|Nothing helps scenery like ham and eggs. - Mark Twain|
No. 206, 26 October 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA CHERNOMYRDIN NOT STANDING FOR ELECTION. Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin told St. Petersburg TV's "Itogi" program on 24 October that he does not intend to run for parliament. He said that instead of conducting a parliamentary campaign, as most of his deputies are, he wants to dedicate himself to government affairs. The Party of Russian Unity and Concord headed by Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai had suggested that Chernomyrdin run as the top candidate on its electoral list. Meanwhile, the name of First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko has been dropped from the pro-Yeltsin bloc "Russia's Choice" list because Shumeiko decided to run for a seat in the Federation Council. Democrats hope that Shumeiko may become the speaker of the upper parliamentary chamber. -Alexander Rahr SHAKHRAI WANTS TO BECOME PARLIAMENTARY SPEAKER. Shakhrai told Obshchaya gazeta (no.14) that he intends to become the speaker of the newly created State Duma should his party win the elections. He also stated that the new parliament would have to form a new government and hinted that he might be in the running for the post of prime minister. Shakhrai went on to say that he believes the new parliament would be of a temporary nature and be re-elected after two years. -Alexander Rahr POLTORANIN EXONERATED. On 22 October ITAR-TASS reported that "all charges" brought against the head of the Federal Information Center, Mikhail Poltoranin, have now been dropped. ITAR-TASS quoted Poltoranin as saying that deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Shokhin and former Procurator-General Valentin Stepankov, both of whom had accused Poltoranin of an attempt to sell army property to a German firm, "would be held responsible for their lack of moral conduct." -Julia Wishnevsky CIVIC UNION ENTERS ELECTORAL RACE. The centrist Civic Union has renamed itself the "Civic Union for Stability, Justice and Progress" and has entered the parliamentary election campaign, Interfax reported on 24 October. Arkadii Volsky heads the Civic Union's list of parliamentary candidates. A few weeks ago, Volsky had announced his departure from the Civic Union in protest over Rutskoi's hard-line course. Other top candidates on the Civic Union's list are Oleg Rumyantsev, the former Secretary of the parliamentary Constitutional Commission; Vasilii Lipitsky, the leader of the Free Russia Party of former Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi; and the singer Iosif Kobzon. -Alexander Rahr YAVLINSKY FORMS COALITION. The electoral bloc "Republic" of economist Grigorii Yavlinsky has issued its list of candidates for the parliamentary elections, Interfax reported on 24 October. The list, headed by Yavlinsky, includes such figures as former chief inspector Yurii Boldyrev, Russian ambassador to the US Vladimir Lukin, parliamentarian Viktor Sheinis, former head of the parliamentary foreign affairs committee Evgenii Ambartsumov, First Deputy Foreign Minister Anatolii Adamishin and economist Nikolai Petrakov. Only a few candidates of the bloc are liberals. The bloc also offered mandates to candidates of the Republican Party, Social Democratic Party and the Christian Democratic Movement, all of which reportedly have joined the "Republic" bloc. -Alexander Rahr MASHCHITS, FEDOROV CAUTIOUS ON INTEGRATION. Vladimir Mashchits, chairman of the Russian State Committee for Cooperation with the CIS member-states, told a press conference in Moscow on 22 October that the Economic Union will not likely emerge for another two years, various Russian sources reported. He suggested that the delay in economic reform in the other member-states would be the chief obstacle to setting up the Union. On the same day, Finance Minister Boris Fedorov issued a press release warning against hasty creation of a new ruble zone. He criticized "particular leaders of the Russian Central Bank [attempting] to artificially accelerate the process without taking into account Russia's real interests and possibilities, as well as the degree of preparedness of the [other] republics." -Erik Whitlock SMIRNYAGIN'S FIVE PRINCIPLES FOR PRESERVING RUSSIA'S INTEGRITY. Member of the Presidential Council Leonid Smirnyagin has drawn up a "Declaration on the State Integrity of Russia," which he will be submitting to President Yeltsin, ITAR-TASS reported on 25 October. The declaration states that five principles must be incorporated in the constitution: a ban on secession; a veto on a unilateral change in the status of a region; a ban on turning the administrative frontiers of the subjects of the federation into state frontiers; the supremacy of federal laws over regional; and, finally, a ban on nondemocratic forms of rule in the subjects of the federation. Smirnyagin said the status of the oblasts and krais should be gradually raised to that of the republics. He described as shortcomings of Russian federalism that it was "organizationally possible" for the republics, but not the regions to withhold federal taxes, and that the structures of the power ministries were subordinate to the local parliaments in the republics but to federal bodies in the regions. He also described as "nonsense" claims that the republics should control their airspace. -Ann Sheehy DAGESTAN PARLIAMENT WILL NOT DISSOLVE ITSELF. The Dagestan parliament has decided that a reform of representative power is necessary, but it will not dissolve itself, ITAR-TASS reported on 25 October. Although the idea of a presidency was rejected in a referendum a year ago, a second referendum will be held on the issue in December 1993. If the vote is in favor the president will be elected in the first half of 1994 along with a new parliament. The session unanimously came out against the appointment of a representative of the Russian president in Dagestan. -Ann Sheehy TUVA ADOPTS NEW CONSTITUTION. On 22 December the Tuvin parliament decided that the republic should be known forthwith as Tyva and adopted a new constitution that came into force the same day, Interfax reported. The republic will have a 32-member working parliament known as the Supreme Khural, and a supreme constitutional body alone empowered to change the constitution known as the Grand Khural. -Ann Sheehy CHECHNYA WILL NOT PARTICIPATE IN ELECTIONS. A spokesman for Chechen President Dzhokhar Dudaev told ITAR-TASS in Groznyi on 22 October that Dudaev had empowered him to refute reports that Dudaev had agreed to let Chechen citizens participate in the elections to the Russian Federal Assembly. The spokesman reiterated that Chechnya had been independent for two years and could not participate in solving the internal problems of another state. In reply, Nikolai Ryabov, Chairman of the Central Electoral Commission, said that election facilities would be created to enable citizens to vote in the elections and in the referendum on the constitution, ITAR-TASS reported on 23 October. Ryabov termed non-participation in the elections a serious mistake on Dudaev's part. -Ann Sheehy UKRAINIANS IN RUSSIA HOLD FIRST CONGRESS. Russia's large but scattered Ukrainian minority held its first congress in Moscow on 23-24 October. Scores of delegates from the numerous new Ukrainian societies in Russia decided at the congress to unite and form the Association of Ukrainians in the Russian Federation. The new organization intends to press for the satisfaction of the basic cultural needs of the 4.4-million Ukrainians, which according to the 1989 Soviet census live in Russia (the real figure is estimated at between 6-to 10-million), seeking such basic facilities as radio and television programs, newspapers, schools and cultural centers. The association will also organize the Ukrainian minority into a political force which will participate in elections and ally itself with appropriate Russian democratic forces. The Congress elected Oleksander Rudenko-Desnyak, the former editor of the Moscow literary monthly, Druzhba Narodov, to head the new association. -Bohdan Nahaylo TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA GEORGIAN GOVERNMENT TROOPS RETAKE POTI. On 25 October Georgian government troops pushed northwest to the Black Sea and retook the port of Poti, occupied by Gamsakhurdia's forces on 2 October, Western agencies reported. The commander of Russian forces in Tbilisi was quoted by AFP as stating that a collective security agreement between Georgia and the CIS had been finalized, removing obstacles to the deployment of combined Russian, Armenian and Azerbaijani forces to protect transport arteries. In his weekly radio address, Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze issued yet another ultimatum to Gamsakhurdia's forces to lay down their arms or be destroyed. -Liz Fuller RUSSIA CONDEMNS "ARMENIAN CEASEFIRE VIOLATION." Karabakh Armenian forces advanced southwards and as of 25 October controlled a 40 km stretch of the Azerbaijani-Iranian frontier, Robert Kocharyan, the chairman of Nagorno-Karabakh's Defense Committee (the acting government) told AFP on 25 October. An Azerbaijani Ministry of Defense spokesman told Reuters that Armenian forces were also shelling the town of Nakhichevan. According to IRNA, the renewed fighting has sparked off a new wave of some 4,000 Azerbaijani refugees who have fled to northern Iran. In a statement carried by ITAR-TASS, the Russian Foreign Ministry laid the blame for the ceasefire violation squarely on the Karabakh Armenians, and called on them to cease their offensive and withdraw their forces. -Liz Fuller RAFSANJANI IN KAZAKHSTAN. Iranian President Ali-Akbar Rafsanjani and his Kazakh counterpart Nursultan Nazarbaev have signed a total of nine bilateral agreements, mostly on economic issues, it was announced at a joint press conference in Almaty on 25-October. As summarized by Western agencies and ITAR-TASS, the agreements provide for expanding trade between the two countries to $1 billion, for expanding road, rail and sea links to allow for the transport of Kazakh grain and coal to Iran, and for the construction of a pipeline capable of exporting six million tons of Kazakh crude oil. Other agreements covered banking, industry, customs and excise, and travel. The two presidents also discussed the situation in Bosnia, Tajikistan and Nagorno-Karabakh. -Liz Fuller TURKMENISTAN TO FREE PRICES, PRIVATIZE. Turkmenistan plans to free most prices (except for meat, bread, petrol, milk, and other basic commodities) on 1 November to coincide with the introduction of its own currency, deputy Prime Minister Boris Shikhmuradov told Reuters on 25 October. Most state-owned firms in the agriculture, retail, service and food sectors are to be privatized by 1 May, 1994 in accordance with a program endorsed by the IMF, but the oil and gas sector will remain in state hands. -Liz Fuller ANOTHER OPPOSITION MEMBER ARRESTED IN TAJIKISTAN. The deputy chairperson of the Democratic Party of Tajikistan, Oynikhon Bobonazarova, has been arrested and accused of treason and membership in an armed organization that aims to overthrow the government, ITAR-TASS reported on 22 October. The exact number of opposition figures arrested in recent months is not known, but it has been estimated at several dozen. -Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE ZLENKO, CHRISTOPHER SIGN NUCLEAR AGREEMENT. US Secretary of State Warren Christopher and Ukrainian Foreign Minister Anatolii Zlenko on 25 October signed an umbrella agreement that will clear the way for the US to dispense up to $175 million in aid to "denuclearize" Ukraine. Christopher also met with President Leonid Kravchuk, who promised to submit the START-1 treaty, the Lisbon protocol, and the nuclear non-proliferation treaty to parliament for ratification. Kravchuk also clarified his position on the coverage of the Lisbon protocol, agreeing that it includes all nuclear weapons based in Ukraine. Previously, Kravchuk had been hinting that the SS-24 ICBMs might not be covered under the protocol or dismantled after START-1 ratification. Christopher told a press conference after the meeting that he had received clear assurances on the SS-24 issue, although the Ukrainian government had previously stated that after START ratification further negotiations between the signatories would be necessary to apportion the weapons reductions. At the same press conference Zlenko suggested that financial assistance and security guarantees are necessary for implementation of the treaty. -John Lepingwell UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENTARIANS CAUTIOUS ON NUCLEAR WEAPONS. While in Kiev, Christopher also met with Ukrainian parliamentarians. Speaking after the meeting, Dmytro Pavlychko, chairman of the foreign affairs committee, argued that it is currently impossible for Ukraine to sign the NPT, and whether it can do so in the future depends on the development of Russian policy towards Ukraine. Pavlychko suggested that the SS-24s could be kept for up to twenty years if necessary. Parliamentary speaker Ivan Plyushch noted that Ukraine should be paid $5 billion for the uranium content of the weapons, and suggested that the US, Russia, and Ukraine negotiate a joint agreement on Ukraine's security. Only after agreement on these issues, Plyushch noted, would a majority of deputies support the treaties. -John Lepingwell US OFFERS UKRAINE ADDITIONAL AID. Christopher also offered Ukraine an economic aid package worth $155 million to help jump-start its economic reforms. He signed an agreement that will provide $27 million to improve safety conditions at the Chernobyl power plant and four other nuclear power stations. Last week the Ukrainian parliament voted to keep the Chernobyl plant operating after this year, a move highly criticized by other nations. A further $10 million was pledged to help fund a four-nation science center to put Ukrainian nuclear weapons scientists to work on civilian projects. Canada and Sweden are also participating, contributing $2 and $1.5 million respectively. -Ustina Markus SILAJDZIC NAMED BOSNIAN PRIME MINISTER. The rump presidency of the embattled republic has asked Foreign Minister Haris Silajdzic, a Muslim academic, to form a new government. President Alija Izetbegovic fired the last prime minister, a Croat, in August. Silajdzic told Radio Sarajevo on 25 October that his first priority will be to secure adequate supplies for the capital for the winter. Silajdzic is well known abroad but has been criticized at home for spending too much time outside Bosnia. Vjesnik of 26 October says that Croatian Foreign Minister Mate Granic wants a meeting with Silajdzic in connection with the latter's letter of protest over the meeting between Bosnian Croat leader Mate Boban and Bihac pocket leader Fikret Abdic in Zagreb on 21 October. At that session Boban effectively recognized Abdic's rebel government, Der Standard reported on 22 October. -Patrick Moore CROAT OPPOSITION POLITICIAN EVICTED FROM APARTMENT. Borba and Vjesnik of 26 October report on the raid in Split by sixteen uniformed Croatian soldiers and police on the apartment of Mira Ljubic-Lorger, the president of the strong regional party Dalmatian Action (DA). She and her two children have to evacuate the premises, which the Croatian army says are its property, having formerly belonged to the Yugoslav military. Her husband was among eleven DA leaders previously arrested by the police for allegedly possessing illegal weapons and for "terrorism." Similar charges have been used by the authorities against political enemies on the far Right, but now a mainstream regional party has been singled out for similar treatment. President Franjo Tudjman has effectively called Croatia's regional parties opposed to his centralized rule enemies of the state. -Patrick Moore LAST MINUTE CONFUSION OVER PAWLAK'S CABINET. After weeks of negotiations with leaders of the Democratic Left Alliance (SLD), Poland's Prime Minister designate, Polish Peasant Party (PSL) leader Waldemar Pawlak, presented a list of proposed government appointments for approval by President Lech Walesa on 25 October. PAP reported that this list contained last-minute alterations that had not been consulted with the SLD; in particular, it named a PSL member to be privatization minister whereas that post had been reserved for the SLD. While last-minute negotiations between the coalition partners were under way, Walesa's spokesman announced that the president had approved the list and would swear in the new ministers on 26 October. Late in the evening, Pawlak sent Walesa a new list that included the SLD's candidate for the privatization ministry. Each of the three deputy premiers will simultaneously be in charge of his own ministry: Marek Borowski will supervise the economic ministries and head the finance ministry; Wlodzimierz Cimoszewicz will be justice minister and supervise the "social" ministries; and Aleksander Luczak will be education minister and supervise the "presidential ministries" and the public administration. Walesa is expected to swear in the new government at noon today, although a spokesman indicated early on 26-October that the president objects to at least one of Pawlak's ministerial choices. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka POLISH COALITION SETS RULES OF COOPERATION. Perhaps in order to prevent the power struggle between the postcommunist coalition partners from causing future disruptions, the leaders of the two parties drew up a four-point document entitled "Principles of procedure for decision making by the government headed by Waldemar Pawlak." As quoted by PAP on 25-October, this reaffirmed the principle of the coalition agreement that decisions are made jointly by the leaders of the two parties and the two parliamentary caucuses. Proposals concerning "strategic political, economic and personnel decisions" are to be presented to the two parliamentary caucuses before they become final. Appointments to top positions in all the ministries will be made by the prime minister in consultation with the relevant deputy premier as well as with the chairman of the party caucus which is not in charge of the ministry. Finally, local government appointments are to be preceded by consultations with the two parliamentary caucus leaders. The point of including caucus leaders in the decision-making process is to ensure that Aleksander Kwasniewski, chairman of the Social Democracy of the Polish Republic and SLD caucus leader, recently dubbed by Gazeta Wyborcza "the prime minister without portfolio," is guaranteed a say in the government. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka ROMANIAN PARLIAMENT REJECTS NO-CONFIDENCE MOTION. In separate debates on 25-October, the two houses of Romania's parliament rejected a no-confidence motion in the minority left-wing cabinet of Nicolae Vacaroiu for procedural reasons. The vote in the Senate was 66 to 8 with three abstentions. A group of 37 Senators from the opposition refused to cast their ballots, Radio Bucharest reports. The vote in the Chamber of Deputies, the parliament's lower house, was 155-to 128. Senator Vasile Vacaru from the ruling Party of Social Democracy described the motion as unconstitutional; he added that if the motion had passed, it would have created a dangerous precedent. Senator Valentin Gabrielescu from the opposition National Peasant Party Christian Democratic said that the motion had been intended to force the government to "return to legality." The opposition argued that Vacaroiu should be replaced because he had appointed four ministers last August without parliament's approval. This was the third no-confidence motion against Vacaroiu's cabinet in a year. -Dan Ionescu DIPLOMATIC ACTIVITIES IN BUCHAREST. On 25-October US Assistant Secretary of State Stephen Oxman held talks in Bucharest with President Ion Iliescu, Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu, Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu and other senior officials. Oxman, who is touring several South-East European countries, signaled US support for Romania's reform process. He further pledged that the US will lobby international lenders to help Romania. Rompres said that Oxman linked this goodwill to Romania's support for the UN economic sanctions against Serbia and Montenegro. In a separate development, the premier of the rump Yugoslav federation Radoje Kontic began a two-day visit to Romania on 25 October. Vacaroiu promised Kontic humanitarian aid this winter. Also on 25 October, Swiss foreign minister Flavio Cotti ended a two-day visit to Romania, during which the two countries signed agreements on promoting and protecting investments, as well as on avoiding double taxation. -Dan Ionescu ROMANIAN ENVOY TO MOLDOVA SPEAKS OF UNIFICATION. In a speech in Chisinau marking Romanian Army Day, Romania's ambassador to Moldova, Marian Enache, evoked the Army's historic mission "to guarantee that the Romanian people should live within the fullness of its borders" and spoke of that people's aspiration "to rejoin one another within the ancestral borders as a national organism," Radio Bucharest reported on 25 October. Enache's predecessor, Ion Bistreanu, was recalled earlier this year at Moldova's request for making similar pro-unification statements but has since been appointed ambassador to Ukraine. -Vladimir Socor MOLDOVAN LEADERS INCH TOWARD FEDERATION? NICOLAE ANDRONIC, CHAIRMAN OF THE MOLDOVAN PARLIAMENT'S COMMISSION FOR LEGAL AFFAIRS AND CHISINAU'S CHIEF DELEGATE TO THE TALKS WITH TIRASPOL, TOLD IZVESTIYA ON 19 OCTOBER AND KISHINEVSKIE NOVOSTI ON 23 OCTOBER THAT "AN AUTONOMOUS FORMATION" IN TRANSDNIESTER IS "ACCEPTABLE" AND POINTED TO THE MOLDOVAN SOCIAL-DEMOCRAT PARTY'S PROPOSALS FOR A NEW CONSTITUTION THAT "WOULD NOT RULE OUT A FEDERAL STRUCTURE" FOR MOLDOVA, SUBJECT TO APPROVAL BY REFERENDUM. Andronic is close to the Social Democrats, who dominate President Mircea Snegur's group of advisers. Also on 23 October, Tudor Olaru, Vice-Chairman of the Agrarian Party, which is Moldova's largest by far, told Kishinevskie Novosti that the Transdniester ought to be granted "economic independence and local self-government" and urged that "we should not be afraid of words" such as "federation." In a televised address on 15 October, Snegur had offered the Transdniester a "special legal status . . . reflecting its specific characteristics and development." Moldovan leaders have lately ruled out a "confederation" (which the "Dniester republic" demands) without rejecting suggestions of a "federation." -Vladimir Socor ZHIVKOV RIDICULES EMBEZZLEMENT CHARGE. In a declaration sent to key state agencies and the media, former Bulgarian President and communist party chief Todor Zhivkov argues that the embezzlement charges against him are both unfounded and unconstitutional. In the declaration, circulated by BTA on 25 October but dated two days earlier, Zhivkov says a comparison between state spending on top government officials today and when he was head of state would show that abuse of public funds is now greater. In 1992 the ex-president was sentenced to seven years imprisonment for having distributed consumer goods worth 21.5 million leva (then $24 million) among his family and closest supporters, and the prison term may be upheld by the Supreme Court this week. Zhivkov also says the trial is a violation of the constitution which restricts the possibilities to press charges against a former head of state. Defiantly, he states toward the end of the text that "it is not important whether 82-year-old Todor Zhivkov will end his days as a criminal after a predetermined political farce strung out for almost as long as a five-year plan. I can live with my own conscience, and I am also ready to answer openly to the Bulgarian people." -Kjell Engelbrekt SLOVAK CHRISTIAN DEMOCRATS HOLD PARTY CONGRESS. The sixth congress of the Christian Democratic Movement was held in Ruzomberok on 23-24 October, TASR reports. Jan Carnogursky, who was reelected CDM chairman on 24 October, said that although his party is willing to meet and join with other political parties, "it would be a waste of time to compromise with [Meciar]," since he "evokes international criticism of Slovakia with his statements and his policies." In his address to the congress, President Michal Kovac praised the CDM, saying he believes "Christian notions will help accelerate the overall revival of Slovakia." Kovac added that "he does not favor any political party, but that he favors all worthwhile and constructive ideas." The CDM, which was established in February 1990, has 18 seats in the 150-member parliament. -Sharon Fisher TURKISH FOREIGN MINISTER IN PRAGUE. On 25-October, Hikmet Cetin, the Foreign Minister of Turkey, held talks in Prague with Czech President Vaclav Havel, Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus, and Foreign Minister Josef Zieleniec. At a press conference after his meeting with Zieleniec, Cetin said that Turkey wants to expand its economic, political, and military cooperation with the Czech Republic and supports the country's efforts to integrate with European structures, including NATO. Cetin told reporters that Turkey does not believe European structures are "an exclusive club for the privileged." He said the Czech Republic has every right to participate in resolving European affairs. In his opinion, close cooperation between all European nations is the best guarantee for strengthening the young democracies of Eastern Europe. -Jiri Pehe HUNGARIAN RADIO PROGRAM SUSPENDED. On 25 October the deputy chairman of Hungarian Radio Laszlo Csucs suspended the radio program "Morning Press Survey" on the ground that it had violated criteria of objectivity in its selection of articles from the daily press, MTI reports. According to Csucs, the program effectively advertised some dailies by regularly summarizing their articles while ignoring others. Csucs found it particularly objectionable that on 25 October the program cited in detail an article by former Hungarian Television chairman Elemer Hankiss in which Hankiss criticized the television's current leadership. Edith Oltay LITHUANIAN, LATVIAN LEADERS DISCUSS OIL TERMINAL. Among the topics of discussion at a meeting of Latvian and Lithuanian prime ministers and other officials in the northern Lithuanian town of Birzai were the sea boundaries between Latvia and Lithuania and Lithuania's plans to construct an oil terminal in Butinge. Lithuanian prime minister Adolfas Slezevicius invited Latvia to join in the project. The project is supported by the EBRD, but Latvian leaders hesitated to endorse it because of expected environmental damage and disruption to Latvia; Butinge is located very close to the Latvian-Lithuanian border. The two sides also discussed sea borders, but no agreements were reached, BNS reported on 21 October. -Dzintra Bungs TWO NEW MINISTERS IN LITHUANIA. President Algirdas Brazauskas on 25 October appointed Linas Linkevicius, 32, as Defense Minister and Laurinas Stankevicius, 58, as Social Welfare Minister. Linkevicius, an engineer, has served as a Seimas deputy of the ruling Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party; he replaces Audrius Butkevicius. Stankevicius is a professional economist who worked for many years in the finance ministry; he was also deputy head of the Lithuanian mission in Moscow. Stankevicius replaces Teodoras Medaiskis, Baltic media report. -Dzintra Bungs ESTONIAN TO HEAD NARVA CITY COUNCIL. Anatoli Paal, an Estonian, was elected chairman of the city council of Narva, where the population is predominantly Russian. Paal, who replaces Vladimir Mizhui, is director of the local Baltic Electric Station. Elected as deputy chairmen were Nikolai Kulikov of the Democratic Labor Party and Valerii Lyssenko of the political force associated with the previous city council, the RFE/RL Estonian Service learned on 25 October. -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by John Lepingwell and Louisa Vinton THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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