors, respectively. In September building construction rose by 3.5 percent compared with August, while the average size of construction firms fell from 216 to 206 workers. However, construction in the third quarter of 1993 fell by 2.2% compared with the second quarter of the year. The consumer price index rose 2.4% in both September and August. -Sharon Fisher HIGH-RANKING HUNGARIAN LEADER RESIGNS. Gabor Fodor, Vice President of the Association of Free Democrats (AYD), resigned from the party on 3 November and will give up his parliamentary seat as of 1-December, MTI reports. Fodor is a 31 year-old lawyer and a founding member of the AYD who represented the party during the 1989 round-table negotiations. On 31 October Fodor lost an internal power struggle to run the party's national election board to Jozsef Szajer, who was supported by AYD President Victor Orban. Fodor wanted closer political cooperation with the Free Democrats, Hungary's other liberal party, while Orban wanted to expand to attract voters from the right. In addition, Orban preferred a highly disciplined party, but Fodor challenged his rule. In a press conference Fodor said his ideas are no longer welcome in the AYD, and because he received his mandate from the AYD's list in 1990, he would have to resign. He was the first politician who resigned his seat after disagreement with his party. AYD is now leading the polls, five months before the general elections. -Karoly Okolicsanyi DANUBE BLOCKADE DEVELOPMENTS. An RFE/RL correspondent reported on 2 November that two Romanian tourist boats with no passengers aboard managed to escape detention at the hands of two ultra- nationalist Serbian groups responsible for disrupting Danube traffic. The two groups, the White Rose and New Byzantium, are blocking traffic along the river in order to protest UN sanctions imposed against rump Yugoslavia. AFP said the Romanian boats, which were detained in mid-October, were being held by the nationalists because they had hopes of swapping them for Serbian vessels transporting fuel which are being held in Romanian waters due to UN embargo provisions. A representative from the Romanian transport ministry said the Romanian ship captains forced their way through the blockade during bad weather conditions, Reuters reports on 3 November. -Stan Markotich ROMANIAN GOVERNMENT INCREASES WAGES. The cabinet decided on 2 November to raise the minimum monthly wage from 30,000 to 40,200 lei (approximately $38 at the official exchange rate). The cabinet also announced a new indexation of wages and pensions, with average pay to increase by 17.8%. In budget-funded sectors such as health care and education, wages will rise by over 22%, while pensions will increase by as much as 30%. This is the seventh indexation so far this year; the last one took place on 1 July. In interviews with Radio Bucharest on 2 and 3 November, senior officials with the Labor and Social Protection Ministry said the steps were designed to cushion the impact of soaring inflation and price hikes on living standards. Romania's main labor union organizations already signaled their dismay over the cabinet's package and threatened to launch mass protests in the near future. They had demanded a minimum monthly wage of between 64,000 and 70,000 lei ($61 to 67). -Dan Ionescu COUNCIL FOR EURO-ATLANTIC INTEGRATION SET UP IN ROMANIA. In a rare display of political consensus, the 13 parties represented in parliament signed a protocol on 3 November sanctioning the creation of a National Consultative Council for Euro-Atlantic Integration. The council's stated goal is to boost Romania's integration into West-European political, economic and military structures. The ceremony, which took place at the Senate headquarters, was attended by government officials, parliamentarians, diplomats and journalists. The council's first meeting, scheduled for 17-November, will be devoted to the military dimension of integration, Radio Bucharest reports. -Dan Ionescu TIMISOARA INVITES EXILED ROMANIAN KING. The town council of Timisoara in Western Romania invited exiled King Michael to join the town's celebration of the Romanian national holiday on 1 December, an RFE/RL correspondent in Bucharest reported on 3-November. The Party of Civic Alliance suggested last month that a visit by the former king could turn the planned anniversary into a symbol of national reconciliation. Michael, 71, was forced to abdicate by the Soviet-backed communist regime in December 1947. He visited Romania for Orthodox Easter last year; but the government blocked his entry to Romania on several other occasions. -Dan Ionescu TENSION ON THE DNIESTER RISING. At a news conference in Chisinau on 1 November, reported by Moldovan and Russian media, the Moldovan side of the joint commission supervising the ceasefire on the Dniester accused the Russian side of multiple violations of the ceasefire agreement. Reported violations include: allowing the penetration of additional "Dniester" forces into the "security zone" between the conflicting sides; blocking inspection of suspected "Dniester" arms stockpiles in Bendery, where such stockpiles are banned; and tolerating aggressive picketing by Russian communist groups around the last remaining Moldovan police station and courthouse in Bendery, thus exerting pressing on the Moldovans to leave. The Moldovan side also stressed that the Russian and "Dniester" sides have "made it impossible for the CSCE mission to discharge its mandate" by blocking its access. Warning of a growing danger of a resumption of hostilities, the Moldovan side asked for prompt remedial measures. -Vladimir Socor BULGARIAN CURRENCY FALLING AGAINST US DOLLAR. Demokratsiya of 4 November reports that $1-is now officially worth more than 30 Bulgarian leva. The Bulgarian currency had been traded for around 30.5 against the US dollar for several days until the Bulgarian National Bank (BNB) ruled officially to downgrade its value. During the previous week the BNB had tried to stop the fall of the lev, first by purchasing Bulgarian money for $28 million, and then by raising the prime interest rate by 3%, to 47%. One day after the intervention, the head of the BNB currency transactions department, Stoyan Shukerov, told BTA that a new increase would follow if the lev failed to stabilize. Last year the US dollar was traded for less than 25 leva at a an 80% annual inflation rate. The inflation for the first 9 months of 1993 was recently reported at 44.7%. -Kjell Engelbrekt UN LEADERS READY TO MEDIATE ON TROOP WITHDRAWAL. UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros Ghali has stated in a report to the General Assembly that he and his special envoy Tommy Koh are available as mediators in the negotiations on the withdrawal of Russian troops from Estonia and Latvia, according to a 4 November report from an RFE/RL correspondent in New York. He said the goal remains the same as in 1992, when the UN adopted a resolution calling for the early, complete, and orderly withdrawal of Russian troops according to agreed timetables. Boutros-Ghali noted that while the troops have been pulled out of Lithuania, two issues need to be settled: the status and social benefits of retired Russian military personnel and the right of transit by Russia through Lithuania to the Kaliningrad region. Meanwhile, Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev told Baltfax and BNS on 3-November that no technical obstacles stand in the way of the pullout of Russian troops from Estonia and Latvia. He added that if the human rights issues are resolved, "not a single Russian soldier will remain in the Baltic States after six months." -Dzintra Bungs LATVIA ESTABLISHES PRIVATIZATION AGENCY. The Latvian council of ministers approved on 2 November the establishment of a non-profit privatization agency to deal with state-run businesses and manage privatized firms until they are taken over by their new owners, BNS and Baltfax reported on 3 November. The agency will be financed by the state privatization foundation until the parliament decides on the issue. So far, only 15 of the 703-enterprises that the government has put up for sale this year have been bought and only 13% of state-run businesses have been privatized. -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by John Lepingwell and Sharon Fisher THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.RFE/RL Daily Report
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