|Everyone knows it is much harder to turn word into deed than deed into word. - Maxim Gorky|
No. 201, 19 October 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA RUSSIA TO DUMP MORE NUCLEAR WASTE IN SEA OF JAPAN. Amid growing outrage in Japan over the dumping of some 900 cubic meters of radioactive liquid waste off the Japanese coast on 17 October, Russian officials announced on 18 October that Moscow intended to dump another 800 cubic meters into the same area sometime before 15 November, AFP reported. According to Reuters on 18 October, Russian Environmental Ministry officials said that financial difficulties involved in storing the waste had driven Russia to conduct the dumping; they suggested that Japan's failure to provide Russia with technical aid had left them with little choice. Officials also claimed that the dump had been planned in September, and that the Foreign Ministry had been asked to notify Japan. Tokyo has denied being informed. On 18-October, The New York Times reported. Russia's ambassador to Japan received a statement of strong regret from the Japanese Foreign Ministry. The newspaper also noted the apparent "brazenness" of the dumping operation. Experts have said that the dumping does not constitute an environmental danger. -Stephen Foye TRAVKIN FORMS BLOC . . . The Democratic Party of Russia has published a list of its candidates for parliamentary elections, Ostankino TV "Novosti" reported on 15 October. The list is headed by the party's leader, Nikolai Travkin, followed by the well-known patriotic film maker Stanislav Govorukhin, economist Oleg Bogomolov, and former Justice Minister Nikolai Fedorov. By allying himself with Govorukhin, a strong critic of President Boris Yeltsin, and Bogomolov, a former economic consultant to ex-parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov, Travkin seeks to gain support from more conservative voters. -Alexander Rahr . . . AS DOES YAVLINSKY. Economist Grigorii Yavlinsky, who himself intends to run for president, has formed his own bloc for parliamentary elections, Kommersant daily reported on 16 October. Apart from Yavlinsky, the bloc is led by former presidential chief inspector Yurii Boldyrev and Russian ambassador to the US Vladimir Lukin. The leadership of the liberal Republican Party has also decided to join Yavlinsky's bloc and has left the Democratic Russia Movement. The leader of the democratic bloc "Russia's choice", Egor Gaidar, tried in vain to save the alliance with the Republican Party. But Yavlinsky suffered a major defeat when Konstantin Zatulin, the head of the powerful association "Entrepreneurs for new Russia" departed from Yavlinsky's group to the newly created party of Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai; Zatulin accused his former ally of populism. -Alexander Rahr STANKEVICH ON SHAKHRAI'S PARTY. Presidential advisor Sergei Stankevich told ITAR-TASS on 18 October that the Party of Russian Unity and Concord of Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai will cooperate with the other democratic bloc-"Russia's choice." Stankevich, who has joined Shakhrai's party, said that the new party will attempt to integrate the interests of the various regions and to develop a unified conception of the Russian state. He stated that Shakhrai's party will represent the "real interests" of the Russian regions. Stankevich also said that Shakhrai may become a serious contender for the presidency in "about eight to ten years." -Alexander Rahr CHRISTIAN DEMOCRATS ANNOUNCE CANDIDATES. The opposition Russian Christian Democratic Movement has announced the top three candidates on its electoral list. The first place will go to the party leader, Viktor Aksyuchits, a deputy in the dissolved parliament. Two more places have been offered to the ex-chairman of the Constitutional Court, Valerii Zorkin, and onetime Olympic champion turned nationalist activist, Yurii Vlasov. The party will fight under the slogan "national consent" on a platform of "social justice, socially-oriented market reforms, and restoration of traditional values," Aksyuchits told a press conference on 18-October, Reuters and Interfax reported. Aksyuchits also said that President Yeltsin had acted illegally in dissolving the parliament, and that his rule was becoming "an anti-communist dictatorship." -Wendy Slater EDITOR OF NEZAVISIMAYA GAZETA IN JEOPARDY? THE ANCHOR OF THE SHOW "POLITBURO" (BROADCAST ON OSTANKINO TELEVISION ON 15 OCTOBER) HAS ALLEGED THAT AUTHORITIES ARE TRYING TO REPLACE VITALII TRETYAKOV AS CHIEF EDITOR OF THE LIBERAL NEWSPAPER, NEZAVISIMAYA GAZETA. Along with many other media organs, Nezavisimaya gazeta was founded in 1990 by the Moscow City Soviet after democrats won a majority of seats in that body. However, after the Moscow City Soviet was disbanded by Yeltsin's decree of 5 October, "Politburo" claimed, those publications that had supported the Russian president absolutely, such as the daily Kuranty and the weekly journal Stolitsa, were allowed to reregister as the property of their editorial collectives. The staff of Nezavisimaya gazeta, which has criticized Yeltsin from a liberal perspective, was refused permission to do this. Instead, authorities have threatened to reregister Nezavisimaya gazeta as a publication of the office of Moscow Mayor Yurii Luzhkov; it would thus share the fate of the parliamentary daily Rossiiskaya gazeta, whose editor was replaced and whose editorial policies were changed following Yeltsin's 21 September decree disbanding the parliament. -Julia Wishnevsky PRAVDA JOURNALISTS APPEAL TO YELTSIN. On 18-October journalists of Pravda asked President Yeltsin to reverse the decision of the Russian Information Ministry that required Pravda to reregister under a new name, replace its chief editor, and change its editorial policy. The journalists called the decision "immoral" and "a totalitarian whim" which could lead to the persecution of dissidents, an RFE/RL correspondent in Moscow reported. Pravda was first suspended from publication on 4 October on the alleged grounds that it had supported the disturbances in Moscow on 3 October; later the Information Ministry permitted the newspaper to reregister under the above-mentioned conditions. -Vera Tolz BREAD PRICES DECONTROLLED. After a two-week delay and conflicting official pronouncements about further postponements, bread retail prices in most Russian cities were decontrolled on 15 October, Interfax reported. A state price committee official was quoted as saying that the price of the standard loaf would rise from about 137 rubles to about 250 rubles a kilogram. Grain subsidies are expected to continue through the end of the harvest season in many regions. Details of the flour and bread subsidies and of the bread allowance payable to poor Russians are given in The New York Times of 17 October. -Keith Bush MORE SUPPORT FOR THE ENERGY SECTOR. The Russian government intends to provide fresh loans and new privileges to the energy sector in coming months, Interfax reported on 15-and 18 October. The loan package includes 350 billion rubles to keep enterprises in the energy sector, which has been troubled by delinquent customer payments, operating, and another 400 billion rubles for investment. The government has also allocated 400 billion rubles for supplies-over half of the value of which are energy products-for communities in the Far North. The government will also subsidize fuel consumption of residences and public facilities to the tune of 60 billion rubles in the fourth quarter of this year. It is not clear how much of this financing was already envisaged in the current government's 1993 budget plan. Finally, President Yeltsin has issued a decree exempting oil and natural gas extracting companies from the mandatory sale of hard currency earnings to enable them to pay foreign creditors more easily. -Erik Whitlock BASHKORTOSTAN, UDMURTIA AGAINST APPOINTMENT OF PRESIDENTIAL REPRESENTATIVE. The presidium of the Bashkortostan parliament has issued a statement saying that the appointment of a representative of the Russian president to the republic could "lead to interethnic clashes, and hamper the holding of the elections and the course of constitutional reform in the republic," ITAR-TASS reported on 18-October. The statement said that republican leadership was "categorically against such an appointment." Radio Rossii reported on 17 October that a joint session of the presidium of the parliament and the council of ministers of Udmurtia had sent a message to Yeltsin saying that the appointment of a representative of the president to the republic could exacerbate the situation in the republic "inasmuch as it would be seen as a sign of distrust of its people and supreme organs of power." -Ann Sheehy TUVA TO ADOPT NEW CONSTITUTION. Radio Rossii reported on 17 October, citing Interfax, that the Tuvin parliament would adopt a new constitution shortly. The draft provides for a reform of the system of representative power. There will be a new one-chamber parliament called the Supreme Khural. The draft also states that, in the event of political crises in the Russian Federation, Tuva should adopt a stance of positive neutrality and all power on the territory of the republic should be transferred to the Supreme Khural and the government. -Ann Sheehy REPUBLICAN, REGIONAL LEADERS CAN STAND FOR ELECTION TO FEDERATION COUNCIL. According to Ekho Moskvy of 17 October, the Yeltsin administration has decided that republican presidents, heads of administration in the regions, and the heads of the executives of republics and regions can stand for election to the Federation Council after all. The radio said the original statute of elections for the Federation Council sent round earlier had been annulled, and a new one drawn by deputy prime minister Sergei Shakhrai and signed by the head of Yeltsin's administration Sergei Filatov was being sent out. -Ann Sheehy TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA YELTSIN AIDE SAYS SECURITY FORCES HESITATED. Yeltsin military aide General Dmitrii Volkogonov said on 17 October that Security and Defense Ministry leaders had indeed been slow in throwing their support behind Boris Yeltsin during the 3-4 October disturbances in Moscow. Speaking on Russian television (as reported by Reuter on 18 October), Volkogonov intimated that both ministries kept offering excuses on why they should not get involved until late into the night on 3 October; he confirmed that Yeltsin had to go to the Defense Ministry that same evening and suggested that the army's support came only after a "fairly harsh discussion took place." He said that Defense Minister Pavel Grachev had acted in a professional manner once the decision to use force was taken. Volkogonov also suggested that the parliamentary forces had come close to rallying some state structures to their defense. -Stephen Foye UPDATE: GEORGIA AND ABKHAZIA. On 18 October Radio Tbilisi quoted parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze as telling a gathering of intellectuals that Georgia's army "has practically disintegrated" and that Georgia could not regain control over Abkhazia without military help from Russia. Also on 18 October, Georgia's Ambassador in Moscow, Valerian Advadze, was quoted by ITAR-TASS as stating that Russian military officials have categorically ruled out the involvement of Russian troops in military operations against the forces of ousted president Zviad Gamsakhurdia in western Georgia. On the first day of UN-sponsored talks in Geneva on the Abkhaz situation, the Georgian delegation named two conditions for negotiations with the Abkhaz, namely, that the Abkhaz recognize Georgian sovereignty over Abkhazia, and that UN human rights investigators traveling to the region this week report promptly on their findings, Reuters reported. -Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE WALESA DESIGNATES PAWLAK AS PRIME MINISTER. President Lech Walesa designated Polish Peasant Party (PSL) leader Waldemar Pawlak as prime minister on 18 October, PAP reports. Earlier, Walesa accepted the resignation of Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka and her cabinet. Walesa told Polish TV that, of all four Solidarity governments, cooperation with Suchocka had been most smooth. Suchocka's caretaker government remains in power until Pawlak forms his cabinet and the government is officially named by the president. From that point, Pawlak has fourteen days to seek confirmation from the Sejm. Pawlak told a press conference that he may present his cabinet choices as early as the end of this week. Gazeta Wyborcza speculates that the Democratic Left Alliance has won control of the two deputy prime minister posts: for political matters (Wlodzimierz Cimoszewicz) and economic affairs (Marek Borowski), but the battle still rages over the finance, labor, and public administration posts. Pawlak refused all comment on specific cabinet choices, acknowledging only that two or three ministries may be staffed by the Union of Labor. -Louisa Vinton POLAND ON RUSSIA'S DRAFT DEFENSE DOCTRINE. Polish Defense Minister Janusz Onyszkiewicz responded on 18 October to fragmentary accounts of the draft defense doctrine prepared by Russian Defense Minister Gen. Pavel Grachev. According to Polish TV, the new doctrine assumes that Poland poses a greater security threat to Russia than either China or Japan. It proposes bolstering Russia's western border with the troops withdrawn from Poland, in order to forestall possible aggression from the West, and contends that Poland is building up military forces on its eastern border. The doctrine also reportedly recommends blocking Polish membership in NATO. Stressing that he is not acquainted with the doctrine itself, but only press reports on it, Onyszkiewicz said that Poland is not concentrating forces on its eastern border. Even after the current process of troop relocation is completed, only 30% of Polish forces will be stationed to the east, he said. He also stressed that Polish membership in NATO is a "sovereign decision for Poland and the alliance" as well as being in Russia's best interest. Walesa's national security adviser added that "it is hard to imagine how Poland could threaten great Russia in any way." -Louisa Vinton ESTONIAN LOCAL ELECTIONS DEEMED FAIR. Council of Europe observers reported that the local elections in Estonia held on 17 October were democratic and peaceful. They noted a few irregularities but said they were quite ordinary in democratic countries. The final election results have not yet been announced, but it appears that the Pro Patria party, which holds the most seats in the parliament, lost to various smaller parties and alliances in the cities of Tallinn, Tartu, and Narva, but made a good showing in Valga. The overall voter turnout was about 60%, with a higher percentage of participation by non-Estonian voters. -Dzintra Bungs YELTSIN OFFERS ESTONIA SUMMIT MEETING. Russian ambassador Aleksandr Trofimov delivered a message from Russian President Boris Yeltsin to Estonian President Lennart Meri on 18 October, proposing a "thoroughly prepared" summit. No date was proposed for the meeting of the two heads of state, Baltic media reported. In the message, dated 15 October, Yeltsin said that the pullout of Russian troops from Estonia is "on schedule." In fact, the two countries have not agreed on a timetable or a completion date for the withdrawal. Yeltsin also indicated that he wants to discuss the situation of Russians in Estonia. -Dzintra Bungs FINLAND CONCERNED ABOUT RUSSIAN TROOPS. Finnish Foreign Minister Heikko Haavisto told the press in Washington on 18 October that the pullback of Russian troops from the Baltic States has led to an increase of those troops near Finland's southern border with Russia, Western agencies reported. He also complained that the withdrawal of Russian troops from Estonia and Latvia is proceeding at a very slow pace and that this is a serious concern for Finland. Haavisto noted that while his country does not feel threatened, it is following closely all changes in the military capabilities in Finland's vicinity. Haavisto made these statements at a time when Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev was visiting his country and when Latvian-Russian talks on troop withdrawals were taking place in Moscow. -Dzintra Bungs LITHUANIAN DEFENSE MINISTER RESIGNS. Lithuanian President Algirdas Brazauskas announced the resignation of Defense Minister Audrius Butkevicius on 18 October. He explained that Butkevicius, a physician, wants to go to England for further training. Butkevicius told Baltfax that another reason for his resignation was that his concept of the role of the military and defense leadership differed from that of the parliament's national security committee, Baltfax reports. -Dzintra Bungs ROMANIA AND GERMANY SIGN MILITARY AGREEMENT. In an agreement signed in Bonn by the two countries' defense ministers, Germany pledged to support the reform process in Romania's armed forces, Radio Bucharest reported on 18 October. German Defense Minister Volker Ruehe said the agreement is to be seen from the perspective of opening NATO to former Warsaw Pact countries, although Romania's membership is not imminent. Nicolae Spiroiu, who heads a large delegation paying a two-day visit to Germany, called the agreement "historic" and said it aims at adapting Romania's armed forces to the standard of democratic armies. He added that Romania will strive for NATO membership when the time is right and when suitable conditions are achieved. -Michael Shafir AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL CRITICIZES ROMANIA OVER GYPSY KILLINGS. Amnesty International says Romania violated international human rights standards when its police abetted the slaying of three Gypsies in the Transylvanian village of Hadareni last month. In a communique that reached the RFE/RL Research Institute, the organization says police in the village handcuffed two of the victims and then allowed an angry crowd of Romanians and Hungarians to attack and beat them to death. The police also prevented firemen from reaching a home in which a third Gypsy burned to death, and took no action to prevent looting the homes of the Gypsies. Amnesty International protested against the incident in a letter to President Ion Iliescu, which called the slaying "a flagrant violation of the international human rights standards, to which Romania is a party." -Michael Shafir REFORMER MAY QUIT ROMANIAN GOVERNMENT. Minister of State for Economic Reform and Strategy, Mircea Cosea, says he will resign if he fails to win new loans for the country in negotiations with the IMF. Cosea, who was appointed to the job less than two months ago and who has the reputation of a reformer, told the daily Romania libera, as quoted by Reuters on 17 October, that the reforms cannot be carried out without an agreement with the IMF. He also warned that Romania may end up on the economic sidelines of Europe unless it speeds up its free-market reforms. "The red limit indicator is already flashing," he said. Cosea was Romania's chief negotiator in last month's talks in Washington with the IMF. The talks ended without agreement and the two sides will meet again in late October in Bucharest. -Michael Shafir POSSIBLE COALITION IN SLOVAK GOVERNMENT. Deputy Chairman of the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia Roman Kovac told TASR on 18 October that a coalition with the Slovak National Party is "not impossible" but that the agreement is subject to ratification by both parties' executives, which meet on 23 October. Although several Slovak papers speculated on possible shifts in the cabinet, Kovac said it is premature to speak about any changes. Chairman of the SNP Central Council Vitazoslav Moric said that in agreeing to a coalition, he is "acting for the benefit of the country." The MDS and SNP began talks in June, following shakeups in the MDS which left it with a minority government. By August, differences between the two parties seemed too great to resolve, and several opposition parties began to talk about early elections as a solution to the political stalemate. -Sharon Fisher SLOVAK PREMIER IN ROME. On 18 October Vladimir Meciar continued his three-day visit to Italy and the Vatican, TASR reports. The main event of the day was his meeting with Italian Premier Carlo Azeli Ciampi; the two spoke about bilateral relations, Slovakia's relations with NATO and the EC, as well as investment possibilities. During the discussions, Meciar "repeatedly stressed Slovakia's desire to join NATO." Meeting with Giorgio Napolitano, Chairman of the Lower House of the Italian parliament, Meciar was told that the joint entrance of the Visegrad nations into NATO is supported by the Lower House. -Sharon Fisher SLOVAK MINISTER OF CULTURE'S CHARGES REJECTED. The Municipal Court in Bratislava rejected charges brought by Dusan Slobodnik against Slovak poet Lubomir Feldek on 18 October, TASR reports. The charges were brought against Feldek after he told TASR on 30 June 1992 that "the Minister of Culture should not be someone with a fascist personal history." Slobodnik tried to convince the court that he was not a member of Hlinka's guards and did not take part in special military training in Sekule sponsored by the Nazis in the closing years of World War II, but the court ruled that his claims were not backed by sufficient evidence. Slobodnik's lawyers said he will appeal the ruling. -Sharon Fisher US AIR FORCE COMMANDER IN SLOVAKIA. US Air Force Commander General Merill McPeak visited Slovakia on 15 October, TASR reports. McPeak visited the air base at Kuchyna. Defense Minister Imrich Andrejcak said the visit aimed to "develop cooperation between the Slovak and US armies." -Sharon Fisher LEBED RETRACTS TRANSFER THREAT. Meeting on 16 October with Tiraspol constituents who recently elected him to the "Dniester republic's" Supreme Soviet, Lt.-Gen. Aleksandr Lebed, commander of Russia's 14th Army in Moldova, confirmed his decision to give up that mandate but retracted his threat, made the previous day, to apply to the Defense Ministry for a transfer out of Moldova. He said that he had made the threat "in a moment of irritation" over the Supreme Soviet's refusal to admit that Dniester fighters participated in the Moscow rebellion and to draw the political consequences. Vowing not to leave the "Dniester republic," Lebed called for the election of a new Supreme Soviet. -Vladimir Socor UKRAINIAN DEMOCRATS PREPARE FOR ELECTIONS. Ukrainian television on 16 October reported that 18 political parties, movements, and trade union organizations headed by Rukh have issued a joint declaration on cooperation during the parliamentary elections next March. Noting that it will be practically impossible for anti-communist organizations to put forth a single candidate in each electoral district, the groups decided to push for a proportional or mixed electoral system. The declaration is said to be open to all organizations with a "democratic orientation." -Roman Solchanyk KRAVCHUK SEEKING GERMAN SUPPORT FOR NEW SECURITY ARRANGEMENT. On the eve of an official visit to Germany, which begins on 22 October, Ukrainian president Leonid Kravchuk renewed his call for the creation of a new Central European security zone reflecting the new political realities of the post-Soviet era. Speaking on 18 October, Kravchuk also said that his country is ready to accept more ethnic Germans who want to settle in Ukraine from other parts of the former USSR. In other news, the Ukrainian parliament reconvened on 19-October to debate security issues and state television and radio. -Bohdan Nahaylo UKRAINE WANTS CHERNOBYL IN OPERATION. Ukraine's government will ask parliament to allow the Chernobyl nuclear power stations to continue operating after this year and lift the moratorium on building three other stations, Ukrainian television and Reuters reported on 17 and 18 October. The request is prompted by Ukraine's energy shortage. Kiev now owes Russia $2.5 billion for fuel supplies. The five nuclear power plants in Ukraine provide 30% of the country's energy needs, without which the fuel shortage would be even more acute. In October 1991 parliament ordered the closure of Chernobyl by the end of 1993 as a result of the 1986 catastrophe. Since then, however, authorities report that much work has been done to enhance safety and standards are now the same or higher than at other plants of the same type. It is uncertain how parliament will react to the request as many deputies object to lifting the ban, pointing to a series of incidents at nuclear plants over the past two years. -Ustina Markus BELARUS TO REGULATE HARD CURRENCY USE. The Belarus government is preparing to adopt strict measures regulating the use of hard currency by individuals, Radiefakt reported on 18 October. Among the measures under consideration is a ban on private individuals buying and selling dollars, German marks, and other convertible currencies. Under the new regulations individuals will only be able to obtain hard currency from state and commercial exchange offices. -Ustina Markus ALBANIAN PRESIDENT DEFENDS NEW PRESS LAW. The controversial press legislation passed by the Albanian parliament on 11 October was signed into law by President Sali Berisha on 18 October, according to an RFE/RL correspondent in Tirana. Albania's opposition parties had hoped that Berisha would not sign, as in the opinion of journalists and others it impedes freedom of the press. In a conference on 18 October, Berisha noted that a recently conducted opinion poll shows that a majority of those consulted do not trust the press in Albania and feel the country clearly needs such a law. Journalists and others mounted a two-day strike to protest the law. -Robert Austin and Duncan Perry ALBANIAN LEADER RESIGNS. Vecer reported on 18-October that Mithat Emini, General Secretary of the Party for Democratic Prosperity, the largest ethnic Albanian political party in Macedonia, resigned on 16-October. He had been accused of being too "soft" in pressing for greater rights for Albanians in Macedonia. The PDP is planning to have a party congress in early November and will presumably replace Emini at that time. The significance of this change is unclear, although a more hard-line replacement is likely to be chosen, further straining negotiations between the government and ethnic Albanian leaders. -Duncan Perry SERBIAN NO-CONFIDENCE VOTE ON HOLD. Serbia's parliament will resume debate next week on a motion of no confidence in the Socialist government of Nikola Sainovic. The delay comes because parliamentary committees meet on 19 October to prepare for a session of the Yugoslav federal parliament that opens on 20-October. The Serbian Radical Party (SRS) introduced the no-confidence motion on 7 October. After six days of debate marked by mutual recrimination, several other opposition parties said they will support the SRS unless Serbia's interior minister resigns. Borba on 19 October quotes a leading Socialist Party official as saying the party is looking for ways of reconstructing the government. There is speculation that Oskar Kovac, a prominent economist and respected former federal deputy prime minister, might be asked by the Socialists to form a new government. -Milan Andrejevich SANDZAK VIOLENCE WORRIES OFFICIALS. Radio Serbia reports that a violent clash at a soccer match in Novi Pazar on 10 October, resulting in 30 arrests, has worried Serbian officials about the potential consequences of worsening relations between local Muslims and Serbs. At a match between Novi Pazar and Pristina, some Novi Pazar fans, mostly Muslims, chanted anti-Serb slogans and unfurled the flags of Turkey and the Party of Democratic Action (SDA), the main Muslim party in the Sandzak and Bosnia. Local SDA officials charged that the presence of the Pristina club's president, federal parliamentary deputy and Serb paramilitary leader Zeljko Raznjatovic, provoked the demonstration. Yugoslav soccer officials blamed Serb fans for the disturbance, but Raznjatovic disputed these claims. Several international organizations and the SDA have long complained of human rights abuses by Serb paramilitary units in the Sandzak. Sandzak Muslims make up just over half of the region's population. -Milan Andrejevich [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Stephen Foye and Louisa Vinton THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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