|One word frees us of all the weight and pain of life: that word is love. - Sophocles|
No. 208, 28 October 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA NO POWERFUL SPEAKER IN FUTURE PARLIAMENT. The head of the presidential legislative proposals commission, Mikhail Mityukov, told ITAR-TASS on 27 October that the Federal Assembly will have no single speaker. He said that each of the chambers-the Federation Council and the State Duma-will have a chairman whose powers would be limited. Deputy Prime Ministers Vladimir Shumeiko and Sergei Shakhrai plan to fight for the post of chairman of the two chambers, respectively. He stated that the two future chairmen of the chambers would lack the powers to rival the government. He also said that the Federal Assembly will have a conciliatory commission to ensure proper interaction between the two chambers. -Alexander Rahr SHAKHRAI, SHOKHIN ON THEIR PARTY. Leaders of the Party of Russian Unity and Concord, Sergei Shakhrai and Aleksandr Shokhin, revealed their program at a press conference on 27 October, Reuters reported. Shakhrai stated that his party stands for conservative values such as the family, property, labor and the fatherland. He said he understands conservatism as the preservation of the Russian state and rebirth of old Russian traditions. He stressed the need to preserve and strengthen a united, multinational federal Russian state. He maintained that his party may win about a third of the vote in the parliamentary elections. Shokhin said that should his party come to power, the present reform course would continue but more regional aid and social welfare to the poor parts of the population will be redirected. -Alexander Rahr CRITICISM OF SHAKHRAI IN YELTSIN'S ENTOURAGE. Shakhrai's electoral platform, which supports the aspirations of Russia's republics and regions for more economic and political rights, has provoked criticism among members of the pro-Yeltsin camp. President Boris Yeltsin has recently taken a number of steps aimed at limiting the rights that Russia's provinces have acquired in the past two years. On 27-October, Yeltsin's close associate Gennadii Burbulis was quoted in Literaturnaya gazeta as criticizing Shakhrai's position. The same day, the independent daily Segodnya quoted Deputy Prime Minister with the responsibility for implementation of economic reform in Russia's provinces, Yurii Yarov, as saying Shakhrai is giving in too much to the provinces' demands for more powers. The newspaper said it is likely that Shakhrai will be replaced by Yarov as chairman of the State Committee for Ethnic Relations. -Vera Tolz RUSSIAN MOVEMENT FOR DEMOCRATIC REFORMS PREPARES FOR ELECTIONS. The program of the Russian Movement for Democratic Reforms (RMDR) will provide "a democratic alternative to the current government's course," RMDR chairman Gavriil Popov told a news conference on 27 October, Interfax reported. The RMDR expects to have collected the requisite number of signatures for participation in the elections by 1 November. Among its leading candidates are Popov, St. Petersburg Mayor Anatolii Sobchak, microsurgeon Svyatoslav Fyodorov, and former advisor to Mikhail Gorbachev, Aleksandr Yakovlev. The list includes no government ministers, and Popov accused ministers who are standing for election of doing so to receive parliamentary immunity. Popov also said that RMDR would cooperate with all pro-democratic parties, but not with Arkadii Volsky's Civic Union for Stability, Justice, and Progress. -Wendy Slater DEMOCRATS DISCUSS COOPERATION. The democratic-oriented blocs have decided, during a meeting in the Kremlin offices of the head of the presidential administration Sergei Filatov, to cooperate in nominating candidates for parliamentary elections, Interfax reported on 27-October. It was agreed upon that well-known candidates from the democratic camp would not run against each other in single constituencies to avoid splitting the democratic vote. Participants of the meeting also suggested that the Federal Assembly should be elected only for two years, instead of four years as envisaged at the moment. The meeting was attended by the leader of "Russia's choice", Egor Gaidar, the head of the Economic Freedom Party, Konstantin Borovoy, but not by the leaders of the Party of Russian Unity and Concord, Sergei Shakhrai, and the bloc "Republic", Grigorii Yavlinsky. -Alexander Rahr OPPOSITION HAS GOOD CHANCES IN ELECTIONS. First Deputy Prime Minister and Press Minister Vladimir Shumeiko told journalists that he rated the opposition's chances in the forthcoming elections as "high," ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported on 27 October. He singled out the alliance of communist forces and the agrarian lobby as a potentially successful bloc. The leading candidates of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CP-RF), who include party leader Gennadii Zyuganov, cosmonaut Vitalii Sevastyanov, and Pravda journalist Viktor Ilyukhin, claimed at a news conference on 27 October reported by ITAR-TASS that they would win 22-28 seats in the State Duma. The nationalist Russian All-People's Union, meanwhile, has said that it will run independently; Radio Rossii reported on 27-October that RAPU leader Nikolai Pavlov had denied rumors that his party would form an electoral bloc with the CP-RF. -Wendy Slater SHAPOSHNIKOV REDUX. Interfax reported on 27-October that according to a spokesman for the defense ministry's personnel administration, Marshall Evgenii Shaposhnikov has been assigned to the president's staff, although the capacity in which he will serve is not yet known. Shaposhnikov had been appointed secretary of the Russian Security Council in June 1993, but resigned after failing to win confirmation by the parliament. Interfax reported on 24 October that Shaposhnikov was one of the top ten candidates on the parliamentary candidates list of the Russian Movement for Democratic Reforms Movement, a liberal group headed by former Moscow mayor Gavril Popov and St. Petersburg mayor Anatolii Sobchak. -John Lepingwell YELTSIN SIGNS LAND DECREE. After much delay and controversy, on 27 October President Yeltsin signed the decree "On the Regulation of Land and the Development of Agrarian Reform," ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported. This allows all land-owners, corporate or individual, to dispose of their land at their own discretion through its sale or purchase, as bequest, gift, or mortgage, exchange or offer, wholly or in part, or as collateral. The decree abolishes compulsory procurements and other forms of obligatory transfer of agricultural produce to government resources starting in 1994. The full text of the decree is to be published on 28 October. Other related legislation is expected soon. As late as 26 October, Prime Minister Chernomyrdin had publicly aired his reservations about the decree. -Keith Bush CAUTION EXPRESSED ON RUBLE ZONE. Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Shokhin expressed caution over the creation of a new ruble zone during a news conference on 27-October, Reuters reported. He emphasized that the single legal system required for such a zone would take time and that the 6 former Soviet republics concerned should clearly formulate what they expected from the economic grouping. This is the latest expression of reservation from the Russian side over the 7 September agreement whereby Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan undertook to coordinate their monetary, fiscal, banking, and customs policies with those of Russia. -Keith Bush TRADE UNION CONGRESS. Russian agencies reported that the Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Russia (FNPR-the old "official" trade unions) opens its second extraordinary congress in Moscow on 28 October in a state of deep crisis. Officially, the FNPR still claims 60-million members; unofficially, activists admit that workers are leaving "in droves" and that some regional branches have stopped paying dues to the center. A new FNPR chairman must be elected to replace Igor Klochkov, who resigned in early October after his call for a general strike in support of Rutskoi and Khasbulatov was ignored by workers. Acting chairman Mikhail Shmakov has accused Klochkov of getting the unions too involved in politics at the expense of bread-and-butter issues of concern to workers. There is therefore likely to be much talk at the congress of the need for new priorities for union activity. -Elizabeth Teague TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA GEORGIA UPDATE. On 27 October Georgian government troops retook the town of Khobi, Western agencies reported; now only the Mingrelian capital of Zugdidi remains in the hands of Gamsakhurdia's forces. Also on 27 October, Georgian Minister of Security Igor Giorgadze issued an official apology for an incident on 26 October in which Georgian paratroopers backed by fighter bombers mistakenly attacked a Russian military installation in the Black Sea village of Anaklia, Interfax and AFP reported. Georgian Minister for Western Georgia Givi Lominadze told ITAR-TASS on 27 October that life in the towns liberated from Gamsakhurdia's forces "is returning to normal"; rail transport from Poti via Samtredia south to Armenia has resumed. Lominadze further claimed that Gamsakhurdia's forces were deserting en masse. -Liz Fuller RAFSANJANI IN BAKU. Meeting in Baku on 27 October with Azerbaijan's President Geidar Aliev, Iranian President Ali-Akbar Rafsanjani expressed concern at the renewed fighting in south-western Azerbaijan, asserting without elaboration that "the Islamic world will not tolerate such developments in the region" and that "the Armenian leadership will soon realize that its policy is wrong", ITAR-TASS reported. Meanwhile Armenian troops were reportedly advancing on Zangelan from three directions from Armenian territory. Speaking at a press conference in Baku, Aliev announced that Iran and Azerbaijan were planning to expand cooperation in the development of offshore oil fields, rail and sea transport, and trade, Reuters and ITAR-TASS reported. -Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE MORE ON KILLINGS IN BOSNIA. Reuters reports on 28 October about the recent crackdown on warlords and gangsters in Sarajevo. Hostages and civilians caught in crossfire accounted for most of the 21 dead during the arrest of the warlord known as Celo and the arrest, escape, and killing of the gangster Caco. Meanwhile in central Bosnia, British and Swedish UNPROFOR personnel confirmed Muslim reports that Croat forces had massacred at least 19-persons in the hamlet of Stupni Dol, which they also destroyed. Several hundred people are unaccounted for and may well be in Croat prisons, in nearby forests, or charred beyond recognition under the ruins. Brigadier Angus Ramsay of UNPROFOR said that he has "spent 30-years in various conflicts and [has] not seen anything like this before." Ramsay went on to suggest that local Croat commander Kresimir Bozic may have to answer for the "war crime." The Washington Post quotes a Swedish officer who visited Muslim prisoners of the Croats in Vares. He said that the prisoners were too frightened to talk openly, but that one Swedish-speaking prisoner whispered to him that "people are screaming all night." -Patrick Moore CROATIAN GOVERNMENT SLAMS EVICTION OF OPPOSITION LEADER. Vecernji list of 28-October says that Prime Minister Nikica Valentic has condemned the recent eviction of President Mira Ljubic-Lorger of the regional party Dalmatian Action (DA) from her Split apartment. Borba on 26 October had reported on the action by armed soldiers and police, which Valentic in the name of the government has now called an "illegal and politically damaging act." The Vecernji list report cites the prime minister as pointing out that the eviction could seriously damage Croatia's already problematic image abroad and jeopardize that republic's hopes of admission to full membership in several international organizations. The same pro-ruling party paper, however, runs another article entitled "Mira Lorger and Croatian Stupidity" that suggests that some Croats do not care for international criticism of what happens in their country, and that the Croatian army was justified in evicting Ljubic-Lorger and taking the apartment for a war invalid. -Patrick Moore SERBS BLOCK ROMANIAN SHIP ON DANUBE. Two Serbian groups calling themselves White Rose and New Byzantium blocked a Romanian ship on the Danube to protest UN sanctions, Radio Bucharest reported on 27-October. They used small boats and mines to prevent a Romanian passenger vessel from leaving for home on 25 October. Another Romanian ship, which entered Serb territorial waters on 27 October, is also blocked. -Michael Shafir ALBANIAN-GREEK RELATIONS STILL STORMY. Despite pronouncements by newly-elected Greek Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou about the need for better relations with Albania, ties remain strained. On 28-October the Albanian public order ministry told AFP that Greece has suddenly resumed its mass deportation policy and expelled more than 2,700 Albanian immigrants in two days. Tirana says no official explanation has been given. After a diplomatic crisis in July, when Albania expelled a Greek Orthodox priest, Greece rounded up 25,000 illegal Albanian immigrants and transported them to the border. Tirana is increasingly concerned that the new Greek government will take an even harder line on Albanians working illegally in Greece, which would have devastating effects on Albania's fragile economy. Greece's relationship with Skopje also appears to be deteriorating. Western agencies say no Macedonian-registered vehicles have been allowed into Greek territory in the last few days. -Robert Austin and Kjell Engelbrekt MOLDOVA MOVES TOWARD CIS. The Moldovan parliament's Presidium on 26 October voted 20 to 4 to approve President Mircea Snegur's signature on the founding document of the CIS (Alma Ata, December 1991) and on the Treaty of Economic Union, and recommended their ratification by the parliament, Moldovapres reported. The Presidium members said that Moldova's unclear legal situation vis-a-vis the CIS jeopardizes its access to fuel and raw materials and to the main market for its agricultural produce. In August 1993, after much foot-dragging, the legislature voted 162 to 99 for ratification but that was four votes short of the required absolute majority because of a boycott by "Dniester" Russian deputies. It is unclear whether the parliament can manage one last session before its powers cease on 27-February 1994, the date of anticipated elections, pending which the Presidium is in charge. Snegur's and the parliamentary majority's long-standing position of confining Moldovan participation in the CIS to the economic sphere while staying out of the political and military spheres has under Russian pressure eroded somewhat in the political area recently, but holds fast with regard to the military area. -Vladimir Socor BALTIC MINISTERS ON NATO'S PARTNERSHIP PLAN. The three Baltic foreign ministers-Trivimi Velliste of Estonia, Georgs Andrejevs of Latvia, and Povilas Gylys of Lithuania-are said to back a new NATO partnership program that would allow all former Warsaw Pact states and former Soviet republics, as well as four neutral European countries-Austria, Switzerland, Finland, and Sweden-to participate in a broad range of the alliance's activities, Baltic and Western media reported on 27 October. The program, proposed by the US, is expected to be formally adopted at the NATO summit in Brussels in January. Gylys said that there is a security vacuum in the Baltic region and the three Baltic States are very interested in participating the program. In recent weeks Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian leaders have also expressed interest in joining NATO as bona fide members. -Dzintra Bungs CHRISTOPHER: RUSSIAN TROOPS AND MINORITIES. At a press conference in Riga following a meeting with the three Baltic foreign ministers on 27 October, US Secretary of State Warren Christopher said that the US welcomes the departure of Russian troops from Lithuania and called for the early, unconditional, and rapid withdrawal of the remaining troops from Latvia and Estonia. He said President Clinton had sent a letter to President Yeltsin last week informing the Russian head of state of the allocation of $160 million for the construction of new housing in Russia for the departing troops. Christopher said that he was "greatly impressed" by the progress in all three Baltic States toward free markets and democracy and noted that international observers have found no evidence of human rights violations there. The remaining problems of ethnic Russians in Latvia would be addressed by the Latvian government in the near future, he said, adding that the US would like the Baltic governments to act generously to integrate non-citizens, Baltic and Western agencies report. -Dzintra Bungs ESTONIA CALCULATES ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE. According to the Estonian Ministry for the Environment, the environmental damage caused by the presence of Soviet and Russian troops over more than fifty years amounts to 15,279,547,000 kroons (about $1.2 billion). Military airfields were the worst source of pollution (9 billion kroons), followed by military warehouses (2.5 billion kroons), weapons and other testing grounds (2.16 billion kroons), missile bases (about 328-million kroons); specific sums were not given in the Baltfax report of 27 October on damage caused by radar stations, fuel tanks, ports, and other sites. -Dzintra Bungs UKRAINIANS DISAPPOINTED WITH CHRISTOPHER'S VISIT. On 27 October, the influential Ukrainian parliamentary daily Holos Ukrainy expressed disappointment with the results of the visit to Kiev of US Secretary of State Warren Christopher. The paper noted that "despite all the questions from journalists, Christopher practically passed over in silence" the crucial question of international security guarantees which Ukraine seeks as a precondition for its nuclear disarmament and that he failed to offer any new proposals on how an economically debilitated Ukraine is to meet the cost of dismantling the nuclear weapons on its territory. Implying that such an approach was "unconstructive," the paper concluded by stating that without answers to these questions, for Ukraine to base itself simply on "vague declarations from the West" and take steps that it "later might not be able to undo" would be "putting the cart before the horse." -Bohdan Nahaylo POLAND'S PAWLAK PUTS PROGRAM ON HOLD. In his first decision in office, Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak ordered a halt to a pilot program designed to devolve powers from the central government to elected self-government bodies in major Polish cities, Polish TV reports. The program is part of a larger plan to decentralize the state administration; it was set in motion by the ousted government of Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka. Pawlak said he wished to acquaint himself with the program and its potential fiscal consequences and that a decision would be made by 20 December whether to restart it. The largest opposition party, the Democratic Union, called Pawlak's move "unlawful," and there were also protests from the affected cities. After the new cabinet's first session on 27 October, Pawlak also ordered withdrawn from the Sejm the 55-pieces of draft legislation submitted by the Suchocka government. He said his government will decide rapidly which bills to reject, alter, or resubmit. In a departure from past practice, President Lech Walesa did not attend the first cabinet meeting. Instead, Walesa on 27 October awarded Krzysztof Skubiszewski a prestigious national order in recognition of his services as foreign minister in all four Solidarity governments. -Louisa Vinton PROTESTS AGAINST MEASURES AT HUNGARIAN RADIO AND TV. On 27 October several opposition parties protested the recent suspension of programs and removal of editors by the deputy chairmen of Hungarian Radio and Television, MTI reports. The largest opposition party, the Alliance of Free Democrats, condemned the measures as an attempt "to make it impossible [for radio and television] to provide objective information to the public, intended to divert attention from the country's serious economic and social problems, and from the failures of the government." The Hungarian Socialist Party, the former reform communists, spoke of a "frontal attack on independent and objective media." The deputy chairman of the Alliance of Young Democrats, Tamas Deutsch, called on the government to take measures to end the "untenable conditions" at radio and TV where in his view the deputy chairmen, who had originally been appointed as "political commissars" to secure government influence over the public media, have gotten "out of control." Statements of protest were also issued by the Labor Party, the former communists, and the Party of the Republic. The Editor Council of Hungarian Radio, representing radio editors, read a statement of protest on Hungarian Radio. Radio deputy chairman Laszlo Csucs reacted by banning the broadcasting of statements criticizing the radio leadership. -Edith Oltay SLOVAK PARLIAMENT PASSES REVISED CHURCH RESTITUTION LAW. Following a 27-October parliamentary address by President Michal Kovac in which he explained his reasons for vetoing the bill passed last month on the restitution of Church property, the parliament passed another version which takes into consideration the president's objections. Kovac said the parliament's original version was unconstitutional since cooperative farms and trade companies would be obliged to release their property to the Church without compensation, even if they had paid for it. The final version excludes these two groups from this obligation, TASR reports. In the same address, Kovac praised the new coalition between the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia and the Slovak National Party and said he is still waiting for the new cabinet list. Meanwhile, the parliament elected MDS member Peter Tomecek as chairman of the new parliamentary Committee for Privatization and MDS member Frantisek Gaulieder as chairman of the commission to investigate the "Indiagate" affair. -Sharon Fisher SLOVAK CABINET APPROVES 1994 BUDGET. On 27-October the cabinet approved a budget proposal which plans for a zero growth rate and a 5% budget deficit (16 billion koruny) in 1994. An earlier draft had set the unemployment rate at 20%, but the new one forecasts unemployment as no higher than 17%. The budget will now go to the parliament for discussion. -Sharon Fisher SUPPORT FOR CZECH PRESIDENT AND GOVERNMENT GROWS. According to an opinion poll conducted by the Prague-based Institute for the Research of Public Opinion in early October, the popularity of President Vaclav Havel and the government of Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus is growing. The results of the poll, published by CTK on 26 October, indicate that 73% of the Czech population "trusts" Havel and 60% trusts the government. At the same time, however, only 23% expressed their trust in the parliament. The poll also indicated that both president and government have the strongest support among people under 30, while their popularity declines among older respondents. -Jan Obrman ESTONIA PASSES LAW ON CULTURAL AUTONOMY FOR MINORITIES. On 27 October the Estonian parliament approved a law, based on a similar law passed in 1925, that specifies the rights of ethnic minorities to cultural autonomy as stipulated in the constitution. The law deals with the right of minorities to establish cultural, religious, and educational institutions and to practice their customs, and provides for the possibility of state or local government financial support for such endeavors. Ants-Enno Lohmus of the parliament State Law Commission said that a draft version of the new law has been praised by Council of Europe experts, BNS reported on 27 October. -Dzintra Bungs NEW US AMBASSADOR TAKES UP POSITION IN SOFIA. Bulgarian media report that President Zhelyu Zhelev on 27 October accepted the credentials of William Montgomery, the new US ambassador to Sofia. As Montgomery afterwards spoke to journalists, he said the critical remarks he recently made before the US Senate Foreign Affairs Committee on Bulgaria's constitutional ban on ethnic and religious parties had largely been distorted and misinterpreted in Bulgaria. He stressed that he had not advocated the formation of minority parties and that the US government fully respects the sovereignty and independence of the Bulgarian state and its citizens. Montgomery added that he had simultaneously told the Senate that "nowhere in the world has a country made a more constructive, positive step than the dramatic reversal of the . . . communist forced assimilation campaign against the ethnic Turks." Valentin Stoyanov, Zhelev's spokesman, said the discussions with Montgomery had confirmed that the new US envoy is "favorably disposed toward Bulgaria" and will contribute to the further development of bilateral ties. -Kjell Engelbrekt ROMANIAN BANK HIKES INTEREST RATES. The Romanian National Bank announced on 26 October that interest rates on overdrafts allowed to commercial banks will be raised from 150% annually to 250%. The decision is a first step toward meeting an IMF demand that Romania move to real interest rates-above the inflation rate-before it is granted new hard-currency credits, Reuters commented on 27 October. The Senate held a heated debate on the move on 27 October, and the nationalist left-wing parties that support the government attacked National Bank governor Mugur Isarescu, who was appointed by the previous government of Theodor Stolojan. In another development, Radio Bucharest said on 27 October that in the negotiations with the trade unions the government made new proposals, including an offer to raise minimum wages to 38,500 lei (about $38) and index salaries to the cost of living at a rate of 60%. -Michael Shafir ROMANIAN COURT DELAYS TRIAL OF DRAGHICI. Romania's Supreme Court postponed a murder trial of Communist-era secret police chief Alexandru Draghici because of difficulties in serving the court summons, Reuters reported on 27 October. This was the fourth such postponement. Draghici is charged with ordering three former senior officers of the Securitate to kill an ethnic Turk in 1954. He is known to have sought refuge in Hungary and Romanian authorities say his address is unknown. Nonetheless, journalists were able to trace his flat in Budapest and to talk to his wife, who claims he is now senile. Budapest rejected an extradition request because of restrictions on such moves for crimes committed more than thirty years ago. -Michael Shafir SECOND UKRAINIAN ORTHODOX PATRIARCH ELECTED. The Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kievan Patriarchate held its All-Ukrainian Church Council (Sobor) and chose Metropolitan Volodymyr (Romanyuk) as its patriarch, Ukrainian television reported on 22-October. The Kievan Patriarchate is one of three Orthodox churches in Ukraine. The others are the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, which has its own patriarch, and the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate, which is headed by a metropolitan. Patriarch Volodymyr holds the title of Patriarch of Kiev and All of Rus-Ukraine. He was jailed by the Soviet authorities for his religious activities. -Roman Solchanyk BLACK SEA FLEET COMMANDER ASKED TO STAND FOR CRIMEAN PRESIDENCY. On 26 October Ukrainian television reported that some pro-Russian political groups in Crimea had asked the commander of the Black Sea Fleet, Eduard Baltin, to run for the presidency of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea in the 16 January elections. Baltin has refused to do so, saying that it was not appropriate to take time off to campaign while the situation with the fleet was so complex. -Ustina Markus [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Ustina Markus and Louisa Vinton THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.