|Live all you can: it's a mistake not to. It doesn't so much matter what you do in particular, so long as you have your life. If you haven't had that what have you had? - Henry James|
No. 210, 02 November 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA COMMUNISTS SUBMIT CANDIDATES; MINOR PARTIES BOYCOTT. The Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CP-RF), Russia's largest political party, has formally submitted its list of 182 candidates for the December elections, Interfax reported on 29-October. Heading the list is party chairman Gennadii Zyuganov; other candidates include editor of Sovetskaya Rossiya, Valentin Chikin; former Pravda editor, Gennadii Seleznev; and former chairman of the USSR Supreme Soviet Anatolii Lukyanov, currently standing trial for his part in the August 1991 coup. Five small communist parties meanwhile issued a statement calling for a campaign of civil disobedience to disrupt the "imitation of elections on 12-December" an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 29 October. One of the five parties, the Russian Communist Workers' Party has in any case been banned from participating in the elections because of its part in the riots in early October. -Wendy Slater YELTSIN DECREE FOR ELECTION CAMPAIGN. On 29 October, ITAR-TASS and Russian television reported that President Boris Yeltsin has signed a decree "On Informational Guarantees for Participants of the Election Campaign of 1993." The decree is meant to ensure equal access to the media, in particular to the state-owned radio and television, for all candidates and political parties in the forthcoming elections. To this end, the decree ordered a special court to be set up to investigate complaints against the media. Yeltsin's press office revealed that the president had appointed judges to the court but no names were given. The decree also urged the broadcasting media to report all news on the elections in the beginning of newscasts and asked that newscasters refrain from commenting on any such news. Yeltsin also ordered all Russian radio and television companies to publicize the prices for the air time they are to sell to candidates and parties within three days of the decree. -Julia Wishnevsky INDEPENDENT MEDIA IN JEOPARDY? ON 29 OCTOBER KOMMERSANT-DAILY CITED THE CONCERN OF THE MOSCOW UNION OF JOURNALISTS, INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF WRITERS' UNIONS AND INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF ARTISTS, OVER THE FATE OF THE INDEPENDENT TELEVISION (NTV). NTV, the first independent television company in Russia to produce its own newscasts, started broadcasting on the St. Petersburg channel on 10 October. According to unconfirmed reports, the Federal Information Center has put pressure on the management of the St. Petersburg channel, urging them to sever their contract with NTV, and thus deprive the company of air time. Also on 29 October, an Ostankino TV show, "Press-Express" alleged that the authorities had secretly ordered the Russian Ministry of Communications not to sell subscriptions for the Nezavisimaya gazeta, the independent daily that regularly criticizes Yeltsin and his administration from the liberal perspective. "Press-Express" added that the authorities are continuing with their efforts to replace Vitalii Tretyakov as the chief editor of Nezavisimaya gazeta. -Julia Wishnevsky HELSINKI WATCH LETTER ON PEACEKEEPING VIOLATIONS. Experts from the Helsinki Watch human rights group have raised concerns about Russia's role as a peacekeeper in the former USSR. Citing abuses in Moldova, Georgia, and Tajikistan, the Watch urges Russian authorities to stop elements providing military and financial support to breakaway groups in parts of the former Soviet Union. The Watch also charged that "Russia considerably overstepped the limits of its good-will mission in Georgia, Moldova, Azerbaijan, North Ossetia and Tajikistan." These concerns were expressed in a letter to Boris Yeltsin as reported by Interfax on 1-November. -Suzanne Crow DEFENSE BUDGET FOR 1994. The defense budget for 1994 will probably amount to six trillion rubles, although the Ministry of Defense was hoping for 9 trillion rubles, Radio Rossii reported on 23 October. It was not specified which prices were used, but it is assumed that these were prices of the last quarter of 1993. Since the GDP in 1993 is expected to amount to around 120-trillion rubles in the same prices and a further, albeit lesser, decline in GDP is anticipated for 1994, this would suggest that defense expenditure in 1994 will therefore amount to over 5% of GDP. -Keith Bush GRACHEV DISMISSAL DENIED. A Russian newspaper article alleging that Defense Minister Pavel Grachev is to be dismissed before 7 November has been emphatically denied by presidential spokesman Vyacheslav Kostikov, Reuters and ITAR-TASS reported on 29 October. The article, published earlier on the same day by Moskovsky komsomolets, claimed that Grachev would be replaced either by General Boris Gromov or General Konstantin Kobets, both of whom are currently Deputy Defense Ministers. Kostikov called the report "groundless," and said that it was aimed at "aggravating relations between the President and the Defense Minister." He stressed that the army had been a "major stabilizing factor in the crisis conditions of the transition period." Since the 3-4 October events, speculation has been rife that some in the President's office were upset over what was alleged to be Grachev's hesitancy in supporting Yeltsin. -Stephen Foye KALUGIN DETAINED IN LONDON. Former KGB general Oleg Kalugin was detained by police at London airport in connection with the murder of Bulgarian dissident Georgy Markov in 1978, Russian TV and western agencies reported on 31 October. At the time of Markov's murder allegedly by the Bulgarian secret service, Kalugin was in charge of the counterintelligence unit of the KGB Foreign Intelligence. According to his earlier interviews, he took part in a decision-making meeting which discussed a Bulgarian request to the KGB to help with the assassination of Markov. Following the intervention of the Russian embassy, Kalugin was released. Kalugin, in London to take part in a BBC television documentary, denied his involvement in the Markov's affair and expressed his willingness to cooperate with the British authorities who plan to question him again this week. -Victor Yasmann CONFLICT OVER URALS REPUBLIC. The constitution of the self-declared republic, which has proclaimed itself on the territory of Sverdlovsk Oblast, has been published in the local press in Ekaterinburg, ITAR-TASS reported on 31 October. The new republic calls itself the 22nd republic of the Russian Federation but does not intend to make use of all the prerogatives of a republic, such as its own army, citizenship and currency. The establishment of the new republic was immediately criticized by the Constitutional Assembly currently meeting in Moscow and by Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin. Chernomyrdin said the population of the oblast had not been consulted and that the republic was the idea of "power-hungry local officials." -Elizabeth Teague TATARSTAN AND THE ELECTIONS. Tatarstan President Mintimer Shaimiev says the ruling elite of Tatarstan are not going to stand as candidates in the elections to the Russian Federal Assembly, Radio Rossii reported on 29 October. Shaimiev added that he thought that Yeltsin might be making a mistake in having the Federation Council elected since many appointed heads of administration could be elected to the Council and the president would to a large extent lose his power over them. In the meantime, the Tatarstan TV and radio company has started a campaign against participation in the elections. Candidates from the democratic bloc are having great difficulty in getting the requisite number of signatures to stand. -Ann Sheehy CONSTITUTION AND FEDERAL STRUCTURE. The federal structure of the Russian Federation continues to be the subject of sharp differences in the work on the draft constitution. Anatolii Sobchak, coordinator of the public chamber of the constitutional assembly, warned on 1 November that, if the wishes of the republics that they be defined as sovereign states were not met, they could boycott the elections and referendum on the constitution, thereby throwing doubt on the legitimacy of the adoption of the new constitution, ITAR-TASS reported. Nevertheless he thought that the words "sovereign" and "state" should be removed. At the same time, he thought that a split should not be risked over words if the constitution defined correctly the relationship between the federal authorities and the subjects of the federation. The same day the constitutional arbitration body, set up to resolve differences between the different groups of the assembly, decided that the concept of the sovereignty of the republics should be removed, since it is unnecessary as they are recognized as states. -Ann Sheehy TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA FIGHTING CONTINUES IN WESTERN GEORGIA. On 29 October Georgian government troops retook Khobi, Western agencies reported. Armenian President Levon Ter-Petrossyan said Armenia would not send troops to join a Russian-Armenian-Azerbaijani force intended to protect rail links through Georgia, according to Reuters. On 29 October Gamsakhurdia's forces launched a counter-offensive and retook Khobi and Senaki, inflicting heavy losses on the civilian population. They also opened fire on Russian troops guarding a bridge near Senaki. On 30 October Abkhaz defense minister Sultan Sosnaliev denied allegations that Abkhaz forces were fighting on Gamsakhurdia's side, Interfax reported. On 1 November Georgian government troops again occupied Senaki and were advancing on Khobi. -Liz Fuller ARMENIA-AZERBAIJAN. Iran, Turkey and Azerbaijan called on the UN Security Council on 29 October to convene a session to discuss the renewed fighting in southern Azerbaijan, Western agencies and Radio Tehran reported. Also on 29 October, Nagorno-Karabakh parliament chairman Karen Baburyan told AFP that the Armenian authorities in Stepanakert would consider ceding part of the territory recently occupied in return for Azerbaijani recognition of the self-proclaimed Nagorno-Karabakh Republic as an independent republic. Armenian forces backed by tanks took the town of Zangelan on 29 October, inflicting heavy losses on the Azerbaijani defenders, and are advancing west into Beylagan, Western agencies reported. A new round of CSCE-sponsored talks on a political solution to the Karabakh conflict is to begin in Vienna on 2 November. -Liz Fuller TURKMENISTAN INTRODUCES ITS OWN CURRENCY . . . On 1 November Turkmenistan introduced its own currency, the manat, which will trade initially at two to the US$, or one manat to 500 rubles. The population may change a maximum of 30,000 roubles. Turkmen deputy prime minister Valery Ochertsov was quoted by Reuters on 1 November as predicting that the introduction of the manat should bring down inflation from 25 per cent per month to 2-3 per cent. Turkmenistan had a considerable trade surplus in 1992 and the government has set aside $300 million to support the new currency. -Liz Fuller . . . AND KAZAKHSTAN MAY DO THE SAME. Kazakh First Deputy Prime Minister Daulet Sembayev told journalists on 1 November that Kazakhstan "is being pushed out" of the ruble zone because Russia is imposing conditions which it knows Kazakhstan cannot fulfill, and is considering introducing its own currency, the tenge, in January, Reuters reported. Sembayev said Kazakhstan might also revise its position on an economic union with Russia; it will apply to the IMF for help to back the tenge. -Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CZECH REPUBLIC ELECTED TO UN SECURITY COUNCIL. The UN General Assembly elected the Czech Republic to represent the post-communist European states on the 15-member Security Council starting in January, international media reported on 30 October. In the final round of the secret ballot, the Czech Republic received 127 votes from 174 delegations present and voting; Belarus, its only competitor, received 47 votes. There have been indications that the Czech-Belarus contest for the Security Council seat produced bilateral tensions between Prague and Minsk. Due to the alphabetical rotation of the presidency, the Czech Republic will preside over the Security Council in January. -Jan Obrman CHAOS IN VARES. International media reported on 1-and 2 November that the situation has become increasingly chaotic in and around Vares in central Bosnia. The mainly Croat-inhabited town is slated to be given to the Muslims, who have surrounded it, under the terms of the apparently dormant international peace plan. Both sides have reportedly behaved brutally in the fighting, taking few if any prisoners. Last week Croat forces were said to have killed off much of the civilian population of the Muslim village of Stupni Do, and Croatian President Franjo Tudjman has since condemned the action and promised an investigation. Meanwhile, Reuters on 2 November quotes UN mediator Thorvald Stoltenberg as saying he "cannot understand how the three parties cannot agree on a mere 2.7% of territory [for the Bosnian peace settlement] while thousands are getting killed. . . . " -Patrick Moore UNPROFOR MISCONDUCT? NEWSDAY REPORTS ON 2-NOVEMBER THAT ITS PULITZER PRIZE-WINNING CORRESPONDENT ROY GUTMAN HAS COMPLETED A SIX-MONTH STUDY DOCUMENTING INVOLVEMENT BY UNPROFOR PERSONNEL IN THE SEXUAL ABUSE OF MUSLIM WOMEN IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. Serb paramilitaries reportedly supplied the women and other entertainment at places like Sonja's Kon-Tiki, a combination restaurant, hotel, and brothel near Sarajevo. Gutman's study notes that the UN personnel failed to investigate a concentration camp operating near Sonja's and quotes a former commander of the camp and other Serb witnesses on the presence of UNPROFOR men at the brothel. Bosnia's UN ambassador Muhamed Sacirbey said the charges constituted war crimes and that those guilty should be brought before a tribunal. A UNPROFOR spokesman in Sarajevo called the report "disinformation," but a UN official in New York promised that the story would be fully looked into. Sacirbey has appealed to Secretary-General Boutros Boutros Ghali for a full investigation and a public report. -Patrick Moore KOSOVO ALBANIANS TO BOYCOTT SERB ELECTIONS. Leader of the Democratic League of Kosovo and president of the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo, Ibrahim Rugova, announced that Albanians there will not take part in the 4 December parliamentary elections, Borba reports on 29 October. Meanwhile, Veton Surroi, leader of the Parliamentary Party of Kosovo, the next biggest Albanian grouping, discussed the advantages and disadvantages of a boycott in the same paper. Surroi said that "the Kosovo Albanians lost the political initiative a long time ago. Instead of invention and creativity in political behavior, they reached a level of mourning and looking to the world's political sky," on the grounds that "under a military police state there are not even the basic conditions for democratic elections." The Socialist Party of Serbia in Kosovo has meanwhile elected Vojislav Zivkovic as new party leader, replacing Zivorad Igic, Politika reports on 29 October. Zivkovic, a member of parliament and journalist for the Pristina paper Jedinstvo, is also expected to run in the elections. Kosovo's population is over 90% ethnic Albanian. -Fabian Schmidt RESURRECTED MONTENEGRIN ORTHODOX CHURCH ANGERS SERBS. On 31 October, several thousand pro-independence Montenegrin nationalists declared Antonije Abramovic leader of the re-established national church in Montenegro. Abramovic, an Orthodox archimandrite from Edmonton, Canada, was chosen in Cetinje, the former capital of the Kingdom of Montenegro and considered the cradle of Montenegrin culture. Belgrade and international media say the action is another sign of a deepening rift between Montenegro and Serbia. While the ceremony unfolded, the Holy Synod of the Serbian Orthodox Church met about 100-meters away in a special session, a move which angered Montenegrin nationalists and prompted authorities to send in massive police reinforcements to prevent possible riots. Although no violence was reported, Montenegrin church officials and leaders from the republic's secessionist movements described the Synod's session as a provocation part of an effort to assimilate Montenegro into a greater Serbian state. The Serbian Orthodox Church dismissed the new Montenegrin Church as illegal, saying it was only whipping up secessionism. -Milan Andrejevich POLAND'S ECONOMIC BOOM CONTINUES. Poland's Main Statistical Office reported on 29-October that, judging from third-quarter economic results, growth trends remain strong. At the end of September industrial production was 6.9% higher than in the same period in 1992, while GDP was up about 4%. Nineteen of twenty-three industrial branches reported higher output, Rzeczpospolita reports. At the same time, 15.4% of the work force was unemployed, with the jobless rate as high as 27% in some voivodships. Half of the unemployed have lost their right to benefits, and 45% have been without work for over a year. Data on real wages point to growing income disparities, with laborers and pensioners losing ground and farmers and entrepreneurs gaining. The central planning office reported on 29 October that the private share of the economy continues to grow. By September, private firms accounted for 92% of employment and 88% of sales in retail trade; 85% of turnover in construction; and 46% of employment and 37% of turnover in industry, PAP reports. -Louisa Vinton POLISH-BRITISH AIR TRAFFIC HALTED. Direct air traffic between Poland and Britain was suspended at midnight on 30 October after Poland refused to allow British Airways to double its weekly flights to Warsaw from seven to fourteen, Polish TV reports. The Polish transport ministry rejected Britain's demand, arguing that more frequent BA flights would lure business away from the Polish national airline, LOT. In retaliation, the British government banned LOT flights into London and canceled BA flights to Warsaw. Passengers traveling between London and Warsaw are now being offered connections through other European cities. -Louisa Vinton SLOVAK JEWS PROMISED HELP TO REGAIN PROPERTY. The World Jewish Congress has promised to help Slovak Jews reclaim properties seized before and during the Second World War, when Slovakia was an ally of Nazi Germany, Reuters reports on 1 November. The pledge was announced at a joint press conference of Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar, WJC Secretary General Israel Singer, and WJC Vice Chairman for Political Affairs Naphtale Lavie. The WJC officials were in Slovakia for a two-day visit at the invitation of the Meciar government. Under a new Slovak restitution law, Jewish property seized since 2 November 1938 can be reclaimed. According to TASR, WJC President Lesslie Keller, who was also member of the delegation, expressed "satisfaction with the democratic development in Slovakia." TASR also reported that Keller promised to help initiate cooperation between Western businessmen and Slovakia. Jan Obrman LAMASSOURE IN BRATISLAVA. French Minister for European Affairs Allain Lamassoure visited Slovakia on 1 November, where he met with President Michal Kovac and Premier Vladimir Meciar. During his stay, Lamassoure expressed his support for Slovakia's admission into European structures and informed Meciar about the plan of French Prime Minister Edouard Balladur to deal with the situation of ethnic minorities in Europe. While Meciar stressed that Slovakia supports preventive diplomacy to cope with minority issues, he said his country is not ready to accept provisions for collective rights for ethnic minorities proposed by the Balladur plan, TASR reports. -Jan Obrman REVISED HUNGARIAN GDP NUMBERS FOR 1994. The government revised the GDP growth estimate of 1-to 3% for 1994, given in the summer as the basis of the first budget proposal, MTI reported. The new numbers estimate GDP in 1994 to maintain the 1993 level, without any growth, although industrial output grew by 3.4% in the first eight months of 1993. Foreign trade in 1994 was projected to have about 2 to 2.5 billion dollars deficit, more than in the earlier version. Net debt service will amount to 9% of GDP, according to the newest estimate. -Karoly Okolicsanyi ROMANIA PROMISES TO PAY RUSSIAN GAS DEBT. Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu says Romania will pay Russia $25 million this week to ensure a continuation of natural gas supplies. Vacaroiu discussed the payment at a cabinet meeting on 29 October, Radio Bucharest reported. One day earlier Industry Minister Dumitru Popescu said on television that Romania is $40 million behind in its payments for Russian natural gas, and it faced the danger of not getting any gas at all unless it paid the debt to Moscow. But there are conflicting reports about the size of the debt. The director of the Russian state company Intergaz told an RFE/RL Moscow correspondent that Romania has promised to pay $30-million in the next few days and another $13 million by year's end. Yet the chief of the Russian trade mission in Bucharest told a local correspondent of RFE/RL that the total debt is $42 million and Vacaroiu has promised to pay about half by the end of October. He said the pledge prompted Russian authorities to promise gas delivery for the winter. -Michael Shafir ROMANIAN TRADE UNIONS THREATEN PROTEST. Two of Romania's major trade union confederations threatened on 29 October to launch mass protests after the government rejected pay demands and said a monthly minimum wage of 40,200 lei ($39) was its final offer, Radio Bucharest and Reuters reported. The Fratia Confederation issued a statement denying a television report that it had agreed to the government's offer during negotiations and called for a rally on 18 November to protest the lack of social protection for workers in the face of rising prices. The National Council of Free Trade Unions also said it was dissatisfied. Government spokesman Mihai Rosca said the government's offer was final under the present economic circumstances. In a related development, a presidential spokesman said on 29 October that President Iliescu was concerned about the high prices demanded by merchants for food, especially meat, and intended to ask parliament and the government to take measures to prevent extensive profiteering. -Michael Shafir CHOLERA OUTBREAK IN ROMANIA. A Romanian doctor said on 29 October that one man has died of cholera and at least 19 other cases of the disease have been reported in the Danube river delta, Western agencies report. The head of the contagious diseases hospital in Tulcea said all the cases were from an isolated village in the delta, and the victims became ill after drinking contaminated water. The outbreak of the disease had first been reported in the daily Romania libera on 23 October. -Michael Shafir MOLDOVA PULLED TOWARD CIS. Moldovan Parliament Vice-Chairman Victor Puscasu, a close ally of President Mircea Snegur, told Interfax on 1 November that the lame-duck legislature would convene for a special session in December to ratify Moldova's membership of the CIS, as requested by Snegur and recommended by the Parliament's Presidium. Puscasu voiced confidence that the Alma-Ata agreement and subsequent documents, confined to the economic sphere and including the treaty of Economic Union, would get enough votes for ratification. He stressed, as did Premier Andrei Sangheli, that failure to ratify the documents would lead to the loss of the Russian and CIS markets through the imposition of prohibitive taxes and tariffs on Moldovan agricultural exports, and also to the loss of access to Russian raw material and fuel supplies, Interfax reported on 29 October. Meanwhile, Romanian President Ion Iliescu's spokesman Traian Chebeleu told a news conference on 29 October that Moldova is "under constant pressure" to join the CIS "by forces both within and outside Moldova," Radio Bucharest reported on 29 October. Chebeleu also said Romania is "quite embittered" by Moldova's ingratitude for Romania's economic assistance. -Vladimir Socor FIRST BULGARIAN PEACE KEEPING MISSION A FIASCO? AN ARTICLE IN THE 29 OCTOBER WASHINGTON POST SAYS THAT OUT OF ALL THE 16,000 MILITARY PEACE KEEPERS STATIONED IN CAMBODIA PRIOR TO AND DURING RECENT DEMOCRATIC ELECTIONS THERE, THE BULGARIAN COMPONENT WAS CLEARLY THE MOST "DISRUPTIVE FORCE." According to the report, several United Nations missions to Cambodia have been criticized for inefficiency, incompetence, or criminal behavior, but no single nationality has been as heavily attacked as the Bulgarians. UN and diplomatic sources are quoted as saying that up to a fourth of the original battalion was made up of convicts. Bulgarian authorities have so far described the mission as largely successful, despite the fact that as many as 10-of the country's 1,300 peace keepers died in Cambodia. -Kjell Engelbrekt ALBANIAN PRESS HIGHLIGHTS. Both Aleanca and Zeri i Popullit on 31 October published a letter from the New York-based Committee to Protect Journalists appealing to President Berisha not to sign Albania's new press law unless it allows for the free flow of information. The law was passed in the Albanian parliament with the support of the Democratic Party and has received considerable criticism from both inside and outside of Albania. Zeri i Popullit also notes on 31-October that former Prime Minister Vilson Ahmeti has been taken from house arrest to a Tirana prison. Lastly, Koha Jone reports on 30 October that Albanian businessman Marsel Skendo, who is considered one of the richest men in Albania, has been arrested for falsification of documents. -Robert Austin PERSONNEL CUTS IN UKRAINIAN ARMED FORCES. Minister of Defense Vitalii Radetsky issued an order to cut Ukraine's armed forces down to 380,000 by 1-January 1994 and to 250,000 by the end of 1995, UNIAN reported on 29 October. These are greater cuts than those recently approved by the Supreme Council, which pledged to reduce the armed forces to 420,000 by the end of 1995 and to 200,000 by the year 2000. Currently Ukraine's armed forces are the second largest in Europe, after Russia's, numbering 525,000, although higher numbers have sometimes been reported. -Ustina Markus PARLIAMENTARIANS ENDORSE THE CREATION OF BALTIC COUNCIL. On 31 October sixty Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian parliamentarians meeting in Tallinn concluded their third joint session. They endorsed the creation of a Baltic Council, an idea that had been proposed in September at a meeting of the presidents of the Baltic States. The council would serve as an instrument for increased cooperation among the three Baltic States and would coordinate legislation and policy on ecology, energy, economy, communications, culture, education, social issues, science, defense and security, and foreign policy. The parliamentarians decided to establish a Baltic Information Bureau in Moscow and also discussed security issues, especially the possibility of the Baltic States becoming full members of NATO and the withdrawal of Russian troops from their territories, Baltic media reported. -Dzintra Bungs HELSINKI WATCH ON HUMAN RIGHTS IN LATVIA. Following a visit to Latvia, leaders of the US-based Helsinki Watch organization said on 29 October they gave Premier Valdis Birkavs a list of what they considered to be violations and irregularities in the implementation of human rights in his country. Baltic media reported that most of the criticism had to do with the registration of non-Latvians, especially members of the Russian military and retired members of the Soviet armed forces and their families, by the Citizenship and Immigration Department in the period March 1992 to March 1993. Helsinki Watch also expressed objections to a recent Latvian legislation, stipulating that non-citizens get 90% of the state pension. -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Ustina Markus and Sharon Fisher THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.RFE/RL Daily Report
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.