|...можно двадцать лет колебаться перед тем, как сделаешь первый шаг, но нельзя отступить, когда он уже сделан. - А. Мюссе|
No. 211, 03 November 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA YELTSIN CRITICIZES AUTHORITARIANISM IN GOVERNMENT. During a meeting with the government President Boris Yeltsin criticized "authoritarianism" in the executive branch and said he will fight the abuse of power of some by his executive officials, Reuters reported on 2-November. The president said that some officials even question the principle of the separation of powers. Yeltsin praised the government of Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin for supporting him and said he would try to retain it after parliamentary elections. He stated, however, that he was concerned about a split inside the government. He called for the fullest investigation of the 3-4 October events and for punishing those responsible for the bloodshed in Moscow last month. -Alexander Rahr ELECTION UPDATE. The leader of the Party of Russian Unity and Concord, Sergei Shakhrai, has taken a leave of absence from his post as Deputy Prime Minister to devote himself fully to his electoral campaign, ITAR-TASS reported on 31 October. He urged more consultations among democrats and centrists. The leader of the bloc "Russia's Choice," Egor Gaidar, criticized disunity among democrats and warned democrats of prematurely celebrating victory over hard-liners. An opinion poll conducted in Moscow, St. Petersburg and Samara, published in Segodnya on 30 October, showed that 70-75% of those who intend to vote support the three democratic blocs of Gaidar, economist Grigorii Yavlinsky and St. Petersburg mayor Anatolii Sobchak. 15-20% want to vote for pro-communist and nationalist blocs. -Alexander Rahr SECURITY COUNCIL APPROVES DOCTRINE . . . After over a year of debate and delay the Security Council approved Russia's new military doctrine on 2 November. The doctrine had been scheduled to be approved on 15 October, and the delay in its finalization may have been due to last-minute deliberations and changes. There has been speculation that the doctrine's approval represents a concession by Yeltsin to military pressure. However, the draft doctrine had been scheduled to be discussed in the Russian parliament this fall, and opposition to it was likely to be substantial. By not waiting until a new parliament is convened and going ahead with approval by the Security Council Yeltsin has streamlined the process and avoided wider public debate of his policies. -John Lepingwell . . . BUT ITS CONTENT REMAINS UNCLEAR. The new doctrine reportedly runs to 24-pages, and specifies the political and military tenets that are to determine Russian security policy. A draft doctrine, heavily criticized in the West as reflecting conservative views, was published in spring 1992, but the final draft is likely to have toned down some of the controversial aspects of the draft. Nevertheless, the doctrine reportedly specifies that Russian forces will have to become more mobile in order to counter new threats and instability along Russia's southern borders, as well as the "traditional" Western threat. These provisions are likely to cause concern in the "near abroad" states. The doctrine also de-emphasizes the role of nuclear weapons. According to ITAR-TASS and Interfax reports of 2 November, there is also a provision allowing the use of the military "to protect the constitutional system . . . as well as other vital interests of society" against armed violence, which appears to run counter to the military's stated preference for remaining apolitical and focusing on external threats. -John Lepingwell DRAFT CONSTITUTION SUBMITTED TO YELTSIN. The draft version of Russia's new constitution has been handed to Yeltsin, Western and Russian agencies reported on 2-November. An unnamed presidential spokesman told an RFE/RL Moscow correspondent that the Constitutional Assembly had completed its debate on the draft on 2 November. The Constitutional Assembly, a body appointed by Yeltsin, had finalized a draft of Russia's new constitution in July, but on 11 October its original five chambers were reorganized into two and it had begun work on revising the draft. According to Yeltsin's chief of staff, Sergei Filatov, Yeltsin will meet with local leaders on 3 November to discuss the draft, and the final version will be published on 12 November. -Wendy Slater YELTSIN, CHERNOMYRDIN SAY MORE ATTENTION SHOULD BE PAID TO REGIONS. At the expanded session of the Council of Ministers on 2 November Yeltsin named regional policy as a weak spot in the activity of federal executive power, ITAR-TASS reported. He said that it was not surprising that the subjects of the federation tried to solve matters themselves by raising their status, and that it would be naive to see this as nothing but the ambition of local leaders. Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin said at a press conference after the session that the most important question with which the government had to deal was regional policy. He stated that further steps would be taken to transfer more powers to the periphery. This softer approach seems to have been dictated both by the objections of the republics and regions to proposed changes in the draft constitution and by a need to undercut the appeal of deputy premier Sergei Shakhrai's party, which is staking its fortunes on regional support. -Ann Sheehy SHAKHRAI WANTS JULY DRAFT CONSTITUTION SUBMITTED TO REFERENDUM. Shakhrai reiterated in St. Petersburg on 1 November that he thinks that the draft of the constitution approved by the constitutional assembly in July should be the one voted on in the referendum, ITAR-TASS reported. Shakhrai expressed disapproval of recent moves to tamper with the national-state structure of the Russian Federation and also the relationship between the president, government, and parliament, which the constitutional working group has been engaging in. -Ann Sheehy REPUBLICS WILL DEFEND THEIR RIGHTS. The leaders of several republics have stated that they will object to proposed amendments to the draft constitution affecting their status at the meeting with Yeltsin in Moscow on 3 November. The chairman of the Bashkortostan parliament Murtaza Rakhimov said in Ufa on 2 November that the republics "will not retreat" from the right they have gained to be sovereign republics, Interfax reported. The chairman of the North Ossetian parliament Akhsarbek Galazov stated before flying to Moscow that he would insist that the federal treaty be included in the constitution. Similarly, the president of Kabardino-Balkaria, Valerii Kokov, said that he would defend the rights of the sovereign republics and that he was against equalizing the status of the regions with that of the republics. -Ann Sheehy CHECHEN GOVERNMENT OBJECTS TO INCLUSION OF CHECHNYA IN RUSSIA IN DRAFT CONSTITUTION. The Chechen government of national trust, headed by Yaragi Mamodaev, has sent a letter to the constitutional arbitration body of Russia requesting a legal judgment on attempts to include Chechnya in the Russian constitutional sphere, ITAR-TASS reported on 2-November. The letter claims that from the point of view of international law Chechnya has never been part of Russia; it was seized, and that seizure was never legally regularized, even for pro forma's sake. Chechen president Dzhokhar Dudaev does not recognize Mamodaev's government, but Dudaev and Mamodaev agree that Chechnya's relations with Russia should be on a confederal basis. -Ann Sheehy RUSSIA-FRANCE TALKS. On 2 November in Moscow talks were held between Yeltsin, Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev, and French Prime Minister Edouard Balladur. Kozyrev highlighted the special relationship between France and Russia and said that the French side cannot imagine European security and political integration without Russia. In the talks, the subject of Russia's new military doctrine and Russia's worries about the rights of ethnic Russians in the Baltic states were raised. Kozyrev said that talks with the Baltic states' leaders were being prepared, but claimed that these talks would be conditional on the resolution of issues linked to the rights of Russians and the withdrawal of Russian troops, Western and Russian agencies reported. -Suzanne Crow TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA YELTSIN INTERVIEW ON NATO. In an interview with the Hamburg weekly, Stern, released on 2 November, Yeltsin said that Russia is prepared to do its part in realizing the "partnership for peace" concept for delaying the expansion of NATO to Eastern Europe as elaborated by NATO in October. Yeltsin said the main current danger for Europe is the presence of ethnic conflicts. He argued that an extension of NATO would not solve these problems. Yeltsin also offered Russia's boilerplate formula that these states have the right to determine their own security needs, and Russia respects this right. -Suzanne Crow SHEVARDNADZE DECREES DEATH PENALTY FOR LOOTERS. Georgian government forces fought their way into the town of Khobi late on 2 November after subjecting it to heavy artillery bombardment, Interfax reported. Also on 2 November, six warships from the Black Sea Fleet sailed from Sevastopol to defend the Georgian Black Sea ports of Poti and Batumi, AFP reported. Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze issued a decree ordering the death penalty for persons found guilty of looting, marauding and pillage, Radio Tbilisi reported. The Red Cross has withdrawn its team from Mingrelia for safety reasons. -Liz Fuller ARMENIA/AZERBAIJAN. On 2 November Azerbaijani President Geidar Aliev established a Defense Council to counter "the extreme deterioration of the military and political situation", Interfax reported. He also appointed Colonel Nadzhameddin Sadykhov Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The Communist Party of Azerbaijan, which self-liquidated in September, 1991, has held a reconstituent congress in Baku, according to ITAR-TASS. In New York, Armenia's Ambassador to the UN, Alexander Arzoumaniian, proposed that the UN should establish an impartial body to assess claims for self-determination, according to an RFE/RL correspondent. The chairman of the Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Committee (the acting government), Robert Kocharyan, has sent a memorandum to the UN Security Council denying that his forces were responsible for the violation late last month of the ceasefire agreement, AFP reported. -Liz Fuller UZBEKISTAN CONSIDERS ECONOMIC UNION WITH KAZAKHSTAN. An Uzbek foreign ministry spokesmen told a news conference in Tashkent on 2 November that Uzbekistan was considering steps to integrate its economy with neighboring Kazakhstan because of the "enslaving" conditions attached by Russia to membership in the ruble zone, Reuters reported. -Liz Fuller CIS CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE START-1 REINTERPRETED AGAIN? THE NEW UKRAINIAN DEFENSE MINISTER, VITALII RADETSKY, TOLD THE UNIAN NEWS AGENCY ON 29 OCTOBER THAT THE START-1 TREATY "ENVISIONS THE LIQUIDATION OF 42 PERCENT OF LAUNCH VEHICLES AND 36 PERCENT OF WARHEADS IN UKRAINE." This statement appears to directly contradict reassurances given to US Secretary of State Warren Christopher on his recent visit to Kiev, when President Kravchuk affirmed that the START-1 treaty and the Lisbon protocol covered all nuclear weapons in Ukraine, presumably meaning that they would all be dismantled. Meanwhile, the Russian and Ukrainian foreign ministries again exchanged charges on 28-29 October over responsibility and blame for blocking the withdrawal of nuclear warheads. According to Interfax on 2 November, Deputy Foreign Minister Boris Tarasyuk restated the Ukrainian position that no warheads would be returned to Russia until it agreed to compensate Ukraine for the tactical nuclear weapons. The Ukrainian foreign ministry estimates that the compensation due Ukraine would total some $5-6 billion, almost half the amount the US expects to pay Russia for the uranium extracted from the weapons. -John Lepingwell CROATIA LAUNCHES NEW PEACE INITIATIVE. Vecernji list on 3 November runs the text of President Franjo Tudjman's new three-part peace proposal aimed at ending the conflict in Croatia and Bosnia as well as at settling other outstanding issues between the former Yugoslav republics. It includes cultural and local political autonomy for Croatia's Serbs under international supervision together with a special human rights court. In a separate interview with Croatian journalists, Tudjman stressed that Belgrade must grant Serbia's Albanian, Hungarian, and Croatian minorities no fewer rights than it claims for the Serbs in Croatia. Tudjman repeated his long-standing position, accepted across the Croatian political spectrum, that any settlement must be based on acceptance of Tito-era republican boundaries and on Croatian sovereignty within that republic's frontiers. Serbian and British media reports suggested that by insisting on Croatian sovereignty Tudjman was upsetting secret talks taking place in Norway. Tudjman is apparently offering a package proposal as Croatia's position paper amid efforts by international mediators to secure a comprehensive settlement of the Yugoslav crisis. Such attempts are widely viewed with suspicion in Croatia as an effort to resurrect a Yugoslav state. -Patrick Moore KOSOVAR PARTIES TRY TO FIND CONSENSUS ON ELECTION BOYCOTT. The Kosovar Albanian newspaper Bujku has published an attack by the Information Center of Kosovo against prominent intellectuals Shqelcen Maliqi and Veton Surroi, Borba reports on 2-November. Both men are willing to consider the possible participation by Albanian political parties in the Serbian parliamentary elections, scheduled for December, and have been allegedly called "Serbian puppets" as a result. Surroi has expressed doubts about the political effectiveness of the Kosovar strategy of boycotting Serbian public life. Nonetheless, the major Albanian parties seem to have found a consensus for boycotting the parliamentary elections. Parliamentary Party Chairman Bajram Kosumi said "we have just one policy in Kosovo," adding that there might be individuals but no "organized political forces, which would be ready" to take part in elections. The Social Democrats believe the boycott is "the political will of the Albanian people, expressed by the referendum" for independence in 1991, while the Peasants Party states that the "Albanians in Kosovo have no reason to participate in the elections." Vecernji list on 2 November reports that rump Yugoslav President Zoran Lilic visited Pristina last week but found Albanian leaders unwilling to talk until Albanian media and school rights are restored. -Fabian Schmidt PAWLAK GOVERNMENT SEEKS BUDGET DELAY. Meeting on 2 November, Poland's new government resolved to ask the parliament to postpone until 29-December the deadline for submission of the draft budget for 1994, PAP reports. The statutory deadline is 15-November, but the new cabinet called this timetable unreal. The cabinet also reviewed 37 of the 55 pieces of draft legislation submitted to the Sejm by Hanna Suchocka's outgoing government and resolved to resubmit most of them, including a copyright protection bill and five of the six bills comprising the "pact on state firms" negotiated with the trade unions in 1992-93. But, in a suggestive display of the new government's economic priorities, the cabinet decided to withhold for revision the bill on the privatization of state firms that is the heart of the "pact." A communique indicated that this decision is linked with a "broad analysis of privatization" to be undertaken by the cabinet. Education Minister Aleksander Luczak said a pay raise for teachers is under consideration, but not before 1994. The government elected not to consider the plan for public administration reform bequeathed by Suchocka nor the concordat with the Vatican. -Louisa Vinton WINIECKI QUITS EBRD, PREDICTING DISASTER. The Polish economist Jan Winiecki, who had represented Poland on the board of directors of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development since its creation in 1991, resigned on 2 November, PAP reports. "The current government will bring about an economic catastrophe," Winiecki explained. "Under these conditions I see no possibility to represent it in any forum." He predicted that pressure from voters for the fulfillment of campaign pledges will force the new government gradually to raise the budget deficit and relax fiscal discipline, eventually destroying the gains achieved since 1989. Winiecki called the new cabinet "a government of national catastrophe." Describing Winiecki's resignation as "a personal decision," an EBRD spokesman said that the bank's further cooperation with Poland depends on the new government's economic program. -Louisa Vinton UPHEAVAL IN SOLIDARITY. Solidarity's national leadership met on 27 October in Gdansk for the first time since the elections. The meeting was held behind closed doors, and the turmoil caused by the union's poor showing-Solidarity fell below the 5% Sejm threshold-was clear. Deputy Chairman Janusz Palubicki resigned in belated protest against the union's no-confidence motion in May, which brought down the government and prompted early elections. Palubicki said Solidarity had failed to consider the likelihood that new elections would produce a government less friendly to the unions. The union leadership resolved to scrutinize carefully measures taken by the new, "postcommunist" government and demanded the implementation of agreements reached with the ousted government. It also warned against a search for scapegoats within the union and cautioned against unauthorized contacts with political parties. The union's spokesman also issued a statement objecting to the use of the term "Solidarity governments" to describe Poland's first four non-communist governments. -Louisa Vinton TOP SLOVAK OFFICIAL DIES IN CAR CRASH. Roman Zelenay, Vice Chairman of the ruling Movement for a Democratic Slovakia and a close associate of Premier Vladimir Meciar, died in a car accident on 1 November, TASR reports. The Interior Ministry says the car in which Zelenay was traveling to Germany crashed into a parked van on the Brno-Bratislava motorway near the village of Lanzhot in southern Moravia. The car's driver and one female passenger were seriously injured in the accident. The 41-year-old Zelenay, who was among Meciar's key allies in the drive for Slovakia's autonomy, held the post of state secretary at the Ministry of Culture. Recently he stirred controversy by preventing the signing of an agreement on the creation of a Euroregion between Slovak, Polish, and Hungarian districts and by proposing the creation of an Information Ministry. After Alexander Dubcek, Zelenay is the second high-ranking Slovak official to die in a car accident in the past two years. -Jan Obrman DLOUHY SIGNS TRADE AGREEMENT IN CHINA. Czech Industry and Trade Minister Vladimir Dlouhy, who is on a two day official visit to China, signed a trade and economic cooperation agreement with his Chinese counterpart Wu-I, CTK reports on 2 November. Both sides stressed their support for the "further development of mutual trade in the spirit of the principles of a liberal trade policy." Wu-I announced that she will send a delegation of Chinese businessmen to the Czech Republic with the aim of expanding trade relations, while Dlouhy pointed out the significance of the Chinese market for Czech manufacturers. -Jan Obrman HUNGARIAN PRIME MINISTER'S HEALTH IMPROVES. Radio Budapest reported on 1-November that Prime Minister Jozsef Antall's medical condition improved, and he will be able to return to Hungary at the end of this week or early next week. Since 6 October Antall has been hospitalized in Cologne, Germany, where he underwent a bone-marrow transplant in order to cure his non-Hodgkin lymphoma gland cancer. -Karoly Okolicsanyi HUNGARIAN PRESIDENT'S LETTER TO THE PRIME MINISTER. Arpad Goncz sent a letter to Jozsef Antall concerning the recent escalation of the so-called media war, MTI reported on 1 November. Goncz wrote that because of recent personnel and program changes, Hungarian radio and television are unable to fulfill their basic function. In a vague call for action, the President also warned of danger that voters will not be able receive free information during the coming election if Antall does not fulfill his legal responsibility to provide free information. Goncz did not elaborate. The letter follows the opposition group the Democratic Charta's rejection of the government's claim that the recent firing of radio and television personnel happened without the knowledge of the government, reported by MTI on 30-October. -Karoly Okolicsanyi HUNGARIAN PARLIAMENT APPROVES TREATY WITH CROATIA AND SLOVENIA. Friendship and cooperation treaties with two of Hungary's neighbors were ratified on 2-November, Hungarian radio reported. The treaties secure minority rights in all three countries. -Karoly Okolicsanyi US RESTORES MFN STATUS TO ROMANIA. On 2-November US President Bill Clinton signed the law restoring most-favored-nation trade status to Romania. In a statement quoted by Western media, Clinton said that the US move "reflects Romania's significant progress thus far in rejoining the community of democratic nations." He added that the preferential status "will also assist growth of Romania's private sector and enhance our bilateral trading relations, improving American access to one of our largest markets in Eastern Europe." Romania enjoyed MFN status until 1988, when late President Nicolae Ceausescu renounced it just as Washington was about to suspend it over human rights violations. The US Congress was for years reluctant to restore the preferential status to Romania because of lingering concerns about human rights and the democratic process in the former communist country. -Dan Ionescu FORMER ROMANIAN PREMIER DENIES CHARGES OF CORRUPTION. Petre Roman, who is currently a deputy in parliament and leader of the Democratic Party-National Salvation Front, denied corruption allegations against him and two of his former ministers, telling the Chamber of Deputies on 2 November that he is willing to give up his parliamentary immunity and to answer the charges in any court. Roman was accused by Ioan Honcescu, chief of the current government's control commission, of illegally assigning state-owned houses to friends and family members during his term in office. Radio Bucharest quoted Roman as describing Honcescu's report as "a typical Stalinist frame-up." Traian Basescu, a former transport minister in Roman's cabinet, accused the minority left-wing cabinet of Nicolae Vacaroiu of resorting to "Bolshevik means" to divert public attention away from Romania's real problems. Roman was Romania's first post-communist premier, from December 1989 to September 1991. -Dan Ionescu ROMANIAN INFANT MORTALITY HIGHEST IN EUROPE. A study released by the governmental Institute for Research of the Quality of Life says that infant mortality is rising again after a brief decline, and more infants are dying in Romania than anywhere else in Europe, Western agencies reported on 1 November. In 1992 infant mortality rose 3% to 23.4-per 1,000, while the average rate for Europe (including other former Communist countries) is just over 10 per 1,000. Romanian infant mortality has fallen slightly since 1989, the last year of Communist rule, when it was 26.9 per 1,000. Health ministry officials said last year's rise is related to economic hardships caused by the transition period. -Michael Shafir BULGARIAN TRADE MINISTER ON ECONOMY. In an interview with Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung of 2-November, Trade and Deputy Prime Minister Valentin Karabashev said the fall in production in 1993 appears to be less dramatic than in previous years. He was quoting recent economic statistics showing a 9.8% drop in output during the first eight months of 1993. In 1991 and 1992 the annual decline constituted around one fifth of total production, causing the unemployment rate to rise above 16%. Karabashev warned that further jobs would be lost as privatization eventually gains momentum. He nevertheless disputed official figures indicating that more than 90% of the economy remains state-owned, referring to the fact that 40% of foreign trade and 60% of retail trade are currently run by private entrepreneurs. Speaking about Bulgaria's need to achieve a settlement with foreign banks on its $13 billion debt, Karabashev said his government has been showing a maximum amount of flexibility but that a deal must take "[economic] realities" in his country into account. One week earlier, in a protest against the cabinet's refusal to provide the Bulgarian delegation to the London Club of creditors with a clear mandate, chief negotiator Mariyana Todorova resigned. Todorova has been replaced by Finance Minister Stoyan Aleksandrov. -Kjell Engelbrekt UNEMPLOYMENT IN BELARUS. Data from the Vitebsk oblast government shows that over 60,000 Belarusians have become unemployed this year, Belarusian TV reported on 1-November. Over 10,000 are seeking work through the official employment center, while the "invisible" unemployment is estimated at 5% of the workforce, or close to 40,000 persons. -Ustina Markus YELTSIN CAN DO NOTHING FOR TIRASPOL SIX. In separate letters to Moldovan and Romanian presidents Mircea Snegur and Ion Iliescu, Russian President Yeltsin wrote that "Russia has nothing to do with the trial" of the six Moldovans charged with terrorism in the "Dniester republic," local and Western media reported on 2 November. Yeltsin stressed that Russia does not have the means to influence the case and that "the fate of Moldovan citizens cannot be decided in Moscow." Three of the defendants face the death penalty, and the other three face prison terms in the trial which has been in progress since April. Snegur has appealed many times to Yeltsin to intercede on the defendants' behalf, and Iliescu has also done so recently for his own domestic political reasons. -Vladimir Socor PREPARATIONS IN ESTONIA FOR RUSSIAN ELECTIONS. Members of the Otchestvo coalition have started to gather signatures in Narva, a predominantly Russian town in northeastern Estonia, so they can field their own candidate-Yuri Mishin, head of the Narva League of Russian Citizens-for the Russian parliament, BNS reported on 30 October. Baltfax reports on 2 November that the Estonian government has allowed three polling stations-two in Tallinn and one in Narva-for Russian citizens who want to take part in the Russian parliamentary elections and that "by 1 November 40,250 persons had registered as Russian citizens in Estonia." -Dzintra Bungs KURDISH REFUGEES STILL USE THE BALTICS TO GET TO SWEDEN. Baltic media report on 2 November that 28 refugees arrived on two rubber boats at a Swedish island on 1-November. The refugees, who claim to be Kurds, told the Swedish authorities they had been dumped earlier from a larger ship-its registration is unclear-which had set out from a port in Latvia. Last January and December about 600 refugees, many of them Kurds, were smuggled from Estonian and Latvian ports to Sweden. -Dzintra Bungs RUSSIAN-LITHUANIAN SUMMIT ON 4 NOVEMBER? LITHUANIAN PRESIDENT ALGIRDAS BRAZAUSKAS IS EXPECTED TO MEET RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN IN MOSCOW ON 4-NOVEMBER, INTERFAX REPORTED ON 2 NOVEMBER. BNS also reported that Lithuanian representatives were already coordinating the final wording of accords that are to be signed, presumably during the summit meeting. -Dzintra Bungs LATVIA READY TO HELP GEORGIAN REFUGEES. Baltic media reported on 1 November that the Latvian voluntary emergency relief society and the Georgian cultural association in Latvia have collected about 5,000-lats worth or medicine, as well as clothing, for the relief of refugees in Georgia. The groups, however, lack the necessary funds to transport the donated aid to Georgia. -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Ustina Markus and Sharon Fisher THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.RFE/RL Daily Report
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