|В жизнь нужно входить не веселым гулякою, как в приятную рощу, а с благоговейным трепетом, как в священный лес, полный жизни и тайны. - В. В. Вересаев|
No. 203, 21 October 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA ELECTION CAMPAIGN BEHIND SCHEDULE. President Boris Yeltsin's chief of staff, Sergei Filatov, told a news conference on 20 October that the campaign for parliamentary and local elections on 12 December is running late, Reuters and ITAR-TASS reported. Although 17-parties and blocs intended to fight the elections, only four of them had so far been formally established; despite this, Filatov said, the election date would not be postponed. Filatov defended the decision allowing government ministers to run for election, saying that a new government would be formed after the elections. He also said that Yeltsin had agreed to early presidential elections (currently scheduled for 12-June 1994) under pressure, and that he should be allowed to serve his full term. -Wendy Slater DEMOCRATS PREPARE FOR ELECTIONS. Filatov was also quoted by ITAR-TASS on 20-October as saying that so far no electoral bloc or movement has succeeded in collecting the 100,000 signatures necessary for registration for parliamentary elections. Filatov's deputy, Vyacheslav Volkov, suggested that the various blocs having a democratic orientation should form an alliance and participate in elections as one single bloc. He said that such an alliance would win 50 percent of parliamentary seats. The cochairman of the Democratic Russia Movement, Gleb Yakunin, stated that his Movement will form a parliamentary faction with the bloc "Russia's choice," but will resist the latter's intentions to turn itself into a "ruling party." -Alexander Rahr MORE PARTIES INTEND TO STAND IN ELECTIONS. Two more organizations are planning to stand in the elections, ITAR-TASS reported on 20 October, citing information from the Central Electoral Commission. The extreme right-wing National Republican Party, which is based in St. Petersburg and led by Nikolai Lysenko; and the pro-market "August" bloc which comprises Konstantin Borovoi's Party of Economic Freedom and Viktor Zolotarev's Constitutional Democrats must now each collect at least 100,000 signatures to register their participation. The National Republican Party intends to propose a list of 87-candidates, and the "August" bloc-96 candidates. -Wendy Slater DEMOCRATS COMPETE. The representatives of two competing democratic blocs, "Russia's choice" and "Republic", Anatolii Chubais and Grigorii Yavlinsky, respectively, presented their different economic views at a meeting of the electoral club of the Academy of Science, ITAR-TASS reported on 20 October. Yavlinsky criticized the privatization program of the government because it has not led to major capital investments in industry. The cochairman of the liberal Republican Party, Lysenko, called upon democrats to avoid a split in their ranks, arguing that it could open the door to a victory by communist forces in the parliamentary elections. The coleader of the "Free Democratic Party of Russia," Marina Sale, suggested that presidential rule in the country be extended and that parliamentary elections be postponed until after the referendum on the new constitution. -Alexander Rahr CONTROLS TIGHTENED ON FOREIGN CREDITS. The government has introduced stricter conditions for obtaining foreign credits that could add to the country's external debt, and tightened control over the use of these credits, Interfax reported on 20 October. Proposals for securing credits are to be advanced by the Ministry of Finance, approved by the Ministry of Economics, and then accepted or rejected by the government. The agency cites the figure of $80-billion as the level of Russia's external debt at the beginning of 1993. -Keith Bush REFORM ZEAL AND WAGES CORRELATED. Andrei Illarionov, economic adviser to Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, has attempted to demonstrate a direct correlation between the successful implementation of radical economic reform and average wages. Writing in Argumenty i fakty, no. 37, he illustrates how average wages in Russia have purportedly risen and fallen as the consequence of successes and failures in the government's efforts at stabilization. He also shows how wages have changed in other former Soviet republics, linking these with the conduct of reforms in the respective states. Illarionov gives the average wages in terms of US dollars at the official rates of exchange, but does not seem to take extraneous factors into account. -Keith Bush RUSSIA CANCELS SECOND DUMPING IN SEA OF JAPAN. Under strong pressure from Japan, South Korea, and the US, Russian authorities have decided to cancel a second planned dumping of liquid nuclear waste into the Sea of Japan. According to Reuter on 21-October, Russia informed the Japanese government of the decision late in the evening on 20 October. Japanese officials intimated that a phone call earlier that day to Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev had been a key factor in Russia's change of plans; Kozyrev reportedly said that he would take up the issue directly with Boris Yeltsin. The Washington Post reported on 21-October that as early as July of this year a Russian admiral had said that Russia planned to dump radioactive wastes into the ocean because storage facilities were filled to capacity. Russia's nuclear-powered submarines and icebreakers produce some 26,000 cubic yards of liquid waste each year, the report added. According to Reuter, the low-level radioactive waste that was dumped on 20-October comes from coolants and cleaning fluids from nuclear submarines refitted or dismantled at a naval base near Vladivostok. -Stephen Foye FRANCE TO AID IN NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT. During his visit to France on 20 October Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev and French Foreign Minister Alain Juppe signed an accord providing for some $70 million in assistance to Russia for nuclear weapons dismantling. The first $30 million is to be used for containers and machines to handle radioactive materials, according to reports by AFP and Reuters. -John Lepingwell MORE GRACHEV REMARKS. Concluding a three-day visit to Finland, Defense Minister Pavel Grachev again underlined Russia's reservations over efforts by Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia to join NATO. Turning to Russian troop deployments in northwestern Russia, Grachev said that despite the withdrawal of military units from Eastern Europe to that region, total troop numbers in the area from Severomorsk to the boundary between the Leningrad and Moscow Military District continue to drop and will total 64,000 men by 1995. Grachev, whose remarks were reported by ITAR-TASS, suggested that Georgian military units had ineptly allowed Abkhazian forces to seize weapons supplied to Tbilisi. -Stephen Foye TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA GEORGIAN GOVERNMENT TROOPS PUSH BACK REBELS. On 20 October Georgian government forces launched a major counteroffensive on two fronts against the forces of ousted Georgian president Zviad Gamsakhurdia and succeeded in retaking the Black Sea port of Poti, occupied by Gamsakhurdia on 2 October, and also Khoni and Lanchkhuta, Western agencies reported. According to unconfirmed and contradictory reports, government forces also retook the town of Tskhaltubo, 10 km north of Kutaisi, which Gamsakhurdia;'s forces had entered earlier in the day. On 20-October the Georgian Procuracy in Tbilisi issued warrants for the arrest of Gamsakhurdia and of Loti Kobalia, the commander of his troops, on charges of jeopardizing the territorial integrity, security and independence of Georgia, GIA reported. The Russian Foreign Ministry stated on 20 October that following the Georgian parliament's vote to endorse CIS membership, Russia would send troops to protect the main railway from the Black Sea to Tbilisi and Armenia, according to the Washington Post and the Los Angeles Times of 21 October. -Liz Fuller CIS UKRAINIAN OFFICIALS DIFFER OVER START LIMITS. Deputy parliamentary speaker Vasyl Durdynets suggested that the oft-delayed debate over START-1 ratification may take place in November, according to Western press agency reports. After the closed debate over the Ukrainian military doctrine, however, there appears to be confusion amongst Ukrainian officials on their obligations under START-1 and the Lisbon protocol. President Leonid Kravchuk, in reaffirming his commitment to see the START-1 treaty ratified, suggested that after its ratification all of the SS-19 ICBMs in Ukraine would be scrapped. However, according to Ukrainian radio on 20 October, Dmytro Pavlychko, chairman of the parliamentary committee on foreign relations, again asserted that only 36% of the delivery vehicles on Ukrainian territory would be dismantled. This latter assertion is based on the assumption that the overall weapon limits in START-1 would be applied proportionally across all the former Soviet republics with nuclear weapons on their territory. Pavlychko also stated that Ukraine could not accede to the nuclear non-proliferation treaty until after its review in 1995. -John Lepingwell WHO CONTROLS THE SS-24S? KRAVCHUK ALSO STATED THAT AFTER START-1 RATIFICATION THE SS-24S WOULD BE TAKEN OFF ALERT AND THEIR TARGETING INFORMATION UNLOADED. The latter statement is surprising, because previous reports indicated that all ICBMs in Ukraine were already off alert, and because it implies that Ukraine has at least partial control over targeting and alert status, an important part of the "operational control" which was hitherto always ascribed to the (now defunct) CIS Joint Command. The Ukrainian government's position on the long-term fate of the SS-24s remains unclear, despite some assertions that they would eventually be destroyed. -John Lepingwell WARHEAD PROBLEMS ON UKRAINIAN-RUSSIAN BORDER. On 20 October Interfax reported that Russia is worried about radiation leaking from two nuclear warheads which have been sitting in a railroad car on the Russian-Ukrainian border since 5 October. The Russians had been removing the warheads to a repair factory in Russia, but the Ukrainians allegedly will not follow through with the delivery until they receive guarantees that Kiev will be compensated for the nuclear materials in the warheads. Col. Gen. Yevgeny Maslin, chief of the Russian Defense Ministry's primary department for nuclear ammunition, said that Ukraine either did not appreciate the dangers raised by its "misconduct" or that it was distracted by "disorder in supreme power echelons." Ukrainian Defense Ministry spokesman Dmytro Shkurko told an RFE/RL correspondent that he rejected the allegations that Ukraine was violating agreements on the transfer of nuclear warheads to Russia, but would not explain why the shipments were halted. Russia and Ukraine signed agreements governing warhead transfer at the Massandra summit, but these agreements have not been ratified. -Ustina Markus RUSSIAN DISSATISFACTION WITH CIS TRADE. The Russian government's Commission on Operative Questions discussed problems with CIS trade and measures for improving trade financing on 19 October, Russian Television and Reuters reported. Vladimir Mashchits told the session that the volume of trade had begun to drop sharply because of lack of payments to suppliers. Russian enterprises alone are owed 3 trillion rubles or $2.5-billion. Among the proposals for dealing with these persistent payment problems, the commission recommended speeding up the creation of the CIS Economic Court to enforce trade agreements, stiffening penalties against delinquent payments, accelerating bank transactions, simplifying customs procedures, and swapping bills of exchange for interenterprise debt. -Erik Whitlock CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE MILOSEVIC DISSOLVES ASSEMBLY, CALLS ELECTIONS. Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic dissolved the republic's National Assembly on 20 October and called new parliamentary elections for 19 December. New presidential elections will not be held. Milosevic explained during the main evening TV news program that he had dissolved the parliament because of political obstruction by "certain political parties and their representatives." He said this behavior impeded national unity and argued that "the quickest and cleanest way out of this parliamentary crisis" is to allow the citizens of Serbia to choose a new parliament. Milosevic's minority Socialist government was facing a no-confidence vote in parliament proposed by the Serbian Radical Party (SRS). After seven days of scathing criticism of Prime Minister Nikola Sainovic's government, the parliament adjourned on 18-October for seven days before voting. Officials claimed the vote was postponed because of the federal parliament's busy schedule, but some Belgrade political analysts said the delay was designed to buy time for the Socialists after the opposition Serbian Renewal Movement threatened to support the SRS in the no-confidence vote. Opposition parties have been trying to bring down the government since May, however, so the Socialists may have been well prepared for the latest developments. Defeated in the December 1992 elections, the divided opposition may once again be no match for Milosevic's Socialists. -Milan Andrejevich MORE ON SLOVAK COALITION AGREEMENT. According to Movement for a Democratic Slovakia Deputy Chairman Roman Kovac, the new coalition between his party and the Slovak National Party could bring several changes in the cabinet. Although Kovac did not mention any names, he said the government is considering the creation of a new post for an expert on macroeconomics and of a new Ministry for the Integration of Slovakia into European Structures; both parties fully support Slovakia's entrance into the EC and NATO. It is expected that SNP Honorary Chairman Jozef Prokes will replace Jozef Moravcik as Foreign Minister, while Moravcik will take on the position of deputy premier, TASR reports on 20 October. Marian Andel, chairman of the SNP parliamentary club, is favored for the now vacant post of education minister, though he is "resisting" the appointment. SNP Chairman Ludovit Cernak should take on the post of deputy chairman of the parliament. It was not reported who will take on the now vacant post of privatization minister, though SNP Deputy Chairman Peter Sokol said acceleration of privatization is one of the priorities of the coalition parties. Kovac said the proposed cabinet will likely be settled on 23 October during sessions of top officials of the two parties and could be given to the president for approval as early as 25 October. Meanwhile, Slovak daily Sme reported on 20 October a rift in the SNP, with Cernak's supporters opposed to the coalition with the MDS and Andel's supporters in favor. -Sharon Fisher PAWLAK BEGINS BUILDING CABINET. Polish Prime Minister designate Waldemar Pawlak held extensive talks with ministerial candidates on 19 and 20 October, as the outlines of the new cabinet began to emerge. The three "presidential" ministries-defense, internal affairs, and foreign affairs-appear likely go to candidates loyal to President Lech Walesa. Pawlak met with current Internal Affairs Minister Andrzej Milczanowski, who will likely retain his post; former finance minister Andrzej Olechowski, who seems likely to replace Krzysztof Skubiszewski as foreign minister; and retired Adm. Piotr Kolodziejczyk, who may be defense minister. Kolodziejczyk served as defense minister in Poland's first two Solidarity governments before civilians took over in 1992. Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) leader Aleksander Kwasniewski said that the cabinet may be completed in two or three days but confirmed that conflicts remain between the two coalition parties. Polish TV reported that a third deputy prime minister's post may be created for a representative of the Polish Peasant Party, to offset the SLD's control of the two original posts, for economics and politics. The SLD's proposal that Leszek Miller head the labor ministry remains controversial. Miller represents the SLD's "apparatus" wing and his appointment is believed necessary to maintain the loyalty of former communist party members, but he is under investigation for his role in the CPSU's million-dollar loan to the Polish communist party in 1990 and is disliked by Solidarity forces. -Louisa Vinton POLAND, DENMARK SIGN MILITARY AGREEMENT. Polish Defense Minister Janusz Onyszkiewicz and his Danish counterpart Hans Haekkerup signed a military cooperation agreement on 18 October in Warsaw, PAP reports. Haekkerup said the agreement is a "step that brings Poland closer to full membership in NATO in the future." This is the first military accord Denmark has reached with an East European country. Poland has concluded similar agreements with all of its neighbors, as well as with Hungary, Latvia, France, Greece, Holland, and Belgium. -Louisa Vinton UKRAINE'S NEW MILITARY DOCTRINE. On 20 October UNIAR gave some details of the new Ukrainian draft military doctrine, which was adopted by deputies almost without discussion. The difference between this draft and its earlier version lies in the fact that the formulation, "Ukraine does not consider any state as its adversary," has been changed to, "Ukraine will consider its potential adversary to be a state whose consistent policy constitutes a military danger to Ukraine." There is also an amendment to point 1.3 of the previous version of the doctrine, which noted that Ukraine adheres to the nonnuclear principles of not accepting, manufacturing, or acquiring nuclear weapons. This point now reads, "Having become the owner of nuclear weapons through historical circumstances, Ukraine will never sanction their use and excludes the threat to use nuclear weapons from its foreign policy arsenal. In the future, Ukraine intends to become a nonnuclear state and links the reduction and destruction of nuclear weapons to the appropriate actions of other nuclear states, and the granting by them, and by the world community, of reliable security guarantees." -Ustina Markus NEW US AMBASSADOR TO UKRAINE. The new US ambassador to Ukraine, William Miller, arrived in Kiev on 19 October, Ukrainian Television reported. At a press conference Miller said the US wants to see an independent, free Ukraine, and will be watching the coming elections with great interest. Miller replaces Roman Popadiuk as ambassador. -Ustina Markus HAVEL IN POLAND. On 20 October, Czech President Vaclav Havel started a two-day official visit to Poland at the invitation of Polish President Lech Walesa. In an interview with CTK, Walesa said that "we will certainly discuss our road to Europe, NATO membership, and promotion of bilateral cooperation." On the 20th, the two presidents met at a private dinner. Havel is also scheduled to meet with outgoing Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka and her Foreign Minister Krzysztof Skubiszewski as well as with Sejm and the Senate representatives. He will also visit the Baltic ports of Gdansk and Gdynia. -Jiri Pehe RUSSIAN AMBASSADOR TO PRAGUE CRITICIZES WEU SECRETARY. Alexandr Lebedev, the Russian Ambassador to Prague, reacted angrily to a lecture given by Willem van Eekelen, the General Secretary of the West European Union, in Prague on 20 October. In his speech, titled "The Future of European Security," Eekelen reportedly described Russia as "a country beyond the frontiers of Europe." CTK quotes Lebedev as saying that "the words of the West European Union's General Secretary justify the fears of those political forces in Russia, who claim that European institutions are trying to expel Russia to the periphery of the process of European integration." In an interview with CTK after his lecture, Eekelen urged East European countries to coordinate their efforts to integrate with European institutions. -Jiri Pehe CZECH MILITARY ASSISTANCE TO LITHUANIA. The Czech government announced on 20-October that it will give two million koruny ($66,000) worth of surplus military equipment to Lithuania. CTK quotes Deputy Prime Minister Josef Lux as saying that the equipment will be given because the Czech Republic wants to assist Lithuania in building up its military. He also said that the Czech government expects that the aid will result in regular bids from Lithuania for Czech military equipment. Lithuania has received similar aid from Poland and Germany. Lithuanian Defense Minister Audrius Butkevicius visited Prague at the beginning of October; he and his Czech counterpart, Antonin Baudys, signed an agreement on military cooperation between the two countries. -Jiri Pehe NO PROGRESS AT LATVIAN-RUSSIAN TALKS. The latest round of negotiations on the withdrawal of Russian troops from Latvia and related issues ended inconclusively in Moscow on 20 October, Diena reports. No accords were signed, though it was decided that two groups of experts will continue work on transportation and border issues and the next talks will be held in Jurmala 15-17 November. Head of the Latvian delegation Martins Virsis told RFE/RL that the Russian delegation tried to avoid dealing with the principal issues, such as a timetable for the troop withdrawals, and altered its position on various issues that had been agreed upon previously. In a related development, Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev told the press in Helsinki on 19 October that the troop pullout from Estonia and Latvia depends on how those countries deal with their Russian-speaking populations; he threatened that Russian troops would stay there as long as it takes to resolve the issue. -Dzintra Bungs TROOPS, BORDER ISSUES HAMPER ESTONIAN-RUSSIAN RELATIONS. Vasilii Svirin, head of the Russian delegation for talks with Estonia, told the recently appointed Estonian Minister of Nationalities Peeter Olesk that Russia does not recognize the Estonian-Soviet Russian peace treaty signed in 1920 in Tartu as binding. Svirin said that Moscow has maintained such a position for the past one-and-a-half years and has rejected Estonian territorial claims against Russia, Hommikuleht reported on 19 October. Olesk believes that the Estonian-Russian border should become a European rather than a bilateral issue and stressed that the Tartu treaty should become a fundamental document for all European states interested in the area. Baltic media also reported on 20 October that the Estonian parliament had ratified a law on consular relations with Russia, following a convention signed by the two sides in Moscow on 2 December 1992. Groups of Estonian and Russian experts opened a two-day meeting at Lohusalu on 20 October to discuss deadlines for the withdrawal of Russian troops and the guarantees of social welfare for retired Soviet officers and their families, BNS reported. -Dzintra Bungs MORE LEADERSHIP CHANGES IN LITHUANIA. Baltic media reported on 19 October that Col. Jonas Andriskevicius, 49, has been appointed Commander of the Lithuanian National Army. Andriskevicius, who served until recently as director of the Vilnius Military College, is the first to hold this position since Lithuania regained its independence in August 1991. The same day the resignation of Social Security Minister Teodoras Medaiskis was also announced; reportedly the resignation was motivated by personal reasons, rather than disagreements with members of the government or the Seimas. -Dzintra Bungs SHUSHKEVICH IN BULGARIA. At a press conference on 20 October, Bulgarian President Zhelyu Zhelev promised his Belarusian counterpart Stanislau Shushkevich that Bulgaria will assist Belarus in its efforts to become a member of the Council of Europe when it assumes chairmanship of that organization in May 1994. As quoted by Reuters, Zhelev praised Belarus for its firm support of Russian President Boris Yeltsin during the recent political crisis in Moscow. Apart from signing a friendship and cooperation treaty with Bulgaria, Shushkevich agreed during his two-day visit to Sofia to deliver military spare parts to the Bulgarian armed forces. BTA reports that an intergovernmental commission on economic, scientific, and technological cooperation will also be established. -Kjell Engelbrekt BEROV AND JUDICIARY CLASH. Responding to the strong criticism of the Bulgarian judiciary voiced by Prime Minister Lyuben Berov and government spokesman Raycho Raykov two days earlier, the Bulgarian Judicial Council (BJC) on 20 October said the statements amount to "gross violation of the constitution" and "inadmissible interference in the affairs of the judiciary," BTA reports. The conflict between the cabinet and the BJC is looming as the government is trying to persuade a majority in the Bulgarian parliament to accept amendments to the law on the work of the BJC. In Demokratsiya of the same day, Supreme Court Chairman Ivan Grigorov said he believes the real aim of the cabinet's proposals is to replace certain BJC members. -Kjell Engelbrekt ALBANIAN COMMUNIST FUNCTIONARIES ARRESTED. Two former high-ranking communist officials were arrested in Tirana on 20 October on charges of genocide and violating human rights, PAP reports, quoting Albanian Television. Former security police chief Zylyftar Ramizi was accused of organizing mass repressions against Albanian citizens in the 1980s, while former chief prosecutor Rrapi Mino was arrested in connection with his role in a commission that handed down sentences and ordered deportations. -Louisa Vinton ILIESCU ENDS SOUTH AFRICA VISIT. On 19-20-October, Romania's President Ion Iliescu paid a two-day state visit to the Republic of South Africa. He met with President Frederick de Klerk, African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela, and other political leaders. Radio Bucharest reported that Iliescu and de Klerk on 20-October signed a cooperation agreement to promote trade, investment, cultural, scientific, and sporting ties between the two countries. Iliescu visited Zimbabwe on 14-15-October before attending an economic summit of French-speaking nations in Mauritius. He goes to Kenya on 21 October. -Dan Ionescu INTERNATIONAL MILITARY SEMINAR ENDS IN BUCHAREST. An international seminar on the training of military officers in democracies ended in Bucharest on 20 October. According to Radio Bucharest, the seminar was organized by NATO in cooperation with the Romanian National Defense Ministry. Romania's Defense Minister Nicolae Spiroiu addressed the conference on 20 October, shortly after returning from Germany, where he signed a bilateral military cooperation agreement. At a press conference, which followed the closing session, journalists raised questions about the new security system in Europe and the chances of East European countries to be integrated into the NATO. -Dan Ionescu MOLDOVAN TRADE, FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENTS. Adding to the information on President Mircea Snegur's talks with Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, held on 19 October in Moscow, Moldovan and Russian news agencies report that the sides signed a "zero option" agreement whereby Russia will take over Moldova's share of the ex-USSR's foreign debt, in exchange for Moldova's ceding its share of the ex-USSR's assets outside Moldova to Russia. In addition, Russia agreed to continue beyond the deadline of 1 November to exempt Moldovan goods of the excise taxes and customs tariffs imposed on non-CIS imports, on the understanding that Moldova will join the CIS and the Economic Union as a full member. Prime Minister Andrei Sangheli told journalists on 20 October that Moldova intends to introduce its national currency, the Moldovan leu, in November, Interfax reports. The move, awaited since 1991, is supported by the IMF and other financial institutions, Sangheli said. Romania also has a leu, named after a historic coin in the region, but Moldova wants its leu pegged to the Russian ruble at parity. -Vladimir Socor BELARUS DEMANDS RETURN OF NATIONAL TREASURE. Belarus is demanding the return of the Cross of Efrosonia, a twelfth-century symbol of national unity that is revered by all three of Belarus's religious groups-Orthodox, Greek Catholic, and Roman Catholic-The European of 14-17 October reported. The government has called on Interpol to help retrieve the cross, which it believes is in a private collection in the US. Foreign Minister Piotr Krauchanka said the government is encouraged by Poland's successes in regaining lost treasures, but admits Belarus's chances of similar recoveries are less likely because the country cannot afford to buy back any of its lost artifacts. -Ustina Markus [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Stephen Foye and Louisa Vinton THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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