|The road uphill and the road downhill are one and the same. - Heraclitus|
No. 202, 20 October 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA YELTSIN BANS PARTIES FROM RUNNING IN ELECTIONS. President Boris Yeltsin has signed a decree prohibiting certain political parties from participating in the December elections, ITAR-TASS and an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 19 October. The decree also prohibits people charged with participating in the violence from standing as candidates. The parties include the National Salvation Front; the militant Russian Communist Workers' Party; the Russian Communist Youth Union; the Officers' Union and the Shchit union in the army; and the neo-fascist Russian National Unity. These parties were suspended after the violence in Moscow at the beginning of October. However, two other parties suspended then are not covered by the ban: the Communist Party of the Russian Federation and the People's Party of Free Russia. Both are large organizations with relatively strong local networks, and were represented in the former parliament. Observers had warned that their continued suspension would hinder fair elections. -Wendy Slater CONTROVERSY OVER COMBINATION OF GOVERNMENT AND STATE POSTS. Many members of the Public Chamber of the Constitutional Assembly on 19-October criticized President Yeltsin's decree permitting ministers of the Russian government to serve in a new parliament, ITAR-TASS reported. Discussing the issue, St. Petersburg mayor Anatolii Sobchak, who himself is a candidate, said it was absurd that so many ministers were seeking election. Sobchak pointed out that ministers have been put on the lists of various political blocs whose platforms are often very different, and sometimes in direct opposition, to each other. If these ministers get elected on this basis, the government would hardly be able to function, Sobchak maintained. -Vera Tolz YELTSIN TO REMOVE MAUSOLEUM? PRESIDENT YELTSIN WILL ORDER THE REMOVAL OF THE LENIN MAUSOLEUM FROM RED SQUARE AND THE BURIAL OF LENIN IN THE VOLKOV CEMETERY IN ST. Petersburg, an RFE/RL Moscow correspondent has quoted a presidential spokesman as saying. Yeltsin also intends to issue a decree ordering the removal of the remains of other Soviet leaders, such as Josef Stalin, Leonid Brezhnev, Yurii Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko, all of whom are now interred in the Kremlin wall, to Moscow's Novodevichie cemetery or elsewhere if their families request it. In addition, Moscow mayor Yurii Luzhkov has demanded in a letter to Yeltsin that the red stars be removed from the peaks of the Kremlin buildings. -Alexander Rahr POOR INVESTMENT CLIMATE IN RUSSIA. Western bankers aired their grievances over the investment climate in Russia at the Second International Conference on Banking Operations in Moscow on 19 October, Reuters and Interfax reported. Russian political risk was said to be the highest in the world after Iraq. A German participant spoke of political and economic instability, plus the high level of crime, corruption, bureaucracy, and incompetence. Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Shokhin announced that Western capital invested through 1 July 1993 amounted to only $7 billion. It had earlier been reported that new investments in 1992 amounted to about $1 billion, whereas an estimated $50-billion a year is required. -Keith Bush GERASHCHENKO ON INFLATION. Another participant was Russian Central Bank Chairman Viktor Gerashchenko. Unrepentant, he told the conference that he was not in favor of a very tough monetary policy, and that he was against sustained high interest rates as these would add to cost inflation. He forecast that inflation in 1993 would amount to between 1,000% and 1,300% (compared with over 2, 600% in 1992). Gerashchenko indicated that he planned to remain in office: "Legally, nowadays, I am in a situation that nobody could remove me against my will, but in my country everything is possible." Keith Bush GAIDAR ON STRIKE THREAT. First Deputy Prime Minister Egor Gaidar told Interfax on 19-October that he does not anticipate mass walkouts when further austerity measures are introduced. He claimed that the government was "able to step in to solve the problems before they reach the walkout stage." This claim is likely to be put to the test shortly, when bankruptcy proceedings are finally implemented, when action is taken on interenterprise debts, and when unemployment rises. Threats of strike action have been made by farmers, coal miners, oil and gas workers, health and education employees and, most ominously, by the workers in the military-industrial complex. -Keith Bush NEW MEASURES AGAINST INTERENTERPRISE DEBT. President Yeltsin has signed a decree intended to reduce the problem of interenterprise debt, various Russian and Western news agencies reported on 19-October. The decree provides new, harsher penalties for overdue bills, the issue on 1 November 1993 of promissory notes in exchange for existing interenterprise debts, and new measures for bringing bankruptcy proceedings against insolvent enterprises. There is much controversy over the significance of the interenterprise debt problem. Former Economics Minister Oleg Lobov put the amount of debt of enterprise and construction enterprises at 11 trillion in September (perhaps equivalent to 2/3 of GDP produced so far this year) but Goskomstat figures suggest that debt actually overdue is less than half this amount. Also not clear is to what extent these figures include overdue payments from and to the Russian state budget and other CIS states and enterprises. The present Economics Minister, Yegor Gaidar, told Interfax on 19 October that, in his opinion, the debt problem is not severe. -Erik Whitlock RUSSIAN VETO FOR LIBYA? FOREIGN MINISTER ANDREI KOZYREV ALLEGEDLY SENT A LETTER TO US SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER ON 15 OCTOBER INDICATING THAT RUSSIA MIGHT VETO NEW UN SANCTIONS AGAINST LIBYA FOR PROTECTING TWO SUSPECTS IN THE DOWNING OF THE LOCKERBIE FLIGHT IN 1988. The proposed vote would be for new sanctions to freeze Libya's foreign assets, with the exception of future oil earnings. Russian conservatives have long faulted the Russian leadership for supporting sanctions against Libya (and other countries) because these states were former allies of the Soviet Union and owe large debts to Russia. The current UN vote was postponed for one week, Western agencies reported. -Suzanne Crow KOZYREV DISCUSSES PEACEKEEPING. During talks in Moscow on 19 October with his Swedish counterpart and CSCE chairperson, Margaretha Af Ugglas, Kozyrev reiterated Russia's desire to intervene in the former Soviet Union to settle armed conflicts. Talks focused on the CSCE role in these matters, and Kozyrev voiced support for an expanded CSCE role, while at the same time stressing Russia's desire to bring the conflict in Georgia under control. ITAR-TASS reported differences of emphasis in the talks, and Kozyrev described the discussions as having taken place in a "business-like manner," a phrase signaling potentially sharp disagreement. -Suzanne Crow GRACHEV ON GEORGIA, DOCTRINE, 4 OCTOBER. In the midst of a three-day visit to Finland, Defense Minister Pavel Grachev said on 19 October that Russia could not offer military assistance to Georgia because Georgia is not a member of the CIS or party to its Collective Security Agreement, Reuters reported. While agreeing that Russian, along with Azeri, Armenian, and Georgian troops might help secure the road to Tbilisi, Grachev said that any other Russian actions would be interpreted as interference in Georgian affairs. Grachev also told his Finnish hosts that Russia's draft military doctrine is virtually complete. He described it as purely defensive and, according to Helsinki Radio, gave a copy to the Finnish Defense Minister. Finally, in what may have constituted a response to criticism of the Defense Ministry voiced a few days earlier by Yeltsin aide Dmitrii Volkogonov, Grachev said that the army had intervened at precisely the right moment during the 3-4 October events in Moscow, Reuters reported. Volkogonov had stressed the army's reluctance to take action. -Stephen Foye MORE ON NUCLEAR WASTE DUMPING NEAR JAPAN. Japanese Foreign Minister Tsutomu Hata telephoned his Russian counterpart, Kozyrev in the early morning hours of 20 October to warn Russia against conducting a second dumping of liquid nuclear wastes in the Sea of Japan, AFP and Reuters reported. Hata, who called for an early convening of a bilateral working group tasked with studying the issue, suggested that recently improved bilateral relations could suffer if Russia proceeds with its plans. Japanese authorities also suggested that they might be willing to release part of $100 million promised earlier to aid Russia's nuclear disarmament efforts to help dispose of the nuclear waste. Meanwhile, Russian TV's "Vesti" reported on 19-October that the Russian Pacific Fleet could no longer store the dangerous liquid wastes and that a facility designed to dispose of them was not expected to be functional for some ten years. A Russian official said that the liquids are currently being stored in thirty-year-old tankers and warmed that an accident could occur. He said another dumping was planned. -Stephen Foye TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA DIPLOMATIC REACTIONS TO GEORGIAN CRISIS. The forces of ousted Georgian president Zviad Gamsakhurdia are only 15 miles west of Kutaisi, which is poorly defended by Dzhaba Ioseliani's Mkhedrioni, according to The New York Times of 20 October; Gamsakhurdia's troops also captured Shevardnadze's home town, Lanchkhuta, on 19 October, Iberia reported. On 19 October Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev responded to Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze's plea for military aid by suggesting that Russia, in conjunction with other CIS member states, should safeguard transport on the Poti-Tbilisi road, Western agencies reported. Also on 19 October, the UN Security Council reaffirmed support for Georgia's territorial integrity and condemned Abkhaz violations of the 27 July ceasefire and human rights violations, according to an RFE/RL correspondent. -Liz Fuller RAFSANJANI IN TASHKENT. Iranian President Ali-Akbar Rafsanjani began his state visit to Uzbekistan-the first stop on his tour of four Central Asian countries and Azerbaijan-on 18 October by appealing for calm and stability in Central Asia, Reuters reported. Speaking at a news conference after what he termed "fruitful" talks with Rafsanjani, Uzbek President Karimov stated that Uzbekistan would open an embassy and chamber of commerce in Tehran, and that agreements had been signed on cooperation in mining and for joint oil and gas prospecting. Karimov also called on Iran to help mediate an end to the fighting in Tajikistan, according to AFP of 19 October quoting IRNA. Three members of the Uzbek opposition movement Birlik have been warned not to leave their homes for the duration of Rafsanjani's visit, an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 19 October. Liz Fuller NAZARBAEV IN CHINA. On 18 October, the first day of his visit to the PRC, Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbaev held talks with his Chinese counterpart Jiang Zemin on political, trade and economic cooperation; they also agreed to set up a group of experts to discuss nuclear testing sites in their respective countries, ITAR-TASS reported. The two presidents subsequently signed a joint declaration on the basis for mutual relations and various other agreements. On 19 October Nazarbaev discussed with Premier Li Peng long-term cooperation in the spheres of power engineering, metallurgy and agriculture and improving transport links. -Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE UKRAINE ADOPTS MILITARY DOCTRINE. Ukraine's parliament met in closed session on 19 October to debate security issues. According to Western agencies, the parliament approved a military doctrine which makes nuclear disarmament conditional on Western security guarantees. During a break in the session President Leonid Kravchuk told reporters that Ukraine will ratify START-1, eliminating 130 SS-19 missiles, but added that this does not cover the 46 SS-24 missiles also located in Ukraine. Ukraine's nuclear status thus remains unclear. The parliament also decided to reduce the number of soldiers in the Ukrainian armed forces to 450,000 by 1995. The current size of the armed forces has been estimated at from 525,000 to over 700,000, making it the second largest army in Europe, after Russia's. Ukrainian sources have not confirmed the adoption of the doctrine. -Ustina Markus KRAVCHUK BLAMES WEST FOR DISARMAMENT DELAY. Kravchuk has accused the West of not helping Ukraine in its efforts to disarm, Reuters reported on 19-and 20 October. The parliament has repeatedly delayed ratification of START-1 because of inadequate security guarantees from other nuclear powers and inadequate financial assistance in dismantling the nuclear weapons. Kravchuk told reporters that, as a result, the country has no alternative but to keep some nuclear weapons on its territory, although he reiterated Ukraine's intention to ratify START. The criticism comes just before a visit by US Secretary of State Warren Christopher to Ukraine. -Ustina Markus KIEVANS ON UKRAINE'S NUKES. Ukrainian television on 14 October reported the results of an opinion poll on Ukraine's nuclear status conducted in Kiev by the Center for Democratic Initiatives and the Institute of Sociology of Ukraine's Academy of Sciences. The poll showed that 22% of Kievans are categorically opposed to having nuclear weapons in Ukraine; 27% want to keep the weapons until Ukraine receives adequate security guarantees from the international community; 33% feel Ukraine should declare itself a nuclear power and simultaneously promote an initiative for complete universal disarmament. -Ustina Markus PRISONER EXCHANGE, ARRESTS IN BOSNIA. Radio Croatia and international media report on 19 October that an exchange of 6,000 Croat and Muslim prisoners has begun under the auspices of the Red Cross and UNPROFOR. About 1,000 prisoners have so far been exchanged. Meanwhile, Radio Croatia charges, quoting local radio reports from Cazinska Krajina (the "Bihac Pocket"), that Bosnian government troops have arrested more than 750-people loyal to Fikret Abdic, who declared the region autonomous last month. Reports also allege that Bosnian government troops have tortured arrested civilians. Bosnian army officials have accused Abdic and his followers of working in alliance with the political and military leadership of the Bosnian Serb Republic. -Milan Andrejevich BALKAN CONFERENCE PROPOSAL SPURNED. Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic has rejected a proposal by Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic to convene a Balkan conference to deal with Bosnia, Croatia, and Kosovo, and said he prefers to continue negotiating the stalled Owen-Stoltenberg plan to partition Bosnia. On 19 October Ivica Dacic, a spokesman for Serbia's ruling Socialist Party (SPS), accused Washington of applying a "double standard" in renewing threats to bomb Bosnian Serb positions and complained that "Serbia is again being singled out as the scapegoat." Dacic also ruled out the convening of an international conference on the crisis in the former Yugoslavia. He argued that such a meeting would meddle in Serbia's internal affairs, in which he included the future status of the predominantly Albanian province of Kosovo. Zoran Djindjic, a leader of Serbia's opposition Democratic Party, remarked that such a conference would only be a forum for expressing conflicting viewpoints. -Milan Andrejevich ISTRIAN AUTONOMY MOVEMENT SPREADING? THERE ARE SIGNS THAT AN AUTONOMY MOVEMENT IN SLOVENIAN'S ISTRIAN PENINSULA IS SPREADING, ACCORDING TO SLOVENIAN MEDIA REPORTS ON 18 AND 19 OCTOBER. Radio Koper reported that the Istrian autonomy movement, backed by the minority Italian population in both the Croatian and Slovenian regions of the peninsula, are stepping up their campaign to create a separate state entity with strong reliance on neighboring Italy. The moderate Istrian Democratic Assembly (IDS) and the more radical Community of Italians are seen as the driving forces behind such efforts. Radio Serbia quotes a spokesman for the IDS as saying that the Croatian government is trying to change the demographic make-up of Istria by forcing minorities to emigrate and resettling those areas with displaced Croats from Serb- controlled areas in Croatia. -Milan Andrejevich YELTSIN SNUBS SNEGUR. On an official visit to Moscow on 18-19 October, Moldovan President Mircea Snegur failed to obtain a meeting with Yeltsin and managed only to hold economic talks with Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin. Hoping to capitalize on the involvement of Dniester communist fighters in the Moscow rebellion and on the vocal support which he himself and Moldova had expressed for Yeltsin throughout that and other crises, Snegur had intended to raise with Yeltsin the question of the withdrawal of Russian troops from Moldova, the political resolution of the Dniester issue, the fate of Moldovan detainees in Tiraspol, and other pressing matters. Instead, Snegur was told on the second day of his visit that Yeltsin was indisposed and could not see him, Moldovan officials told the RFE/RL Research Institute. This appears to be the strongest in a series of signals from Moscow that Dniester involvement in the Moscow rebellion is not affecting Russian policy toward Chisinau and Tiraspol. -Vladimir Socor RUSSIAN ECONOMIC SUPPORT TO "DNIESTER REPUBLIC". Deputy Prime Minister Nikolai Kiba told the Supreme Soviet in Tiraspol on 19 October, as reported by Basapress, that Russia had delivered 35 billion rubles worth of fuel and raw materials to the "Dniester republic" in the first 9 months of 1993. The deliveries are being handled by Russia's state firm Rosskontrakt and are covered by credits extended earlier, Kiba said. He stressed that the deliveries continue on schedule. The "Dniester republic" from time to time discloses isolated aspects of the various forms of economic support it receives from Russia. Expectations in Chisinau and elsewhere that Russia would now cut off economic support in retaliation for the Dniester fighters' involvement in the Moscow rebellion are not being borne out. -Vladimir Socor SLOVAK PARTIES SIGN COALITION AGREEMENT. On 19 October Movement for a Democratic Slovakia Chairman Vladimir Meciar and his counterpart from the Slovak National Party, Ludovit Cernak, signed a coalition agreement, TASR reports. The agreement was also initialed by the chairmen of the parliamentary clubs of the MDS, Ivan Laluha, and of the SNP, Marian Andel. No details of the agreement were given. Meanwhile, Party of the Democratic Left Chairman Peter Weiss told TASR that he doubts the coalition "would improve the foreign political image of Slovakia." He also said relations between the PDL and the MDS will now change. Hungarian Christian Democratic Movement Chairman Vojtech Bugar said the coalition "will not solve the problems on the Slovak political scene" and that "it is not clear whether all representatives of the SNP will support the MDS." -Sharon Fisher SLOVAK PRESIDENT VETOES CHURCH RESTITUTION BILL. On 19 October Michal Kovac returned the bill on restitution of church property to the parliament for renewed discussion, TASR reports. The bill, which was passed by the parliament on 29 September, was based on a proposal approved by the cabinet on 20-July. Although Kovac expressed agreement with the cabinet's proposal, he said he does not approve of some of the amendments included in the parliament's version. He said the bill passed by the parliament includes a clause that the Church would receive buildings presently owned by the state, by individuals who are financially supported by local administrations, or by cooperative farms. The bill says that this property should be returned without compensation, even if a private individual has bought the property. Kovac said this solution "is contradictory to the protection of ownership rights, which are anchored in the Slovak constitution" and thus demands that the state offer compensation to owners whose property is repossessed. -Sharon Fisher MECIAR'S PARTY NO LONGER AHEAD IN SLOVAKIA. For the first time since the June 1992 elections, when the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia won 37.3% of the popular vote in Slovakia, the MDS came in second place in an opinion poll, TASR reports on 19-October. A September poll carried out by the Journalistic Study Institute in Bratislava shows the Party of the Democratic Left in first place with 10.8%, the MDS in second with 10.2%, the Christian Democratic Movement in third with 7.3%, and the Slovak National Party in fourth with 5.6%. A total of 19.6% of respondents said they would not vote for any party. The results are significantly different from the September poll of the Slovak Statistical Office, which showed the MDS ahead with 15%, followed by the PDL with 12%, and the SNP and CDM both with 7%. -Sharon Fisher SLOVAK INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS. On 15 October the Statistical Office released industrial figures for the second quarter of 1993. In this period, employment in industrial sectors declined 6.1% compared with the same period last year. Employment in industrial firms with 25-or more employees shrank by 6.3%, while employment in industrial firms with fewer than 25-employees doubled. Of the employees in firms with fewer than 25 employees, 73.8% of were employed in private firms. The average monthly salary in Slovakia was 5,348-koruny, 22.1% higher than last year; in private firms it was 5,627 koruny, representing an increase of 25.1%. Gross profit of industrial firms remained unchanged compared with the same period last year. Exports to the Czech Republic fell 20% against last year's figures. -Sharon Fisher MAJORITY OF CZECHS OPTIMISTIC ABOUT THE ECONOMY. According to an opinion poll published by CTK on 18 October, 51% of the Czech population believes that the country's economic situation will improve over the next five years. The poll, conducted by the Center for Empiric Studies in September, revealed that 26% of the Czechs expect little or no change in their economic situation, while 23% expect a deterioration. It is predominantly older people and Czechs with a low educational background who are convinced that they will be worse off in five years. The Center for Empiric Studies conducted a similar poll among the deputies of the Czech Parliament. While 77 of the 150 legislators (including 19 members of opposition parties) expect improvement in the economy over the next five years, 10 responded that there will be no change, and 11 expect a deterioration in living standards. -Jan Obrman ROMANIAN CULTURE MINISTER RESIGNS OVER SEX SCANDAL. Culture Minister Petre Salcudeanu announced on 19 October that he is resigning over sexual harassment charges. In an interview with Radio Bucharest, Salcudeanu denied the charges but said that he will step down because of the damage they cause to the ministry. The alleged molestation of a female ministry employee, who reported it to the press, is being investigated by a parliamentary panel. Salcudeanu was appointed culture minister in late August. -Dan Ionescu ROMANIAN OPPOSITION SUBMITS NO-CONFIDENCE MOTION. On 19 October Romania's opposition called a parliamentary no-confidence debate on the minority left-wing cabinet headed by Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu. The motion was officially submitted by the Democratic Party-National Salvation Front, led by former Premier Minister Petre Roman, and was joined by parties from the Democratic Convention of Romania. It argues that the cabinet violated the constitution by failing to have four new ministers, appointed on 28-August, endorsed by the parliament; and mentions the "scandalous conduct of some ministers," including Salcudeanu. The motion further asks Iliescu to designate a new prime minister. This is the third no-confidence motion this year. The previous two failed. The government's alliance of leftist and nationalist parties has a slim majority in the parliament. -Dan Ionescu POLISH BISHOPS ASSESS ELECTIONS. The Polish bishops' conference met in Warsaw on 15 October to discuss the "difficult and complicated situation" arising from the victory of left-wing parties in the recent elections. In a communique carried by PAP, the bishops said they respect the election results but hope that the new coalition will use its majority position to continue political and economic reform. They urged the coalition parties to recognize that other parties, both in and outside the parliament, received nearly two-thirds of the total votes. The bishops expressed their readiness "to cooperate, in accordance with the principle of the independence and autonomy of Church and state, in all matters serving the individual and the common good." At the same time, they warned that the Church will not take a neutral stance on moral questions, especially abortion, and called on the parliament to respect the Church's "right" to a presence in politics, schools, and the mass media. In remarks to Polish TV, Bishop Tadeusz Pieronek disassociated the Church from any responsibility for the defeat of right-wing parties in the elections. -Louisa Vinton ESTONIAN ELECTION RESULTS EXPECTED TODAY. Baltic media report that the final results of the Estonian local elections held on 17 October are expected to be announced on 20-October. Early results suggest a defeat for both the parties in the ruling parliamentary coalition and the opposition forces led by Edgar Savissaar. Russian moderates also appear to have made a strong showing. Irregularities were noted in Kohtla-Jaerve during the elections, but the city's election commission decided they were not so serious as to necessitate holding new elections. -Dzintra Bungs MORE ON RUSSIAN TROOPS IN LATVIA, ESTONIA. Col. Gen. Leonid Mayorov of Russia's Northwestern Group of Forces and Estonian Minister for Roads and Communication Andi Meister signed a document on 19-October in Tallinn completing the turnover to Estonia of the property of the Russian military's hydrographic service in that country, Baltic media report. According to Latvian President Guntis Ulmanis, Russia is eager to keep control over the Skrunda radar until 2003 and may agree to the speedy withdrawal of its forces from Latvia if Latvia acquiesces on this point. Ulmanis said a compromise is needed but expressed misgivings about Russia's maintaining military facilities on Latvian territory, given that such facilities paved the way for Latvia's annexation by the USSR in 1940, Diena reported on 19-October. -Dzintra Bungs LATVIAN RUBLE PHASED OUT. As of 18 October, the lats is the sole official currency in Latvia, Baltic media report. This means that the Latvian ruble, introduced in May 1992 as an interim currency in the gradual changeover from the Soviet ruble, is no longer accepted as legal tender. -Dzintra Bungs HUNGARIAN PROSECUTOR ORDERS PROBE OF 1956 SHOOTINGS. On 19 October, the Chief Prosecutor's office ordered an investigation opened into shootings that occurred during the 1956 revolution, MTI reports. Security police shot randomly into defenseless crowds in Mosonmagyarovar and Budapest in 1956. An earlier investigation was halted by the military court because the statute of limitations had expired. A ruling by the Constitutional Court this week made the reopening of the investigation possible. The court ruled that both the Geneva Convention and international legal practice permit the prosecution of atrocities committed during the 1956 revolution. -Judith Pataki EXCESSIVE DEMANDS HAMPER BULGARIAN LAND REFORMS. On 19 October officials announced that a government program designed to restore state lands to pre-communist owners was being adversely affected by inflated claims. According to an agriculture ministry report, former owners have staked claims to 35,000 more hectares of land than actually exists. The ministry report maintains that some courts, which have allegedly not investigated claims satisfactorily before making awards, have played a large role in creating the current problems. Georgi Khinchev, an agriculture ministry representative, said that to date slightly more than 28% of all lands claimed have been returned to their rightful owners. Reuters carried the story. -Stan Markotich [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Stephen Foye and Louisa Vinton THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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