|A thing well said will be writ in all languages. - John Dryden 1631-1700|
No. 207, 27 October 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA MOVEMENT ON LAND REFORM. After years of debate, stout resistance from the defunct parliament, and continuing dissension within the cabinet, a decree liberalizing the ownership and sale of farmland is awaiting signature by the president and a pilot program has been launched in Nizhnii Novgorod, Russian and Western agencies reported on 26 October. Details were provided by First Deputy Prime Minister Egor Gaidar, Agricultural Minister Viktor Khlystun, and Nizhnii Novgorod Governor Boris Nemtsov. The decree reportedly drops the 10-15 year moratorium on reselling land that was voted by parliament and lays the foundation for a mortgage system. Foreigners will not be permitted to buy land but will be able to lease it with some restrictions. -Keith Bush KOZYREV IN BRITAIN. Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev was in Britain for an official visit on 25 and 26-October, where he held talks with Prime Minister John Major as well as with opposition Labour Party leader John Smith. Kozyrev told reporters on 26 October that a G-7 meeting in Moscow was under discussion, and his talks with Major touched on problems in Russia's relations with the G-7 states, ITAR-TASS reported. Kozyrev also met with UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros- Ghali. In their 90-minute long meeting, they discussed peacekeeping efforts around the world as well as the possibility of holding another conference in London on the former Yugoslavia, as a follow-on to the August 1992 London conference. -Suzanne Crow RUSSIA URGES IRAQI COMPLIANCE. In a 26 October briefing, Foreign Ministry spokesman Grigorii Karasin said that Russia recognizes "certain positive steps" taken by Iraq in implementing UN Security Council resolutions, but nonetheless urges Baghdad to show compliance with all UN resolutions. According to ITAR-TASS, Karasin said that during recent talks between Deputy Foreign Minister Boris Kolokolov and his Iraqi counterpart Riad al-Qaisi, the Russian side stressed to Iraq that the only way for it to return as a "full-fledged member" of the international community and to have sanctions against it lifted would be through compliance with UNSC resolutions. -Suzanne Crow DEMOCRATS PREPARE FOR ELECTIONS. The coordinator of the pro-reform bloc "Russia's Choice," Arkadii Murashov, told Ekho Moskvy on 25 October that he advocates a coalition with the democratic-oriented blocs of St. Petersburg Mayor Anatolii Sobchak and economist Grigorii Yavlinsky. Murashov rejected an alliance with the bloc of Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai on the grounds that Shakhrai's party favors a stronger role for the state in economic management. Shakhrai, in an interview with Izvestiya on 26 October, did not exclude a coalition with "Russia's Choice." He suggested that his bloc and "Russia's Choice" should form a coalition government after the elections and stated that he will not betray the ideals of democracy and market reforms. Shakhrai said that had President Boris Yeltsin clearly favored "Russia's Choice," the democrats would not have split into different blocs. -Alexander Rahr CIVIC UNION SEEKS COALITION. The newly recreated Civic Union wants a coalition in the parliament with the Agrarian Union led by one of the leaders of the August 1991 putsch, Vasilii Starodubtsev, and may also seek a coalition with the bloc of Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai, Ostankino TV's "Novosti" program reported on 26 October. The leader of the Civic Union, Arkadii Volsky, officially distanced himself from the Civic Union's former leader Aleksandr Rutskoi although he mentioned that the chairman of Rutskoi' party, Vasilii Lipitsky, will run for parliament on the Civic Union's list. Other names on the list include former deputy parliamentary speaker Vladimir Ispravnikov, deputy Oleg Rumyantsev, cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya and a number of well-known Moscow and regional state enterprise directors. -Alexander Rahr RUSSIAN COMMUNISTS PLAN FOR ELECTIONS. Gennadii Zyuganov, the leader of the largest communist party in Russia, has called on his supporters to participate in the December elections, despite the fact that, according to him, the elections are illegal and will only serve "as a screen to mask the lawlessness now reigning" in Russia. The Communist Party of the Russian Federation was briefly banned from participating in the elections, but is now planning to contest them under the slogan "Labor, democracy, justice." Zyuganov, whose remarks were reported by Ostankino TV and Reuters on 26 October, told the delegates to the meeting, who came from 67 regions, that only communists and true patriots could rescue Russia from its current situation as an "OMON-state." -Wendy Slater DEPUTY SECRETARY OF SECURITY COUNCIL APPOINTED. Interfax reported on 26-October that Aleksandr Troshin has been appointed deputy secretary of the Security Council. Troshin appears to be a "technocrat" who received his education at the Moscow Aviation Institute's engineering and economics department, after which he worked in Gosplan. Most recently he has served as first deputy minister of economics. Troshin told Interfax that he expects to concentrate on strengthening relations between the regions and the center. -John Lepingwell YAKUTIA TO BE ALLOWED TO RETAIN FEDERAL TAXES IN 1994. The Ministry of Finance and the government of Sakha (Yakutia) have signed an agreement under which Sakha will retain all federal taxes raised on its territory in 1994, but will fund both local and federal programs from its own budget, Russian television and Interfax reported on 26 October. Sakha Finance Minister Vladimir Ptitsyn said the deal also recognized de jure Sakha's withholding of federal taxes since early 1993. Sakha's president, Mikhail Nikolaev, has been one of the most consistent supporters of Yeltsin, and the Sakha parliament was the only republican parliament to have dissolved itself so far. -Ann Sheehy PRESIDENT OF SAKHA TO RUN FOR FEDERATION COUNCIL. Sakha President Mikhail Nikolaev is intending to stand for election to the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly, Interfax reported on 26 October. It had earlier been reported that the chairman of the North Ossetian parliament Akhsarbek Galazov was doing likewise, but Tatarstan President Mintimer Shaimiev told Interfax that neither he nor other Tatarstan leaders would do so. Yeltsin is encouraging the heads of regional administrations to stand for election, because being a deputy in the Federation Council will not require the same day-in day-out attendance as being a deputy in the lower chamber, the State Duma. -Ann Sheehy REFERENDUM ON INGUSH CONSTITUTION ON 12-DECEMBER. Ingush President Ruslan Aushev told ITAR-TASS on 26 October that a referendum on the Ingush constitution would be held simultaneously with the elections to the Russian Federal Assembly on 12-December. Ingushetia has not had a constitution since it split from the Chechen-Ingush republic in 1992. Aushev said the draft defines the constitution's main task as the complete political rehabilitation of the Ingush people. He thinks it is possible to adopt the constitution before the republic's frontiers are finally settled, mentioning in this connection that he would observe the moratorium on possible frontier changes decreed by Yeltsin to last until 1 July 1995. -Ann Sheehy TATARSTAN MAY BOYCOTT REFERENDUM ON CONSTITUTION. In an interview with Interfax on 26-October, Tatarstan President Shaimiev said that he thought the people of Tatarstan would boycott the referendum on the Russian constitution if the sovereignty of the republics was omitted from the draft, as has been threatened. The chairman of the Komi Parliament, Yuri Spiridonov, told Interfax the same day that the federal treaty must not be omitted from the constitution either. The Udmurt parliament, which was scheduled to convene on 23 November, has brought forward its session to 9 November in response to statements by Moscow politicians that the federal treaty was to be removed from the draft and the rights of the krais and oblasts equated with those of the republics, Interfax reported on 26-October. Shaimiev said he thought that the Council of the Heads of the Republics would call for a meeting with Yeltsin within the next few days. -Ann Sheehy STATE MINT ROBBED. The state mint in Moscow has been broken into and one half billion rubles stolen, ITAR-TASS reported on 26 October. An iron bar on a window that was not protected by an alarm device was sawn through. The robbery might have taken place up to a week before the loss was discovered. -Keith Bush TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA GEORGIA UPDATE. Georgian government troops retook the town of Senaki (formerly Tskhakaya) on 26-October after fierce fighting with Gamsakhurdia's forces that resulted in heavy casualties on both sides, Western agencies reported. The extent of Russian military support for Shevardnadze remains unclear: The Washington Post reported on 26 October that Russian and Ukrainian tank crews were now operating T-72 tanks on the side of Shevardnadze's forces, but Russian military spokesmen in Tbilisi claimed that the men involved were civilian volunteers; ITAR-TASS quoted the head of the press center of the Group of Russian Forces in the Transcaucasus, Colonel Gennadii Dolgachev, as denying that Russia had supplied any military equipment to Georgia since September, 1992. -Liz Fuller RAFSANJANI IN BAKU. On arrival in Baku-the last stop in his tour of the Muslim former Soviet republics-on 26 October, Iranian President Ali-Akbar Rafsanjani expressed his conviction that despite the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh Azerbaijan would succeed in preserving its territorial integrity, Tehran Radio reported. Meanwhile Azerbaijani sources reported continued artillery attacks by Armenian forces in the region of Zangelan. More than 18,000 Azerbaijani refugees who fled to Iran to escape the new offensive have been sent back to Iranian-controlled refugee camps in Azerbaijan. Meeting in Baku on 26 October with Azerbaijani President Geidar Aliev, CSCE chairwoman Margaretha af Ugglas condemned the renewed fighting, according to ITAR-TASS. Russian Ambassador for Special Missions Vladimir Kazimirov, accompanying the CSCE delegation, sought to counter local disillusionment with the CSCE mediation effort and warned both sides against attempting to scare each other with predictions of an internationalization of the conflict, ITAR-TASS reported. -Liz Fuller IMF ASSESSES KYRGYZ ECONOMY. A report published in the IMF weekly newsletter commends "significant progress" in implementing an "ambitious and comprehensive" program of economic reform in Kyrgyzstan, including the introduction of its own currency, the som, in mid-1993, but warns of the need for a further reduction in inflation, which has fallen from 40-per cent per month at the beginning of 1993 to under 20 per cent in August-September, and a reversal of output decline if overall positive trends are to be sustained. -Robert Lyle and Liz Fuller CIS TWO WARHEADS MOVED TO RUSSIA. According to Reuters, Izvestiya on 26 October reported that the two nuclear warheads that had been sitting near the Ukrainian-Russian border for much of October have been transferred to Russia. The movement of the two warheads had been halted while Ukrainian officials sought reassurances from Russia that they would be compensated for the materials extracted from them. Reports indicated that the warheads were in need of repair, and hinted that radioactive tritium used to "boost" the explosive power of the weapon might have been leaking from its container within the warhead. It is unclear, however, whether any of the tritium escaped from the warhead itself. -John Lepingwell CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE PAWLAK'S GOVERNMENT SWORN IN. Waldemar Pawlak's coalition government was sworn in by Polish President Lech Walesa on 26 October, for the first time according to the procedure set down in the "Little Constitution." Of the 21 ministers, 16 are former members either of the Polish United Workers Party or its satellite, the United Peasant Party. Pointing out that the outgoing government had done most of the dirty work and left an economic upswing for it successors, Walesa expressed the hope that the new government will seek to reinforce these positive trends and not squander the achievements of the past four years. After the ceremony the new ministers took over from their predecessors in office. Most of them were cautious in statements to the press, emphasizing that there will be no revolutionary changes. Pawlak himself, however, announced that he will ask the Sejm speaker to withdraw all 55 pieces of draft legislation submitted by the government of Hanna Suchocka in order to "reanalyze" them, PAP reports. Pawlak has two weeks in which to present a government program for approval by the Sejm. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka POLISH FINANCE MINISTER PLANS BUDGET AMENDMENTS. The new deputy premier and finance minister, Marek Borowski, told journalists on 26 October that there will be changes in the preliminary outline of the 1994 budget prepared by the outgoing government, although he was unable to say "how far they would go." He also said that the government will not be in a position to present a draft budget to the Sejm by the statutory deadline of 15-November, and that it should know by the end of December whether to submit an interim budget or the full version. Answering questions about the future of privatization in Poland, Borowski said there could be "no question of any radical departure." He pledged, however, to "speed up" the process of giving shares to workers of small and medium-sized enterprises. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka DELAY IN ANNOUNCEMENT OF SLOVAK CABINET. The recently formed coalition of the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia and the Slovak National Party will not announce the composition of the new cabinet until later this week, Reuters reports on 26 October. Meanwhile, Party of the Democratic Left Chairman Peter Weiss said his party still regards preparation for elections as "a priority" and considers early elections "very probable in the near future." Arpad Duka-Zolyomi, deputy chairman of the ethnic Hungarian Coexistence Movement, said the new coalition "will not be able to solve the present economic and political problems" and that his party would also welcome early elections. -Sharon Fisher SLOVAK PARLIAMENT VOTES ON PRIVATIZATION, TELEVISION. In its 26 October session, the Slovak parliament voted to establish a parliamentary Commission for Privatization, TASR reports. Economic and Budget Commission Chairman Jan Michelko condemned the move, saying it "unacceptably penetrates the cabinet's and ministries' jurisdiction over the whole privatization process." All parties voted in favor except the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, which currently controls the cabinet. In the election of the commission's chairman, conducted by secret ballot, no candidate received a majority. Also on 26 October the parliament passed a vote of no confidence in Council of Slovak Television Chairman Igor Ciel and council member Milan Leska. In a secret ballot, seven new members were elected to the council, five from the MDS and two from the Slovak National Party. Several top MDS officials have complained recently that Slovak Television is too critical of the government. -Sharon Fisher HUNGARIAN TV EDITORS SUSPENDED. On 26 October the deputy chairman of Hungarian Television, Gabor Nahlik, suspended from their posts and started disciplinary proceedings against the chief editor and three editors of the television news program Egyenleg [Balance] on the ground that they seriously violated the principles of news editing and misled the TV management. Nahlik cited evidence that Egyenleg presented shots of right-wing radicals as original shots taken at last year's 1956 commemorations when in fact they were not taken at the scene. At last year's 1956 anniversary celebrations President Arpad Goncz was prevented from delivering his speech by a crowd of pro-government demonstrators including skinheads. The League Trade Unions protested the suspension of the TV editors and the decision on 25-October of Hungarian Radio's deputy chairman to suspend the radio program Morning Press Survey. A group of radio editors also condemned the suspension of the radio program. -Edith Oltay TUDJMAN WARNS AGAINST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE. UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali has repeated his call for a successor to the failed 1992 London conference to discuss "a global solution" to the Yugoslav crisis, but has warned that the matter could take years to solve. Vecernji list of 27 October, however, runs an interview with Croatian President Franjo Tudjman from the latest issue of Danas, in which he warns that such a forum could easily become a "Pandora's box." He said that any such gathering has to take the interrepublican frontiers of Tito-era Yugoslavia as its starting point and could not be used as a ruse to partition Croatia or continue the war in Bosnia. He also defended Zagreb's support for the breakaway Bihac region of Bosnia, noting that its leader, Fikret Abdic, recognized the area's "geopolitical... links to Croatia" and expressed willingness to cooperate with "Croatia and Croats." Tudjman also called for making a memorial of the Jasenovac concentration camp, where Serbs, Gypsies, Jews, and others suffered under the genocidal policies of the pro-Axis Ustasa in World War II. -Patrick Moore MASS GRAVE IN VUKOVAR UNDER INVESTIGATION. An RFE/RL correspondent reported on 26 October that UN medical investigators this week are looking into claims that 175 Croat military patients may be in a mass grave near Vukovar, which fell to the Serbs on 17-November 1991 after being virtually obliterated. Local Serb authorities have so far blocked any detailed examination of the area, which was discovered about a year ago. Meanwhile, British media said on 26 October that international observers are trying to confirm Muslim reports of a Croat massacre of Muslim civilians at Stupni Dol in central Bosnia. Elsewhere in that embattled republic, the 27 October Washington Post says that new Prime Minister Haris Silajdzic has had arrested two local Muslim commanders linked to organized crime and warlordism. -Patrick Moore GREECE RECALLS TIRANA AMBASSADOR. Western agencies and Greek Radio on 25 and 26-October reported that Greece has recalled its Tirana ambassador as well as the General Consul in Aryirokastro for consultations following a series of border incidents and alleged human rights abuses in Albania. Athens simultaneously lodged a formal diplomatic protest with Tirana over what it termed the "latest provocations by Sali Berisha against the Greek minority," a reference primarily to a recent crackdown on ethnic Greek demonstrators by Albanian police in which one person was reported killed. Echoing a speech by Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou held a few days earlier, government spokesman Evangelos Venizelos told journalists that Greece continues to be interested in improved relations with its northern neighbor but that this can only be achieved through better treatment of the Greek minority by Tirana. Regarding Albanian charges that Greek border guards the previous week had shot and killed three Albanians and injured another two within Albanian borders, Venizelos totally dismissed the incident by saying that it "took place inside Albanian territory among Albanians." -Kjell Engelbrekt KOSOVO UPDATE. The president of the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo, Ibrahim Rugova, attacked the ethnic Albanian Democratic Alliance party for sending a delegation to Belgrade. Rugova said that, in so doing, "the Democratic Alliance marginalizes and harms itself more than [it helps solve] the question of Kosovo," adding that "this visit marks the complete failure of this party. This party does not have the right to speak in the name of Kosovo." Meanwhile, police continued raiding ethnic Albanian underground schools and arrested additional members of the Democratic League of Kosovo, the leading Kosovar party, Rilindja reports on 23 and 25 October. Another exile newspaper, Zeri i Kosoves, which is the organ of the smaller Kosovo People's Movement, added on 15 October that 75 Albanians have been arrested in the course of two months. Serbian authorities have charged them with preparing an armed uprising, and most of the 75 belong either to the People's Movement for a Republic of Kosovo or to the National Movement for the Liberation of Kosovo, the paper said. -Fabian Schmidt ROMANIA, NATO AND RUMP YUGOSLAVIA. After meeting with President Ion Iliescu, US Assistant Secretary of State Stephen Oxman said in Bucharest on 26-October that Romania may enter into a proposed "partnership for peace," in which Central and East European countries develop closer ties to the NATO states, Reuters and Radio Bucharest reported. However, Oxman added that Romania's leaders agree with him that a rapid and selective expansion of NATO eastwards in Europe would cause frustration in the countries left aside. Many people, he said, would feel they were being treated by NATO as second-class citizens. On another matter, Oxman said Washington will not support any easing of UN sanctions against rump Yugoslavia, as demanded in Bucharest by visiting Yugoslav premier Radoje Kontic one day earlier. Oxman said Romania had played a key role in the embargo and that fact, together with progress in minority rights, had been the main cause for the recent US decision to grant Romania MFN status. Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu said in a statement broadcast by Radio Bucharest that Romania will give the UN a list of humanitarian aid that it intends to send to rump Yugoslavia. -Michael Shafir CHRISTOPHER IN BELARUS. On 26 October US Secretary of State Warren Christopher met with Belarus's Chairman of the Supreme Soviet, Stanislau Shushkevich, and Prime Minister Vyacheslau Kebich in Minsk, ITAR-TASS reported. Christopher presented the US "partnership for peace" initiative which would allow Belarus to collaborate with NATO countries in military planning and exercises, and would give Belarus the right to consult with NATO nations in case it is threatened. Reuters reported that Christopher called Belarus a "shining example" for other former Soviet republics in dismantling nuclear weapons. Belarus has approved both the START-1 and NPT treaties and has already shipped nine of its 72 SS-25 missiles to Russia for dismantling. On the same day, Belarusian Defense Minister Paval Kazlouski was in Washington for meetings with US Defense Secretary Les Aspin. -Ustina Markus UKRAINE WANTS CFE TREATY REVIEWED. Reuters reported on 26 October that Ukraine's foreign ministry is asking for a review of the CFE treaty. A ministry statement criticized the treaty as anachronistic, as it is based on an outdated confrontation between two blocs. As a result, Ukraine is being forced to move tanks and other armored vehicles away from the Black Sea region and closer to the central European states. The ministry says it had already requested a review in September. Russia has raised the issue of revising the CFE Treaty on a number of occasions, but NATO countries have been reluctant to open new talks. -Ustina Markus CHRISTOPHER: RUSSIAN TROOPS MUST LEAVE LATVIA. Upon arriving in Riga on 26-October, US Secretary of State Warren Christopher said the US wants an early and complete pullout of Russian troops from Latvia. Most of the estimated 16,000-18,000 troops are officers. Russia says that it has difficulties in withdrawing them because of a housing shortage. The US Congress has authorized $160 million to construct 5,000 housing units in Russia and about 460 were financed last year, Western and Baltic media report. Christopher also said that he favors full citizenship rights for the Russian-speaking population of Latvia and plans to meet with their representatives. -Dzintra Bungs BELARUS DEMANDS LATVIAN SUPPORT IN THE UN. Belarusian Foreign Minister Piotr Krauchanka has asked his Latvian counterpart Georgs Andrejevs to reverse the Saeima foreign affairs commission's decision to support the Czech Republic's bid for temporary seat in the UN Security Council, Baltic media reported on 26 October. Krauchanka said that Belarus may withdraw its support for the Latvian-Belarusian frontier accord if Latvia refuses to support to Belarus, Andrejevs said. -Dzintra Bungs RUKH PREPARES FOR ELECTIONS. The Ukrainian opposition party Rukh held a session of its Small Council on 24 October and decided to call upon other "democratically oriented" parties and organizations to form an electoral bloc called Elections-94 for the parliamentary elections in March, Ukrainian television reported. Rukh intends to form a delegation to conduct negotiations with other parties on the electoral bloc, which it feels should be based either on the oblast level or at the level of electoral districts. Earlier, Rukh took the lead in calling for cooperation among democratic groups in the electoral process; its appeal was endorsed by more than a dozen parties and organizations. -Roman Solchanyk CZECH TRADE MINISTER MEETS GATT LEADER. Industry and Trade Minister Vladimir Dlouhy met with Peter Sutherland, General Director of the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) in Geneva, CTK reports on 26 October. At a press conference afterward, Dlouhy warned of the possible consequences of the failure of the "Uruguay round" of talks that has produced disagreements between the EC and the US. He stressed that if the package to liberalize world trade is not adopted, there will be "negative consequences for trade in the short run, for the growth of the world economy in the medium-term, and political instability in the long-term." Dlouhy complained that the Czech Republic would be in a better position if it had broader access to markets; he added that the country still faces protectionism. The trade minister also stressed that although his country is accused of "dumping and subsidizing," it has abolished farm export subsidies; at the same time, the EC is flooding the Czech market with subsidized exports, which gives "the completely wrong signal to our farmers," Dlouhy added. -Jan Obrman ROMANIAN GOVERNMENT AND UNIONS START PAY TALKS. Representatives of the government and three of the largest trade union confederations started talks on 26 October on compensation for rising living costs. A fourth confederation will meet with government representatives on 27 October. The government has proposed to raise the minimum wage to 34,000 lei (just over $34 at the official exchange rate). The unions have demanded a minimum wage of 69,000 lei and a 75% indexation of salaries to the cost of living. The government has proposed only 56%. -Michael Shafir INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS SUPPORT MOLDOVA. Oliver Spencer, Director of the Secretariat of the CSCE's Parliamentary Assembly, held talks with Moldovan leaders in Chisinau and also traveled to Tiraspol, Russian and Moldovan media reported on 22-October. Interfax said Spencer "commended the Moldovan leadership for its efforts to settle the armed conflict on the Dniester." Spencer asked for more information on the activities of Russia's 14th Army in order to take the matters up with Russian officials, Basapress reported. In response to Moldovan requests, Spencer also promised that the CSCE's mission in Chisinau will become more active in seeking to reactivate the stalled negotiations with Tiraspol; and that the CSCE will monitor Moldova's parliamentary elections scheduled for February, in which Chisinau is concerned that the left bank's population and particularly the Moldovans there may be prevented from participating by Tiraspol. On the same day, a team from the Council of Europe, in Chisinau to vet Moldova's laws on parliamentary elections and on local elections, told a news conference that those laws can ensure "truly free and democratic elections." -Vladimir Socor CSCE COMMISSIONER IN ESTONIA. On 26 October CSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities Max van der Stoel began his latest visit to Estonia. He expressed satisfaction with the recent local elections and said that there had been a "positive shift" in the protection of minority rights in Estonia since his last visit there in July, Baltic media report. He stressed that if the withdrawal of Russian troops from Estonia were out of the way, "there would be an enormous improvement." -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by John Lepingwell and Louisa Vinton
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