One word frees us of all the weight and pain of life: that word is love. - Sophocles
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 208, 28 October 1993



Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.



RUSSIA



NO POWERFUL SPEAKER IN FUTURE PARLIAMENT. The head of the presidential
legislative proposals commission, Mikhail Mityukov, told ITAR-TASS
on 27 October that the Federal Assembly will have no single speaker.
He said that each of the chambers-the Federation Council and
the State Duma-will have a chairman whose powers would be limited.
Deputy Prime Ministers Vladimir Shumeiko and Sergei Shakhrai
plan to fight for the post of chairman of the two chambers, respectively.
He stated that the two future chairmen of the chambers would
lack the powers to rival the government. He also said that the
Federal Assembly will have a conciliatory commission to ensure
proper interaction between the two chambers. -Alexander Rahr


SHAKHRAI, SHOKHIN ON THEIR PARTY. Leaders of the Party of Russian
Unity and Concord, Sergei Shakhrai and Aleksandr Shokhin, revealed
their program at a press conference on 27 October, Reuters reported.
Shakhrai stated that his party stands for conservative values
such as the family, property, labor and the fatherland. He said
he understands conservatism as the preservation of the Russian
state and rebirth of old Russian traditions. He stressed the
need to preserve and strengthen a united, multinational federal
Russian state. He maintained that his party may win about a third
of the vote in the parliamentary elections. Shokhin said that
should his party come to power, the present reform course would
continue but more regional aid and social welfare to the poor
parts of the population will be redirected. -Alexander Rahr

CRITICISM OF SHAKHRAI IN YELTSIN'S ENTOURAGE. Shakhrai's electoral
platform, which supports the aspirations of Russia's republics
and regions for more economic and political rights, has provoked
criticism among members of the pro-Yeltsin camp. President Boris
Yeltsin has recently taken a number of steps aimed at limiting
the rights that Russia's provinces have acquired in the past
two years. On 27-October, Yeltsin's close associate Gennadii
Burbulis was quoted in Literaturnaya gazeta as criticizing Shakhrai's
position. The same day, the independent daily Segodnya quoted
Deputy Prime Minister with the responsibility for implementation
of economic reform in Russia's provinces, Yurii Yarov, as saying
Shakhrai is giving in too much to the provinces' demands for
more powers. The newspaper said it is likely that Shakhrai will
be replaced by Yarov as chairman of the State Committee for Ethnic
Relations. -Vera Tolz

RUSSIAN MOVEMENT FOR DEMOCRATIC REFORMS PREPARES FOR ELECTIONS.
The program of the Russian Movement for Democratic Reforms (RMDR)
will provide "a democratic alternative to the current government's
course," RMDR chairman Gavriil Popov told a news conference on
27 October, Interfax reported. The RMDR expects to have collected
the requisite number of signatures for participation in the elections
by 1 November. Among its leading candidates are Popov, St. Petersburg
Mayor Anatolii Sobchak, microsurgeon Svyatoslav Fyodorov, and
former advisor to Mikhail Gorbachev, Aleksandr Yakovlev. The
list includes no government ministers, and Popov accused ministers
who are standing for election of doing so to receive parliamentary
immunity. Popov also said that RMDR would cooperate with all
pro-democratic parties, but not with Arkadii Volsky's Civic Union
for Stability, Justice, and Progress. -Wendy Slater

DEMOCRATS DISCUSS COOPERATION. The democratic-oriented blocs
have decided, during a meeting in the Kremlin offices of the
head of the presidential administration Sergei Filatov, to cooperate
in nominating candidates for parliamentary elections, Interfax
reported on 27-October. It was agreed upon that well-known candidates
from the democratic camp would not run against each other in
single constituencies to avoid splitting the democratic vote.
Participants of the meeting also suggested that the Federal Assembly
should be elected only for two years, instead of four years as
envisaged at the moment. The meeting was attended by the leader
of "Russia's choice", Egor Gaidar, the head of the Economic Freedom
Party, Konstantin Borovoy, but not by the leaders of the Party
of Russian Unity and Concord, Sergei Shakhrai, and the bloc "Republic",
Grigorii Yavlinsky. -Alexander Rahr

OPPOSITION HAS GOOD CHANCES IN ELECTIONS. First Deputy Prime
Minister and Press Minister Vladimir Shumeiko told journalists
that he rated the opposition's chances in the forthcoming elections
as "high," ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported on 27 October. He
singled out the alliance of communist forces and the agrarian
lobby as a potentially successful bloc. The leading candidates
of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CP-RF), who
include party leader Gennadii Zyuganov, cosmonaut Vitalii Sevastyanov,
and Pravda journalist Viktor Ilyukhin, claimed at a news conference
on 27 October reported by ITAR-TASS that they would win 22-28
seats in the State Duma. The nationalist Russian All-People's
Union, meanwhile, has said that it will run independently; Radio
Rossii reported on 27-October that RAPU leader Nikolai Pavlov
had denied rumors that his party would form an electoral bloc
with the CP-RF. -Wendy Slater

SHAPOSHNIKOV REDUX. Interfax reported on 27-October that according
to a spokesman for the defense ministry's personnel administration,
Marshall Evgenii Shaposhnikov has been assigned to the president's
staff, although the capacity in which he will serve is not yet
known. Shaposhnikov had been appointed secretary of the Russian
Security Council in June 1993, but resigned after failing to
win confirmation by the parliament. Interfax reported on 24 October
that Shaposhnikov was one of the top ten candidates on the parliamentary
candidates list of the Russian Movement for Democratic Reforms
Movement, a liberal group headed by former Moscow mayor Gavril
Popov and St. Petersburg mayor Anatolii Sobchak. -John Lepingwell


YELTSIN SIGNS LAND DECREE. After much delay and controversy,
on 27 October President Yeltsin signed the decree "On the Regulation
of Land and the Development of Agrarian Reform," ITAR-TASS and
Interfax reported. This allows all land-owners, corporate or
individual, to dispose of their land at their own discretion
through its sale or purchase, as bequest, gift, or mortgage,
exchange or offer, wholly or in part, or as collateral. The decree
abolishes compulsory procurements and other forms of obligatory
transfer of agricultural produce to government resources starting
in 1994. The full text of the decree is to be published on 28
October. Other related legislation is expected soon. As late
as 26 October, Prime Minister Chernomyrdin had publicly aired
his reservations about the decree. -Keith Bush

CAUTION EXPRESSED ON RUBLE ZONE. Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr
Shokhin expressed caution over the creation of a new ruble zone
during a news conference on 27-October, Reuters reported. He
emphasized that the single legal system required for such a zone
would take time and that the 6 former Soviet republics concerned
should clearly formulate what they expected from the economic
grouping. This is the latest expression of reservation from the
Russian side over the 7 September agreement whereby Armenia,
Belarus, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan undertook to
coordinate their monetary, fiscal, banking, and customs policies
with those of Russia. -Keith Bush

TRADE UNION CONGRESS. Russian agencies reported that the Federation
of Independent Trade Unions of Russia (FNPR-the old "official"
trade unions) opens its second extraordinary congress in Moscow
on 28 October in a state of deep crisis. Officially, the FNPR
still claims 60-million members; unofficially, activists admit
that workers are leaving "in droves" and that some regional branches
have stopped paying dues to the center. A new FNPR chairman must
be elected to replace Igor Klochkov, who resigned in early October
after his call for a general strike in support of Rutskoi and
Khasbulatov was ignored by workers. Acting chairman Mikhail Shmakov
has accused Klochkov of getting the unions too involved in politics
at the expense of bread-and-butter issues of concern to workers.
There is therefore likely to be much talk at the congress of
the need for new priorities for union activity. -Elizabeth Teague


TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA



GEORGIA UPDATE. On 27 October Georgian government troops retook
the town of Khobi, Western agencies reported; now only the Mingrelian
capital of Zugdidi remains in the hands of Gamsakhurdia's forces.
Also on 27 October, Georgian Minister of Security Igor Giorgadze
issued an official apology for an incident on 26 October in which
Georgian paratroopers backed by fighter bombers mistakenly attacked
a Russian military installation in the Black Sea village of Anaklia,
Interfax and AFP reported. Georgian Minister for Western Georgia
Givi Lominadze told ITAR-TASS on 27 October that life in the
towns liberated from Gamsakhurdia's forces "is returning to normal";
rail transport from Poti via Samtredia south to Armenia has resumed.
Lominadze further claimed that Gamsakhurdia's forces were deserting
en masse. -Liz Fuller

RAFSANJANI IN BAKU. Meeting in Baku on 27 October with Azerbaijan's
President Geidar Aliev, Iranian President Ali-Akbar Rafsanjani
expressed concern at the renewed fighting in south-western Azerbaijan,
asserting without elaboration that "the Islamic world will not
tolerate such developments in the region" and that "the Armenian
leadership will soon realize that its policy is wrong", ITAR-TASS
reported. Meanwhile Armenian troops were reportedly advancing
on Zangelan from three directions from Armenian territory. Speaking
at a press conference in Baku, Aliev announced that Iran and
Azerbaijan were planning to expand cooperation in the development
of offshore oil fields, rail and sea transport, and trade, Reuters
and ITAR-TASS reported. -Liz Fuller

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE



MORE ON KILLINGS IN BOSNIA. Reuters reports on 28 October about
the recent crackdown on warlords and gangsters in Sarajevo. Hostages
and civilians caught in crossfire accounted for most of the 21
dead during the arrest of the warlord known as Celo and the arrest,
escape, and killing of the gangster Caco. Meanwhile in central
Bosnia, British and Swedish UNPROFOR personnel confirmed Muslim
reports that Croat forces had massacred at least 19-persons in
the hamlet of Stupni Dol, which they also destroyed. Several
hundred people are unaccounted for and may well be in Croat prisons,
in nearby forests, or charred beyond recognition under the ruins.
Brigadier Angus Ramsay of UNPROFOR said that he has "spent 30-years
in various conflicts and [has] not seen anything like this before."
Ramsay went on to suggest that local Croat commander Kresimir
Bozic may have to answer for the "war crime." The Washington
Post quotes a Swedish officer who visited Muslim prisoners of
the Croats in Vares. He said that the prisoners were too frightened
to talk openly, but that one Swedish-speaking prisoner whispered
to him that "people are screaming all night." -Patrick Moore


CROATIAN GOVERNMENT SLAMS EVICTION OF OPPOSITION LEADER. Vecernji
list of 28-October says that Prime Minister Nikica Valentic has
condemned the recent eviction of President Mira Ljubic-Lorger
of the regional party Dalmatian Action (DA) from her Split apartment.
Borba on 26 October had reported on the action by armed soldiers
and police, which Valentic in the name of the government has
now called an "illegal and politically damaging act." The Vecernji
list report cites the prime minister as pointing out that the
eviction could seriously damage Croatia's already problematic
image abroad and jeopardize that republic's hopes of admission
to full membership in several international organizations. The
same pro-ruling party paper, however, runs another article entitled
"Mira Lorger and Croatian Stupidity" that suggests that some
Croats do not care for international criticism of what happens
in their country, and that the Croatian army was justified in
evicting Ljubic-Lorger and taking the apartment for a war invalid.
-Patrick Moore

SERBS BLOCK ROMANIAN SHIP ON DANUBE. Two Serbian groups calling
themselves White Rose and New Byzantium blocked a Romanian ship
on the Danube to protest UN sanctions, Radio Bucharest reported
on 27-October. They used small boats and mines to prevent a Romanian
passenger vessel from leaving for home on 25 October. Another
Romanian ship, which entered Serb territorial waters on 27 October,
is also blocked. -Michael Shafir

ALBANIAN-GREEK RELATIONS STILL STORMY. Despite pronouncements
by newly-elected Greek Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou about
the need for better relations with Albania, ties remain strained.
On 28-October the Albanian public order ministry told AFP that
Greece has suddenly resumed its mass deportation policy and expelled
more than 2,700 Albanian immigrants in two days. Tirana says
no official explanation has been given. After a diplomatic crisis
in July, when Albania expelled a Greek Orthodox priest, Greece
rounded up 25,000 illegal Albanian immigrants and transported
them to the border. Tirana is increasingly concerned that the
new Greek government will take an even harder line on Albanians
working illegally in Greece, which would have devastating effects
on Albania's fragile economy. Greece's relationship with Skopje
also appears to be deteriorating. Western agencies say no Macedonian-registered
vehicles have been allowed into Greek territory in the last few
days. -Robert Austin and Kjell Engelbrekt

MOLDOVA MOVES TOWARD CIS. The Moldovan parliament's Presidium
on 26 October voted 20 to 4 to approve President Mircea Snegur's
signature on the founding document of the CIS (Alma Ata, December
1991) and on the Treaty of Economic Union, and recommended their
ratification by the parliament, Moldovapres reported. The Presidium
members said that Moldova's unclear legal situation vis-a-vis
the CIS jeopardizes its access to fuel and raw materials and
to the main market for its agricultural produce. In August 1993,
after much foot-dragging, the legislature voted 162 to 99 for
ratification but that was four votes short of the required absolute
majority because of a boycott by "Dniester" Russian deputies.
It is unclear whether the parliament can manage one last session
before its powers cease on 27-February 1994, the date of anticipated
elections, pending which the Presidium is in charge. Snegur's
and the parliamentary majority's long-standing position of confining
Moldovan participation in the CIS to the economic sphere while
staying out of the political and military spheres has under Russian
pressure eroded somewhat in the political area recently, but
holds fast with regard to the military area. -Vladimir Socor


BALTIC MINISTERS ON NATO'S PARTNERSHIP PLAN. The three Baltic
foreign ministers-Trivimi Velliste of Estonia, Georgs Andrejevs
of Latvia, and Povilas Gylys of Lithuania-are said to back a
new NATO partnership program that would allow all former Warsaw
Pact states and former Soviet republics, as well as four neutral
European countries-Austria, Switzerland, Finland, and Sweden-to
participate in a broad range of the alliance's activities, Baltic
and Western media reported on 27 October. The program, proposed
by the US, is expected to be formally adopted at the NATO summit
in Brussels in January. Gylys said that there is a security vacuum
in the Baltic region and the three Baltic States are very interested
in participating the program. In recent weeks Estonian, Latvian,
and Lithuanian leaders have also expressed interest in joining
NATO as bona fide members. -Dzintra Bungs

CHRISTOPHER: RUSSIAN TROOPS AND MINORITIES. At a press conference
in Riga following a meeting with the three Baltic foreign ministers
on 27 October, US Secretary of State Warren Christopher said
that the US welcomes the departure of Russian troops from Lithuania
and called for the early, unconditional, and rapid withdrawal
of the remaining troops from Latvia and Estonia. He said President
Clinton had sent a letter to President Yeltsin last week informing
the Russian head of state of the allocation of $160 million for
the construction of new housing in Russia for the departing troops.
Christopher said that he was "greatly impressed" by the progress
in all three Baltic States toward free markets and democracy
and noted that international observers have found no evidence
of human rights violations there. The remaining problems of ethnic
Russians in Latvia would be addressed by the Latvian government
in the near future, he said, adding that the US would like the
Baltic governments to act generously to integrate non-citizens,
Baltic and Western agencies report. -Dzintra Bungs

ESTONIA CALCULATES ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE. According to the Estonian
Ministry for the Environment, the environmental damage caused
by the presence of Soviet and Russian troops over more than fifty
years amounts to 15,279,547,000 kroons (about $1.2 billion).
Military airfields were the worst source of pollution (9 billion
kroons), followed by military warehouses (2.5 billion kroons),
weapons and other testing grounds (2.16 billion kroons), missile
bases (about 328-million kroons); specific sums were not given
in the Baltfax report of 27 October on damage caused by radar
stations, fuel tanks, ports, and other sites. -Dzintra Bungs


UKRAINIANS DISAPPOINTED WITH CHRISTOPHER'S VISIT. On 27 October,
the influential Ukrainian parliamentary daily Holos Ukrainy expressed
disappointment with the results of the visit to Kiev of US Secretary
of State Warren Christopher. The paper noted that "despite all
the questions from journalists, Christopher practically passed
over in silence" the crucial question of international security
guarantees which Ukraine seeks as a precondition for its nuclear
disarmament and that he failed to offer any new proposals on
how an economically debilitated Ukraine is to meet the cost of
dismantling the nuclear weapons on its territory. Implying that
such an approach was "unconstructive," the paper concluded by
stating that without answers to these questions, for Ukraine
to base itself simply on "vague declarations from the West" and
take steps that it "later might not be able to undo" would be
"putting the cart before the horse." -Bohdan Nahaylo

POLAND'S PAWLAK PUTS PROGRAM ON HOLD. In his first decision in
office, Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak ordered a halt to a pilot
program designed to devolve powers from the central government
to elected self-government bodies in major Polish cities, Polish
TV reports. The program is part of a larger plan to decentralize
the state administration; it was set in motion by the ousted
government of Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka. Pawlak said he wished
to acquaint himself with the program and its potential fiscal
consequences and that a decision would be made by 20 December
whether to restart it. The largest opposition party, the Democratic
Union, called Pawlak's move "unlawful," and there were also protests
from the affected cities. After the new cabinet's first session
on 27 October, Pawlak also ordered withdrawn from the Sejm the
55-pieces of draft legislation submitted by the Suchocka government.
He said his government will decide rapidly which bills to reject,
alter, or resubmit. In a departure from past practice, President
Lech Walesa did not attend the first cabinet meeting. Instead,
Walesa on 27 October awarded Krzysztof Skubiszewski a prestigious
national order in recognition of his services as foreign minister
in all four Solidarity governments. -Louisa Vinton

PROTESTS AGAINST MEASURES AT HUNGARIAN RADIO AND TV. On 27 October
several opposition parties protested the recent suspension of
programs and removal of editors by the deputy chairmen of Hungarian
Radio and Television, MTI reports. The largest opposition party,
the Alliance of Free Democrats, condemned the measures as an
attempt "to make it impossible [for radio and television] to
provide objective information to the public, intended to divert
attention from the country's serious economic and social problems,
and from the failures of the government." The Hungarian Socialist
Party, the former reform communists, spoke of a "frontal attack
on independent and objective media." The deputy chairman of the
Alliance of Young Democrats, Tamas Deutsch, called on the government
to take measures to end the "untenable conditions" at radio and
TV where in his view the deputy chairmen, who had originally
been appointed as "political commissars" to secure government
influence over the public media, have gotten "out of control."
Statements of protest were also issued by the Labor Party, the
former communists, and the Party of the Republic. The Editor
Council of Hungarian Radio, representing radio editors, read
a statement of protest on Hungarian Radio. Radio deputy chairman
Laszlo Csucs reacted by banning the broadcasting of statements
criticizing the radio leadership. -Edith Oltay

SLOVAK PARLIAMENT PASSES REVISED CHURCH RESTITUTION LAW. Following
a 27-October parliamentary address by President Michal Kovac
in which he explained his reasons for vetoing the bill passed
last month on the restitution of Church property, the parliament
passed another version which takes into consideration the president's
objections. Kovac said the parliament's original version was
unconstitutional since cooperative farms and trade companies
would be obliged to release their property to the Church without
compensation, even if they had paid for it. The final version
excludes these two groups from this obligation, TASR reports.
In the same address, Kovac praised the new coalition between
the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia and the Slovak National
Party and said he is still waiting for the new cabinet list.
Meanwhile, the parliament elected MDS member Peter Tomecek as
chairman of the new parliamentary Committee for Privatization
and MDS member Frantisek Gaulieder as chairman of the commission
to investigate the "Indiagate" affair. -Sharon Fisher

SLOVAK CABINET APPROVES 1994 BUDGET. On 27-October the cabinet
approved a budget proposal which plans for a zero growth rate
and a 5% budget deficit (16 billion koruny) in 1994. An earlier
draft had set the unemployment rate at 20%, but the new one forecasts
unemployment as no higher than 17%. The budget will now go to
the parliament for discussion. -Sharon Fisher

SUPPORT FOR CZECH PRESIDENT AND GOVERNMENT GROWS. According to
an opinion poll conducted by the Prague-based Institute for the
Research of Public Opinion in early October, the popularity of
President Vaclav Havel and the government of Prime Minister Vaclav
Klaus is growing. The results of the poll, published by CTK on
26 October, indicate that 73% of the Czech population "trusts"
Havel and 60% trusts the government. At the same time, however,
only 23% expressed their trust in the parliament. The poll also
indicated that both president and government have the strongest
support among people under 30, while their popularity declines
among older respondents. -Jan Obrman

ESTONIA PASSES LAW ON CULTURAL AUTONOMY FOR MINORITIES. On 27
October the Estonian parliament approved a law, based on a similar
law passed in 1925, that specifies the rights of ethnic minorities
to cultural autonomy as stipulated in the constitution. The law
deals with the right of minorities to establish cultural, religious,
and educational institutions and to practice their customs, and
provides for the possibility of state or local government financial
support for such endeavors. Ants-Enno Lohmus of the parliament
State Law Commission said that a draft version of the new law
has been praised by Council of Europe experts, BNS reported on
27 October. -Dzintra Bungs

NEW US AMBASSADOR TAKES UP POSITION IN SOFIA. Bulgarian media
report that President Zhelyu Zhelev on 27 October accepted the
credentials of William Montgomery, the new US ambassador to Sofia.
As Montgomery afterwards spoke to journalists, he said the critical
remarks he recently made before the US Senate Foreign Affairs
Committee on Bulgaria's constitutional ban on ethnic and religious
parties had largely been distorted and misinterpreted in Bulgaria.
He stressed that he had not advocated the formation of minority
parties and that the US government fully respects the sovereignty
and independence of the Bulgarian state and its citizens. Montgomery
added that he had simultaneously told the Senate that "nowhere
in the world has a country made a more constructive, positive
step than the dramatic reversal of the . . . communist forced
assimilation campaign against the ethnic Turks." Valentin Stoyanov,
Zhelev's spokesman, said the discussions with Montgomery had
confirmed that the new US envoy is "favorably disposed toward
Bulgaria" and will contribute to the further development of bilateral
ties. -Kjell Engelbrekt

ROMANIAN BANK HIKES INTEREST RATES. The Romanian National Bank
announced on 26 October that interest rates on overdrafts allowed
to commercial banks will be raised from 150% annually to 250%.
The decision is a first step toward meeting an IMF demand that
Romania move to real interest rates-above the inflation rate-before
it is granted new hard-currency credits, Reuters commented on
27 October. The Senate held a heated debate on the move on 27
October, and the nationalist left-wing parties that support the
government attacked National Bank governor Mugur Isarescu, who
was appointed by the previous government of Theodor Stolojan.
In another development, Radio Bucharest said on 27 October that
in the negotiations with the trade unions the government made
new proposals, including an offer to raise minimum wages to 38,500
lei (about $38) and index salaries to the cost of living at a
rate of 60%. -Michael Shafir

ROMANIAN COURT DELAYS TRIAL OF DRAGHICI. Romania's Supreme Court
postponed a murder trial of Communist-era secret police chief
Alexandru Draghici because of difficulties in serving the court
summons, Reuters reported on 27 October. This was the fourth
such postponement. Draghici is charged with ordering three former
senior officers of the Securitate to kill an ethnic Turk in 1954.
He is known to have sought refuge in Hungary and Romanian authorities
say his address is unknown. Nonetheless, journalists were able
to trace his flat in Budapest and to talk to his wife, who claims
he is now senile. Budapest rejected an extradition request because
of restrictions on such moves for crimes committed more than
thirty years ago. -Michael Shafir

SECOND UKRAINIAN ORTHODOX PATRIARCH ELECTED. The Ukrainian Orthodox
Church of the Kievan Patriarchate held its All-Ukrainian Church
Council (Sobor) and chose Metropolitan Volodymyr (Romanyuk) as
its patriarch, Ukrainian television reported on 22-October. The
Kievan Patriarchate is one of three Orthodox churches in Ukraine.
The others are the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, which
has its own patriarch, and the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the
Moscow Patriarchate, which is headed by a metropolitan. Patriarch
Volodymyr holds the title of Patriarch of Kiev and All of Rus-Ukraine.
He was jailed by the Soviet authorities for his religious activities.
-Roman Solchanyk

BLACK SEA FLEET COMMANDER ASKED TO STAND FOR CRIMEAN PRESIDENCY.
On 26 October Ukrainian television reported that some pro-Russian
political groups in Crimea had asked the commander of the Black
Sea Fleet, Eduard Baltin, to run for the presidency of the Autonomous
Republic of Crimea in the 16 January elections. Baltin has refused
to do so, saying that it was not appropriate to take time off
to campaign while the situation with the fleet was so complex.
-Ustina Markus

[As of 1200 CET]

Compiled by Ustina Markus and Louisa Vinton







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