|...ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country. - John F. Kennedy|
No. 204, 22 October 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA TEN SUSPENDED PARTIES ALLOWED TO RESUME ACTIVITIES. The Justice Ministry said ten political parties and organizations, suspended after the 3 October disturbances, had been allowed to resume their activities, an RFE/RL correspondent in Moscow reported on 20-October. The decision follows the end of a state of emergency in Moscow. Only two of those parties would be allowed to participate in the 12-December elections-the Russian Communist Party and the People's Party of Free Russia. The leaders of these parties told RFE/RL, however, that they doubted that they would have enough time to register their electoral lists. Among other groups that can now resume activities but not take part in the elections are the National Salvation Front, the Russian Communist Workers' Party, the Officers' Union, the Society for the Social Protection of Servicemen (Shield), the Russian Communist Youth Union, and the Russian National Unity Movement. -Vera Tolz YELTSIN PROMISES TO GUARANTEE PRESS FREEDOM. In an interview with Novaya ezhednevnaya gazeta on 21 October, President Boris Yeltsin said that deviations by officials from the liberal Russian press law would be straightened out. The president stressed that "freedom of the press is as important to me as it is to you (the newspaper) and to all citizens of Russia." He said he was preparing a decree guaranteeing freedom of information during the current election campaign. On 20 October, a group of Russian journalists accused the security forces of arbitrarily beating and arresting correspondents during the state of emergency in Moscow. The journalists also feared that the government's attempts to limit press freedom would negatively affect the parliamentary elections. Meanwhile, the Information Ministry rejected criticism of a decision to ban some opposition newspapers. The ministry's statement, released by ITAR-TASS on 21 October, said the decision abided by the 1966 convention on civil and political rights. The statement said the banned newspapers had disseminated fascist propaganda and thereby violated the Russian press law. -Vera Tolz LIBERAL PRESS EXPRESSES DOUBT ABOUT FAIRNESS OF ELECTION CAMPAIGN. Complaints about the strong influence of the government and the presidential apparatus on the election campaign are being expressed by the liberal independent Russian press. Moscow News no. 43 said that "the number of reports in the state-run electronic and print media on the activities of the pro-Yeltsin 'Russia's Choice' bloc is so high that not only the president's opponents, but even his supporters from other blocs cannot dream of such publicity." Last weekend, a leader of "Russia's Choice," Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko, said that the bloc intended to become a ruling party. On 20 October, Kommersant criticized deputy chief of the presidential apparatus Vyacheslav Volkov for stating "with full confidence" at a 19-October press conference that "Russia's Choice" would get up to 38 % of seats in the new parliament. The newspaper said such statements cast doubt on the fairness of the election campaign. -Vera Tolz LEADER OF REPUBLICAN PARTY COMMENTS ON ELECTIONS. In an interview with Delovoi mir on 20-October, a leader of the reformist Republican Party, Vyacheslav Shostakovsky, also criticized what he said was the privileged position of "Russia's Choice." The Republican Party initially wanted to cooperate with this bloc, but then, according to Shostakovsky, dropped the idea, despite the fact that the platforms of the bloc and the party were similar. Shostakovsky said he objected to the fact that the bloc was making extensive use of executive structures appointed by the president in its election campaign. He also criticized the fact that the bloc's electoral list included a number of members of the current government. This situation was also criticized by the leaders of the Russian Movement for Democratic Reforms, Gavriil Popov and Anatolii Sobchak. Shostakovsky said that the privileged position enjoyed by "Russia's Choice" compared to other blocs would likely win it an overwhelming majority of seats in the new parliament. He said he feared there will be no "constructive opposition" in the parliament. -Vera Tolz CENTRISTS PREPARE FOR ELECTIONS. The leader of the Party of Russian Unity and Concord, Sergei Shakhrai, told Russian TV "Vesti" on 21 October that his party has endorsed Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin as its top candidate for parliamentary elections. But Shakhrai added that Chernomyrdin has not yet given his approval to that step. The Chelyabinsk branch of the centrist Entrepreneurs' and Industrialists' Union said it supports Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Soskovets in the parliamentary elections. The future of the major centrist political force-the Civic Union-remains unclear after the loss of its leader, former Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi. The head of the industrialist Union "Renewal", Aleksandr Vladislavlev, told ITAR-TASS on 21 October that a new centrist bloc must be created. -Alexander Rahr YELTSIN ENLARGES SECURITY COUNCIL. President Yeltsin has enlarged the composition of the Security Council, ITAR-TASS reported on 21 October. Apart from permanent members of the Council (Yeltsin, Prime Minister Chernomyrdin, Secretary of the Security Council Oleg Lobov) and ordinary members (heads of the "power" ministries, the Foreign Minister, and the director of the Foreign Intelligence Service), Yeltsin appointed Deputy Prime Ministers Egor Gaidar, Boris Fedorov, Sergei Shakhrai, and the ministers of ecology, justice, and health, as members. The Security Council is regarded as the inner cabinet of the country's executive. Judging from its composition, liberal forces will have a strong influence. -Alexander Rahr SECURITY COUNCIL COMMITTEES FORMED. On 22 October, ITAR-TASS reported that President Yeltsin had signed a decree creating a number of interdepartmental committees within the Russian Security Council. Committees are being formed in the following areas: foreign policy, environmental security, defense security, information security, societal security, and health protection. In addition, a standing interregional committee under the security council will be established, presumably to coordinate security issues with the regions. Standing committees on the fight against corruption and for scientific-technical questions concerning the defense industry were also set up. This plethora of committees would seem to widen the reach of the Security Council, but whether these committees will have any real power remains unclear. -John Lepingwell NATIONAL SALVATION FRONT AND ELECTIONS. Although the National Salvation Front is not permitted to participate in elections, some of its constituent members and leaders will be standing, Interfax reported on 21 October. One of the NSF cochairmen, Gennadii Saenko, a former parliamentary deputy, told Interfax that he was resigning his leadership post in the NSF, in order to avoid "provoking the authorities to use force and . . . limit the freedom of democratic institutions." He said that some of the opposition leaders in the parliament, who belonged to the Russian Unity bloc, closely connected with the NSF, were planning to stand for election to the State Duma. They included Sergei Baburin and Nikolai Pavlov of the Russian All-People's Union; and Vladimir Isakov, standing for the Agrarian Party. -Wendy Slater LATEST UNEMPLOYMENT DATA. The head of the Federal Employment Service, Fedor Prokopov, released the data on unemployment as at 1 October at a news conference on 21-October, Interfax and Reuters reported. The number officially registered as jobless was 706,000; 968,000 were listed as out of work; and 3.7-million were on unpaid leave or on part-time during the first half of 1993. Prokopov warned that the number of unemployed could rise to 10-12 million in 1994. During the first 8 months of 1993, a total of 18.1 billion rubles (roughly $15 million) was paid out in unemployment benefits. -Keith Bush PROTEST OVER AGRICULTURAL FUNDING. Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Zaveryukha stormed out of a cabinet meeting on 21 October in protest over alleged underfunding of the agroindustrial complex, Interfax and Reuters reported. Zaveryukha, who has the thankless portfolio on agriculture, has long been battling with his colleagues-and notably with Finance Minister Boris Fedorov-to maintain or increase agricultural subsidies that constitute an estimated 12-13% of GDP. He is now complaining about payment arrears: farmers are said to be owed 700 billion rubles for grain deliveries while processing and marketing enterprises are reportedly owed 500 billion rubles. Zaveryukha intimated that he may resign. -Keith Bush RUSSIA TO CONTINUE TESTING MORATORIUM. Citing a government statement, Interfax reported on 21-October that the Russian government has asserted its intention to abide by its moratorium on nuclear weapons testing. However, the statement notes that continued testing by other states could force Russia to reconsider its policy. There was also implicit criticism of China for its recent nuclear test, which the statement observed could complicate the negotiation of a comprehensive test ban treaty. -John Lepingwell GRACHEV TO STAY OUT OF POLITICS. Reaffirming the military's intention to stay out of politics in the wake of the October crisis, Defense Minister Pavel Grachev has announced that he will not run for office in the December elections. According to an Interfax report of 21-October, Grachev implicitly criticized other ministers for participating in the elections, suggesting that a minister should "mind his own business, not join political campaigns." On a related note, Krasnaya zvezda on 16 October carried an editorial extolling the virtues of "one-man leadership" in the military and warning of the dangers of political factionalism within the ranks. The article implies that the military leadership remains concerned about the degree of disunity within the military. -John Lepingwell TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA GAMSAKHURDIA DENOUNCES RUSSIAN MOVES ON GEORGIA. The situation in western Georgia remained unclear on 21 October; a Reuters correspondent reported that contrary to Georgian government claims of 20 October, forces loyal to ousted president Zviad Gamsakhurdia still controlled the Black Sea port of Poti. In an appeal to the UN, Gamsakhurdia accused Russia of "interfering in Georgia's internal affairs" and of "propping up the Shevardnadze junta;" he denied that his men were blocking vital transport arteries. US President Bill Clinton has sent Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze an official invitation to visit the US, and has proposed that the US participate as an observer in the ongoing UN-sponsored negotiations on a political solution to the Abkhaz conflict, Western agencies reported. -Liz Fuller RAFSANJANI IN BISHKEK. Speaking at a press conference on 21 October in Bishkek, the second stage of his Central Asian tour, where he attended the ceremonial opening of the Iranian Embassy, Iranian President Ali-Akbar Rafsanjani expressed confidence that the Muslim population of Kyrgyzstan will succeed in building democracy "in accordance with the basic principles of Islam", Reuters reported. Kyrgyz President Askar Akaev asked Rafsanjani at the same press conference to use his influence to help end conflicts in Central Asia and the Caucasus. The two presidents signed 13 agreements on developing trade, on Kyrgyzstan's use of Iranian transport facilities, and on humanitarian cooperation. Kyrgyzstan is to export livestock products, flax, cotton, and metal goods to Iran, in return for oil, food products, medications, and agricultural machinery, ITAR-TASS reported. -Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE NATO REBUFFS EASTERN EUROPE. Meeting in Travemźnde, Germany on 21 October, NATO defense ministers unanimously endorsed a US proposal to offer "partnerships for peace" to former Warsaw Pact countries interested in joining the alliance. Ruling out the rapid expansion of NATO to include the new East European democracies, the gathering agreed to put off consideration of new members into the "distant future." NATO officials said the "peace partnership" offer would be open to virtually any nation in the region, including Russia and Ukraine. It would be based on bilateral agreements enabling partners to participate in such joint NATO operations as peace-keeping, crisis management, and search and rescue missions. But NATO officials stressed that the partnership arrangements would not entail any security guarantees. The US proposal was apparently designed to placate Russia without leaving the East European countries empty-handed, but it is sure to disappoint Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia, which had hoped for a firmer commitment. Asked if NATO had yielded in the face of a Russian diktat, NATO General Secretary Manfred Woerner told reporters that "NATO will not do anything against Russia nor anything that could threaten its security. We do not want to divide Europe." -Louisa Vinton POLES REACT TO NATO DECISION. Polish officials have reacted with diplomatic skepticism to NATO's decision not to enlarge the alliance in the near future. Foreign Minister Krzysztof Skubiszewski told PAP on 21-October it was inconceivable that the Cold War should be followed by a "cold peace." He said that NATO's "zone of stable security" should move to embrace those parts of Europe not yet covered by it, and that Central Europe is the prime candidate for inclusion. Responding to a question whether Russia should also be included in the security zone, Skubiszewski said that, as a superpower, Russia would have good relations with NATO and that the presence of Poland within NATO would work to ensure Russian security. Defense Minister Janusz Onyszkiewicz said on 20 October that there is no doubt that Poland will join NATO but that this would not necessarily happen today or tomorrow. He also downplayed alarmist reports about the potential threat to Poland of Russia's new defense doctrine. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka CZECH OFFICIALS COMMENT ON NATO ANNOUNCEMENT. On 21 October, at a news conference in Warsaw after his meeting with Polish President Lech Walesa, Czech President Vaclav Havel said that associate membership in NATO for East European states cannot be a substitute for future security guarantees and that his country will continue to push for full membership. Havel stressed that a treaty of association with NATO must not exclude "our membership in the alliance." He also said that he was concerned the West is bowing too much to the demands of Russia and thus creating the possibility for the reappearance of the "ghost of Yalta." Also on 21 October, at a press conference in Prague, Czech Defense Minister Antonin Baudys welcomed the possibility of associate membership. "It is clear that NATO wants to cooperate," he said. -Jiri Pehe SLOVAKIA'S KOVAC ON NATO. On 21 October Slovak President Michal Kovac said the US proposal is "evidence of intensive discussion held on this issue in NATO," TASR reports. Kovac stressed that Slovakia has several times "presented its interest in joining the contemporary political, economic, and security structures established by democratic countries, including NATO" and that his country "will strive to create suitable inner political and foreign political conditions for accomplishment of this goal." -Sharon Fisher US SECRETARY OF STATE IN HUNGARY. On 20-October, on his way to Moscow and Kiev, US Secretary of State Warren Christopher paid a one-day official visit to Hungary, MTI reports. Prior to his arrival, Christopher telephoned Prime Minister Jozsef Antall, who remains hospitalized in Cologne after a recent operation. In Budapest, Christopher held official talks with Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky, President Arpad Goncz, and Interior Minister Peter Boross, who is standing in for Antall. A main topic of discussion was NATO's potential role in filling the regional security gap in Eastern Europe. Christopher stressed that, at NATO's next summit meeting in January, the door could be opened to NATO's expansion as an "evolutionary process." The time has come, Christopher stressed, "to change the relationship between NATO and the new democracies." However, the Secretary of State also emphasized that the actual NATO membership for Hungary is still a matter for the distant future. Christopher also met with US businessmen in Budapest and encouraged them to invest in Hungary. -Judith Pataki SLOVAK PARTIES COMMENT ON COALITION. During a press conference of the Slovak National Party on 21 October, chairman Ludovit Cernak said his party is entering the coalition with the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia "for the sake of overcoming the current political crisis." He said the talks "were not aimed at gaining offices" for the SNP, but rather at solving some crucial problems in Slovakia. According to Cernak, future privatization "will be so fast that I am afraid of criticism of its exaggerated acceleration." Also on 21-October Christian Democratic Movement Deputy Chairman Frantisek Miklosko said that by signing the coalition agreement with the MDS, the SNP "signed its death certificate," TASR reports. By yielding to Meciar's demands, Cernak "will witness his own departure from the forefront of the party" and "Slovakia will face a period of dull stagnation," Miklosko added. -Sharon Fisher SLOVAK NATIONAL BANK REPORTS ON ECONOMY. On 21 October National Bank of Slovakia Governor Vladimir Masar presented a report to the parliament on the development of the Slovak currency during the first six months of the year. According to the report, GDP fell by 6%, but the currency remained relatively stable because of a positive balance of payments, low debt, and comparatively low inflation. Slovakia's balance of payments at the end of June registered a surplus of 3.9-billion koruny ($139 million), despite a 5 billion koruny ($179 million) deficit in convertible currencies. Money in circulation fell by 6.9-billion koruny, as households saved more because of the Czech-Slovak currency split. In the first six months of the year, the volume of loans given to the private sector rose by 17%, while loans to state firms fell by 8.5%. Interest rates for bank credits rose from 13.38% in January to 14.71% in June; interest rates were highest in banks with foreign capital involvement. By June, 17 commercial banks with 11-billion crowns worth of property had operations in Slovakia. Inflation, which climbed to 14.2% in the first six months of 1993, could reach 30% by December, the reports says. -Sharon Fisher POLISH SEJM CONSTITUTES COMMISSIONS. Completing its interrupted inaugural session, the Sejm on 21-October constituted its 24 standing commissions and elected 46-deputies to the joint Sejm-Senate Constitutional Commission. The chairmanship of these commissions is traditionally settled in advance through bargaining between representatives of the different caucuses. This time, however, the Polish Peasant Party (PSL) tried to prevent the Democratic Union (UD) from having the chairmanship of the 5 commissions it considers vital to the continuation of the reform process. Ultimately, the UD managed to have its candidate-Bronislaw Geremek-elected to head the foreign affairs commission with the votes of the Democratic Left Alliance (SLD), in the face of opposition from ruling coalition partner the PSL, but the PSL prevailed over the UD in imposing its candidate in the privatization commission. The SLD won the chairmanship of 9 commissions; the PSL won 7; the UD won 4; the Labor Union won 2; and the Nonparty Reform Bloc and the Confederation for an Independent Poland have one each. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT VOTES TO KEEP CHERNOBYL OPEN. On 21 October the Ukrainian parliament voted 221 to 38 to allow the Chernobyl nuclear reactors to continue running after this year and lifted a moratorium on the construction of new nuclear power stations. The decision was prompted by Ukraine's energy shortage. International reaction has been highly critical of the decision. The International Atomic Energy Agency expressed understanding of Ukraine's position, although it feels Chernobyl should be closed permanently. The EC has also expressed concern over the decision, and German environment minister, Klaus Toepfer, said the move "disregards international safety concerns." Nuclear power generates one-third of Ukraine's energy and the country may become even more dependent on it as Ukraine is having problems meeting its payments to Russia for its energy supplies. -Ustina Markus BELARUS CUTS GAS TO ENTERPRISES. The Belarusian government has cut gas supplied to 30 large enterprises because of non-payment for previous deliveries and warned a number of others that they too face cutoffs, Reuters reported on 21 October. According to the acting head of the state company Beltopgas, Alexandr Karets, Belarus is unlikely to meet its payments to Russia's state supplier, Gazprom, and will, therefore, probably receive even less gas than it is getting now. Currently it is receiving 15% less than its daily needs. Last month Belarus agreed to pay off its $100 million gas debt to Russia by 1 November. -Ustina Markus BULGARIAN-RUSSIAN POWER TALKS SUSPENDED. A Bulgarian government official told Reuters on 21-October that negotiations with Russia on emergency power supplies have been interrupted because of sharp disagreement over prices. Dyanko Dobrev, Chairman of the Bulgarian Electric Company, told a press conference in Sofia that the Russian negotiators are demanding significantly more than the 2.72 cents per kilowatt Bulgaria has agreed to pay to Ukraine and have also presented the offer as a take-it-or-leave-it opportunity. Bulgaria, which last winter had to import large amounts of power following repeated stoppages at the Kozloduy nuclear power plant, has this year already signed a deal with Ukraine to ensure emergency electricity supplies. Sofia hopes to reach a similar arrangement with Moldova. -Kjell Engelbrekt RUSSIA REBUFFS MOLDOVAN FOREIGN MINISTER. A statement by Russia's Foreign Ministry, distributed by Russia's Permanent Mission to the UN on 18 October, departed from diplomatic etiquette in accusing Moldovan Foreign Minister Nicolae Tiu of having "completely misrepresented" Russia's policy in his speech to the UN General Assembly. In that speech, Tiu had described Russia's 14th Army as the catalyst of the Dniester conflict, cautioned the international community against granting Russia the mandate of "peacemaker" on the territory of the former USSR, and complained at Russia's refusal to admit UN or CSCE observers to the deadlocked talks on the withdrawal of the 14th Army from Moldova. The Russian Foreign Ministry's statement falsely claimed that the troop talks are proceeding "constructively," but insisted that the talks are a bilateral Russian-Moldovan matter, ruling out other participants, and opposed Tiu's request for the inclusion of that issue in the General Assembly's agenda. -Vladimir Socor ISRAEL PLEASED WITH SITUATION OF MOLDOVA'S JEWS. Nahum Keren, a senior diplomat with Israel's embassy in Moscow, currently in charge of setting up Israel's mission in Chisinau, told Nezavisimaya Moldova of 14 October, as quoted by Basapress, that "Moldova is a far more hospitable place of residence for Jews than, for example, Russia. The Moldovan authorities' attitude toward Jews is far more considerate, and the social environment is nonaggressive and far less crime-prone." Moldovan Jews also make better immigrants to Israel, Keren said. Israeli officials have periodically expressed satisfaction with the situation of Jews in Moldova. -Vladimir Socor REACTION TO MILOSEVIC'S DISSOLUTION OF PARLIAMENT. Serbian opposition leaders have reacted with protest and alarm to Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic's decision to dissolve the National Assembly and call new parliamentary elections for 19 December. Most threatened to boycott the elections if opposition parties are denied equal access to the Socialist-controlled broadcast media. Serbian Radical Party (SRS) leader Vojislav Seselj said Milosevic has "lost his head as well as his nerve" in an effort to save the Socialist government, while opposition Democratic Party leader Dragoljub Micunovic called the move "surprisingly premature." Vuk Draskovic told both the Belgrade and international media that Milosevic's decision was "a totalitarian move" and accused him of wanting to reestablish one-party rule. He added that under such "extraordinary circumstances" all democratic forces must unite, forget their past disagreements and urgently formulate conditions for the elections and "insist on them without backing down." Janos Vekas of the Democratic Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians stated his party is again accepting the challenge, as in all previous multi- party elections in Serbia. The last elections were held in December 1992. Radio Serbia and Croatian TV carried the report on 21 October. -Milan Andrejevich ALBANIAN OPPOSITION PARTY ENDS BELGRADE VISIT. Radio Serbia and Reuter report on 21 October that leaders of the Albanian opposition party Aleanca Demokratike (Democratic Alliance) returned from a controversial visit to Belgrade aimed at opening a dialogue between the Balkan rivals. Spartak Ngjela of the Democratic Alliance, told a news conference in Tirana that talks with Serbian leaders "impartially analyzed the situation" and relations between Albania and Serbia. Ngjela said the three Democratic Alliance leaders held talks with Serbian opposition and government leaders, including deputy prime minister Danilo Markovic, foreign minister Vladislav Jovanovic, and opposition leader Vuk Draskovic. Earlier in the week, Albania's ruling Democratic Party and the official media sharply criticized the three-day visit to Belgrade, accusing the delegation of supporting "Serb violence, terror and oppression against Albanians in Kosovo." ATA carried a statement by the ruling Democratic Party saying, "Their mission gives world-isolated Milosevic an argument to claim he is talking with Albanians." -Milan Andrejevich ROMANIANS TO GET 35,000 LEI MINIMUM WAGE. On 21 October, Romania's Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu discussed with government economic officials recent price hikes and a new salary indexing policy. Octavian Partenie, the cabinet's official in charge of relations with the country's trade unions, told Radio Bucharest after the meeting that a decision had been reached to raise the minimum monthly wage by 5,000 to 35,000 lei (about $35 at the official exchange rate). The move aims at helping Romanians face the coming winter, following substantial price increases over recent weeks in heating, electricity, and basic food products, including sugar, edible oil, and meat. Romania's trade unions have warned the government of possible social unrest during the coming winter unless action is taken. -Dan Ionescu US ALLOWS EINSELN TO HEAD ESTONIAN ARMED FORCES. The US State Department, reversing its earlier stand, has decided to allow Retired US Army Col. Aleksander Einseln to wear a foreign uniform and serve as head of Estonia's armed forces, without risking his citizenship or his standing as a retired US officer, RFE/RL's correspondent in Washington reported on 22-October. A State Department spokesman said that Einseln's performance and the fact that neighboring countries, including Russia, were not upset were the deciding factors. Furthermore, Einseln's position was supported by a number of US congressmen. -Dzintra Bungs GERMAN PRESIDENT VISITS LITHUANIA. On 21-October German president Richard von Weizsacker started his tour of the Baltic States in Vilnius. The principal topic of discussion with his Lithuanian counterpart, Algirdas Brazauskas, was Lithuania's integration into Europe and German-Lithuanian relations. The German president welcomed the completion of the withdrawal of Russian troops from Lithuania and expressed hope that this would give a positive impetus for solving other unsettled issues in the Baltic region, Baltic media report. -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Stephen Foye and Louisa Vinton THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.