|In the effort to give good and comforting answers to the young questioners whom we love, we very often arrive at good and comforting answers for ourselves. - Ruth Goode|
No. 198, 14 October 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA YELTSIN DENIES CHANGE IN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION DATE. Russian President Boris Yeltsin, who returned to Moscow on 13 October after his official visit to Japan, was quoted by Ekho Moskvy as angrily denying speculation by several of his own advisers that the date of the presidential elections might be brought forward to 12 December to allow presidential and parliamentary elections to take place simultaneously. Yeltsin repeated that presidential elections will be held on 12 June 1994 and said he would not retain advisers who said otherwise, but he was nonetheless careful to add that the final decision on the election date will rest with the Federal Assembly-the new parliament that is to be elected on 12 December. -Elizabeth Teague YELTSIN AIDES ON PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS. Presidential aide Petr Filippov told Reuters on 13-October that President Yeltsin should not run for early presidential elections, but stay in office until 1996-the date when his tenure officially expires. Filippov said he hopes the new parliament would decide to cancel early presidential elections on the grounds that last April's referendum had already given Yeltsin the legitimacy he needs. Another close Yeltsin associate, First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko, said that five polls should be held on the 12 December election date: one for the Duma, one for the Federation Council, one for local legislative bodies, one for president and one on the new constitution. -Alexander Rahr MORE ON PREPARATION FOR ELECTIONS. The list of 91 organizations, permitted to take part in the parliamentary elections in December was published by Kommersant-daily on 13-October. Of the 91 organizations, 35 are individual political parties and 56 are blocs uniting several parties and movements. The overwhelming majority of the organizations on the list are of democratic, pro-Yeltsin orientation. The main centrist blocs to participate in the elections are the Civic Union and the Entrepreneurs for New Russia. Only six opposition groups are allowed to take part in the elections. Among them are two small communist groups, the Christian Democratic Movement and Vladimir Zhirinovsky's Liberal Democratic Party. In an interview with RFE/RL on 13 October, a leader of the Christian Democratic Movement, Viktor Aksyuchits, predicted that the opposition would receive a very few seats in the new parliament, not only because the most influential groups like the National Salvation Front and the Russian Communist Party are banned, but also because those opposition groups which are allowed to take part in the elections cannot coordinate their activities and form a bloc. -Vera Tolz "POWER STRUCTURES" WANT TO HARDEN PRESIDENTIAL RULE. Yurii Baturin, presidential counsellor on juridical questions, told Ekho Moskvy on 13-October that he fears that the "power structures" in the Russian executive are putting pressure on President Yeltsin to tighten presidential rule. He criticized a project "On Measures to Secure Law and Order for the Period of the Gradual Implementation of Constitutional Reform" which will be presented for the president's approval and which, according to Baturin, violates the Constitution and Yeltsin's own decree of 21 September on the "Gradual Implementation of Constitutional Reform." He said it will give authorities the right to keep suspects up to 30 days in jail without courts' approval and lift the immunity of former deputies, judges and procurators. -Alexander Rahr RUSSIAN PULLOUT FROM KURILS DENIED. A Japanese Defense Agency officer on 13-October, apparently commenting on a remark made earlier by Boris Yeltsin, denied that Russian ground forces on the Kuril Islands have been halved, the Nihon Keizai Shimbun reported. The Japanese officer said that intelligence reports suggested that the number of troops on the islands had remained constant, at roughly 9,000. In remarks to the press on 13-October, Yeltsin reaffirmed that a full military withdrawal was a precondition for reaching a settlement on the islands, a position that may not be warmly embraced by the Russian military High Command. In another sign of potential disharmony between the two sides, Japan's Finance Minister was quoted by Kyodo on 13 October as saying that Tokyo was holding firm to its insistence that the issue of economic aid to Russia not be separated from resolution of the territorial question. -Stephen Foye RUSSIAN, JAPAN SIGN ECONOMIC DECLARATION. Among the official documents signed by President Yeltsin and Japanese Prime Minister Hosokawa on 13-October was an economic declaration on the prospects for bilateral economic and scientific-technical relations, Reuters and ITAR-TASS reported. The declaration called for the promotion of mutually beneficial economic ties of various sorts, including: Japanese support of Russia's effort to build a market economy; increased bilateral collaboration in specific industries and in biological and economic conservation measures in the North-West Pacific; and cooperation within the international economic and financial community. -Erik Whitlock REGIONAL SOVIETS UPDATE. Regional soviets are continuing to react to Yeltsin's decree calling for their abolition, Radio Moscow said on 13 October. The soviets in Irkutsk, Arkhangelsk and Vologda Oblasts were reported to have handed over their responsibilities to the local Yeltsin-appointed executive heads. The soviet in Rostov Oblast had refused to disband, and Kaliningrad Oblast soviet had postponed its decision. The soviet in Novosibirsk Oblast had reaffirmed its intention to continue functioning until fresh elections are held (for which no firm date has yet been announced). -Elizabeth Teague FEDERAL COMMISSION ON REFORM OF REPRESENTATIVE POWER PREPARING PROPOSALS. The Federal State Commission set up by Yeltsin to draw up proposals for the creation of new organs of representative power and local government in the regions is being chaired by Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai, ITAR-TASS reported on 13 October. Shakhrai had earlier objected to Yeltsin's plans for a radical reorganization of the system of soviets. Anatolii Sliva, a member of the commission, told ITAR-TASS that the commission had 20 members, including the heads of administration of Nizhnii Novgorod, and of Krasnodar and Krasnoyarsk krais, Moscow oblast, and the Evenkii autonomous okrug. The presidents of Kabardino-Balkaria, and the chairman of the parliaments of Chuvashia and Karelia are also included, although Yeltsin's decree only recommended the republics to follow suit. The commission was given until 15 October to come up with its proposals. -Ann Sheehy HELSINKI WATCH PROTESTS DEPORTATION OF CAUCASIANS AND CENTRAL ASIANS . The US-based human rights group, Helsinki Watch, and human rights campaigners in Russia have protested the deportation from Moscow in recent days of thousands of Caucasians and Central Asians, Western media reported. Under the state of emergency, the police have increased powers to search and detain people, and have detained more than 14,000 people without residence permits and deported almost 5,000, most of them from the south, Reuters reported on 13 October. Human rights activists have charged that the police are abusing their powers, openly discriminating against those with dark skins. The police have denied the allegations, and claim that most detainees have links with the criminal world. -Ann Sheehy RUSSIA, US NEARING URANIUM AGREEMENT? REUTERS REPORTED ON 14 OCTOBER THAT THE US AND RUSSIA HAVE ALMOST COMPLETELY AGREED ON A $12 BILLION CONTRACT UNDER WHICH THE US WILL PURCHASE LOW-ENRICHED URANIUM THAT RUSSIA WILL REPROCESS FROM ITS NUCLEAR WEAPONS. The sales will take place over a ten year period. However the deal is being held up by disagreements on how to share the proceeds between Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Ukraine has been demanding that it be compensated not only for the strategic nuclear warheads to be withdrawn from its territory, but also for the tactical nuclear weapons withdrawn in the spring of 1992. At present Ukraine could stand to earn $2 billion from the deal, but if it were to receive compensation for the tactical warheads this sum could increase significantly. US Secretary of State Warren Christopher will reportedly press for finalization of the pact in a trip to Moscow and Kiev in late October. -John Lepingwell NO DECISION ON LENIN'S REMAINS. An RFE/RL correspondent in Moscow reported on 13-October that no decision has yet been reached on what to do with Lenin's embalmed remains. The authorities in St. Petersburg have said they are willing to bury Lenin next to his mother in the Volkogo cemetery there but, AFP said, such a move is not favored by church leader Metropolitan Ioann of St. Petersburg and Ladoga. Another suggestion is that Lenin should be buried in Simbirsk (Ulyanovsk), next to his father. -Elizabeth Teague LAND OWNERSHIP DECREE. A draft decree on agrarian reform lifting virtually all restrictions on land ownership has been prepared and is expected to be signed by President Yeltsin soon, Commonwealth TV reported on 13 October, according to Reuters. The government, it was said, "intends to provide private owners with the right to dispose of their land completely as they wish." Other recent reports suggest that the decree will remove the 10-year ban on land transactions imposed by parliament. It may, however, maintain restrictions on the purchase of land by foreigners. -Keith Bush TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA GEORGIA UPDATE. Georgia may cede to Russia control of some military bases in return for military help, Foreign Minister Aleksandr Chikvaidze told Reuters on 13 October. Fighting between Georgian government troops and forces loyal to ousted President Zviad Gamsakhurdia continued on 12-13 October around the town of Samtredia, Radio Tbilisi reported. On 13 October Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze issued a decree on creation of a National Guard subordinate to himself in his capacity as Commander-in-Chief of the Georgian armed forces, and that will be based in Kutaisi to coordinate its defense against Gamsakhurdia's troops, according to Radio Tbilisi. This places a large question mark over the status of the original National Guard commanded by former Minister of defense Tengiz Kitovani, whose performance in the recent Abkhaz fighting was not exactly illustrious. -Liz Fuller AZERBAIJAN ULTIMATUM OVER ARMENIAN WITHDRAWAL. Addressing the UN General Assembly on 12-October, the acting head of the Azerbaijani delegation, Yashar Aliev, said that the complete and unconditional withdrawal of Armenian forces from all occupied territory in Azerbaijan is an essential precondition for convening the CSCE Minsk conference on a settlement of the conflict, ITAR-TASS reported. Azerbaijan had earlier objected that the preliminary "timetable of urgent measures" drawn up by the CSCE contradicts the two UN resolutions (822 and 853) on Nagorno-Karabakh in that it stipulates preconditions for the Armenian withdrawal. -Liz Fuller TURKMENISTAN DENIES RUSSIAN REPORTS OF AFGHAN AIRRAID. On 13 October Turkmenistan's Minister of Defense Danatar Kopekov issued a statement denying Russian press reports that Afghan airforce planes had bombed Turkmen territory on 11 October, ITAR-TASS reported. Kopekov termed the reports "disinformation of a provocative nature"; the Turkmen press on 13 October published a statement by Afghanistan's Ambassador to the Russian Federation affirming that the Turkmen-Afghan frontier has been declared "a line of friendship and accord." -Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE POSTCOMMUNIST PARTIES FORGE COALITION IN POLAND. The former communist Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) and the Polish Peasant Party (PSL), a former communist ally, signed a coalition agreement on 13 October that clears the way for the formation of a new majority government. The coalition controls 303 of 460 seats in the Sejm and 73 of 100 seats in the Senate. A third potential partner, the Solidarity-origin Union of Labor (UP), pulled out of the coalition at the last minute, in a dispute over privatization policy and the degree to which the new government will be run by former communist party members. The new coalition hinges on a political bargain: the prime minister's post goes to PSL leader Waldemar Pawlak, while the SLD selects the Sejm speaker and takes control of the most important economic ministries. The coalition agreement calls for the continued construction of a market economy but with a more just distribution of the costs of reform. The adoption of a new constitution, preceded by a national referendum, is a priority. The coalition vows to choose ministers for their "professional and ethical" qualifications rather than party membership and to limit personnel changes in the state administration to a minimum. It pledges good will in its relations with President Lech Walesa, but stresses the need for "strict adherence to the terms of the constitution," a clause that hints at the coalition's determination to curb Walesa's powers. The new coalition declined to accede to President Lech Walesa's demand that it submit three prime ministerial candidates and on 13 October formally proposed that he appoint Pawlak. -Louisa Vinton PAWLAK PROPOSED AS PRIME MINISTER. Although Walesa's spokesman reiterated the president's demand for the names of three candidates shortly after the coalition agreement was signed, Walesa received Pawlak for an hour's meeting in the evening. Neither Pawlak nor the president had any comment afterward. Once viewed as one of Walesa's political pawns, Pawlak served as prime minister for 33 days after the fall of Jan Olszewski's government in 1992 but was then unable to build a majority coalition and had to give up the mission. The Polish constitution, revised after the Olszewski debacle, spells out clearly the process of forming a government, but its terms are geared more for a situation of parliamentary fragmentation than the existence of a clear majority. The president has fourteen days to appoint a prime minister and approve his cabinet; the Sejm then has fourteen days to confirm the new government in a confidence vote. If the Sejm rejects the president's choice, the initiative then passes to the parliament. Walesa could conceivably choose not to appoint Pawlak, but he does not have the votes to build an alternative. SLD leader Aleksander Kwasniewski insisted on 13 October that the coalition has not yet begun discussing the division of cabinet posts, but leaked lists of potential ministers have been appearing in the press for several days. Most predict that the crucial post of finance minister will go to the economist Grzegorz Kolodko. -Louisa Vinton NEW POLISH PARLIAMENT CONVENES. The newly elected Sejm convened at 10:00 on 14-October, PAP reports. President Lech Walesa delivered a short address in which he reminded the deputies that a large portion of the electorate supported parties that are not represented in the parliament. The Sejm leadership elections are to follow. The SLD voted on 13 October to nominate the economist Jozef Oleksy for the post of Sejm speaker; in a caucus ballot, Oleksy defeated Wlodzimierz Cimoszewicz by a vote of 123 to 78. The SLD also selected Kwasniewski as its floor leader. The Democratic Union (UD), now assuming the role of the largest opposition party, announced it will vote for Oleksy as Sejm speaker, in the expectation that the coalition parties will support an UD candidate for one of the deputy speaker posts. The PSL has proposed Jozef Zych for deputy speaker; the UP has nominated Aleksander Malachowski. Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka is also expected to submit the resignation of the outgoing government during the first session of the new parliament. The cabinet on 13-October approved the final version of its "state of the nation" report, a testament that cites sustained economic growth and privatization as the government's chief successes and the budget and trade deficits as the problems it could not solve. -Louisa Vinton UN WARNS OF WAR IN CROATIA. Cedric Thornberry, Civil Affairs Chief of UNPROFOR in the former Yugoslavia, told reporters in Belgrade on 13 October that "there are ominous signs of war" in Croatia. Thornberry stated that Croatian army and rebel Croatian Serb forces in the Krajina region may be mobilizing for renewed fighting in Serb-held areas of Croatia. He added there are clear signs of troop movements on both sides and that new minefields were being laid. UN monitors have reported increased shooting and shelling along the truce lines in the four enclaves in Croatia known as UN protected areas. Radios Croatia and Serbia and international media carried the report. -Milan Andrejevich ANOTHER AUTONOMOUS REGION IN BOSNIA? RADIO BOSNIA ON 12 OCTOBER REPORTED THAT THE MAYOR OF THE NORTHEASTERN BOSNIAN CITY OF TUZLA HAS DENIED REPORTS CLAIMING THAT SOME MUSLIMS WILL SOON PROCLAIM TUZLA'S AUTONOMY AND CHARGED THAT SUCH REPORTS ARE "DISINFORMATION" SPREAD BY THE CROATIAN AND SERBIAN MEDIA. In a letter to the Bosnian presidency and government, Mayor Selim Beslagic stated that Tuzla will continue to fight for the sovereignty of Bosnia-Herzegovina and resist any autonomy moves similar to the one carried out in the Cazinska Krajina by Fikret Abdic. Meanwhile, Radios Croatia and Serbia cite a report from the London-based Arabic-language newspaper Al-Hayah saying that Abdic has threatened to conclude a separate peace with Bosnian Serb and Croatian representatives if Bosnian President Alija Izet-begovic does not meet with him to discuss the ongoing strife between Muslims in Cazinska Krajina-otherwise referred to as the Bihac Pocket. Borba reports on 13-October that more government troops are defecting to Abdic's forces which continue to repel Bosnian Muslim government forces and quote Abdic as saying that "the so-called army of the so-called Bosnia-Herzegovina no longer exists." In central Bosnia, fighting between Bosnian Muslim and Croatian forces canceled a scheduled exchange of prisoners. -Milan Andrejevich SERBIA POLITICAL AND SANCTIONS UPDATE. A parliamentary debate over a no confidence motion proposed by the Serbian Radical Party (SRS) concluded a fourth day of heated exchanges. About 100 of the 140-deputies who are slated to take to the floor have presented their views. Debate continues on 14 October. The SRS is demanding the government's resignation, accusing it of mismanagement and corruption. The ruling Socialists (SPS) have countered with similar charges and underscore that the SRS demands are premature and can lead to widespread political and social instability. B92 radio estimates that the citizens of Serbia do not care about the parliamentary debate. According to one Belgrade resident, "we have had enough of words, we are apathetic because we are hungry." Radio Serbia, quoting government sources, says average monthly wages have dropped 90-percent in Serbia and Montenegro since the implementation of international sanctions in May 1992 and that Serbia will have "four million starving people" by the spring of 1994. -Milan Andrejevich CZECH REPUBLIC TO HAVE THREE INTELLIGENCE SERVICES. At its regular session, the Czech government agreed to limit the number of intelligence services to three, CTK reports on 13 October. Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus told journalists after the session that the government will prepare a draft law proposing the elimination of the Military Intelligence Service of the General Staff. The other three services, namely the Security and Information Service; the Office for International Relations and Information; and the Military Counterintelligence will, according to Klaus, remain. -Jan Obrman A THIRD OF CZECHS ARE CONCERNED ABOUT UNEMPLOYMENT. According to an opinion poll published on 13 October by CTK, over 36% of the respondents said that they are concerned about the prospect of unemployment. While 35.4% said that they are "absolutely not concerned," 28.7% of the Czech citizens asked in the poll said they are "rather not" concerned. The results of the poll revealed, however, that the fear of unemployment is considerably greater among Czech citizens who have a low educational background (42%); are over 45 years of age (47%); or live in towns or villages with less than 5,000 inhabitants (41%). In contrast to that, only 19% of college and university graduates indicated that they were concerned about losing their jobs. -Jan Obrman MECIAR OPENS A SUMMIT OF DANUBE COUNTRIES. Slovak media report that a summit of the prime ministers of so-called Danube countries started in Bratislava on 13 October. The three-day summit is chaired by Slovak Premier Vladimir Meciar. Various working groups are to discuss environmental protection, economic cooperation, cultural contacts, and tourism. The Association of Danube Countries was founded in 1990 at the initiative of the Prime Minister of Lower Austria as a working group of the countries and regions through which the Danube is flowing. Currently, the organization has 20 members. -Jiri Pehe HUNGARIAN CONSTITUTIONAL COURT RULING ON 1956 CRIMES. On 12 October, Hungary's constitutional court ruled that while the first paragraph of the Law on the Rendering of Justice, a statute dealing with the prosecution of certain war crimes and crimes against humanity committed during and after Hungary's October 1956 Revolution (passed by parliament in February 1993 but not yet promulgated), was unconstitutional, its second paragraph was applicable. Therefore, such crimes as defined in the valid part of the legislation do not fall under a statute of limitations. Justice Minister Istvan Balsai said the court's milestone ruling legitimized the government's law on the rendering of justice, not yet signed by President Arpad Goncz, and will enable judges and prosecutors to apply it in accordance with the provisions of the Geneva Convention on war crimes and crimes against humanity, Radio Budapest and Nepszabadsag reported on 13 October. Goncz must next send the law back to parliament for modification.--Alfred Reisch ILIESCU MISINTERPRETED, SPOKESMEN SAY. On 13 October Traian Chebeleu, a spokesman for Romania's President Ion Iliescu, expressed "perplexity" over a statement of the Hungarian Foreign Ministry criticizing a recent remark by Iliescu on Hungary's relationship with the Magyar minority in Romania. Radio Bucharest quoted Chebeleu as saying that Iliescu's remarks on "claims to political and organizational tutelage" referred not to Hungary but to "some political circles" in that country. A similar statement was made on the same day by a spokesman for the Romanian Foreign Ministry. The spokesman, Mircea Geoana, suggested that Iliescu's comments were misquoted and misinterpreted. In another development, Iliescu denied at a meeting with leaders of parties represented in Parliament that he ever described Romania's admission to the Council of Europe as a victory for the government and a defeat for the opposition. Romanian media said Iliescu made the comment at a press conference in Vienna on 9 October. -Dan Ionescu ROMANIAN CABINET HAILS MFN VOTE IN WASHINGTON. In a statement released on Radio Bucharest on 13 October, Romania's government hailed the vote in the US House of Representatives in favor of ratifying a bilateral trade agreement which includes restoration of the most-favored nation trade status. The decision, the communique said, was an acknowledgment of Romania's progress towards democratization. The cabinet expressed hopes that the US Senate would vote in a similar way. This would lead to "full normalization of Romanian-American relations," the statement added. Former communist leader Nicolae Ceausescu renounced the MFN status in 1988 just as Washington was about to suspend it over human rights violations in Romania. -Dan Ionescu COURT DISMISSES HUNGARIAN PREMIER'S COMPLAINT. On 11 October the Veszprem municipal court dismissed a complaint filed by Prime Minister Jozsef Antall against the political scientist Laszlo Lengyel, director of the Finance Research Co., MTI reports. In a June lecture in Veszprem, Lengyel had alleged that there was "complete corruption" in Hungary's public administration and that ministers and department heads could be "bought." The court, while reportedly admonishing Lengyel, ruled that his statement, whose exact wording could not be remembered by most witnesses, presented no significant danger to society.--Alfred Reisch BULGARIA PRAISED FOR PROGRESS TOWARDS DEMOCRACY. An RFE/RL correspondent said a report prepared last month and issued on 13 October by the US Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, or the US Helsinki Commission, observed that Bulgaria has made significant strides towards democratization. According to the Commission, Bulgaria "is evolving into a genuinely democratic state based on the rule of law" and democracy there is "developing strong roots." Furthermore, the Commission noted that Bulgaria's progress towards democracy "is exceeding the expectations" of those observers who, until recently, have seen the country "through the prism of being the Soviet Union's '16th republic'." Nevertheless, the Commission did suggest that progress, while significant and irreversible, was stronger in some areas than others. The Commission remarked that while the freedom of association is protected by law, this right, in practice has been restricted. The Commission, for instance, noted that political parties formed along religious and ethnic lines have been prohibited. -Stan Markotich BELARUS VIES FOR SEAT ON UN SECURITY COUNCIL. Speaking with journalists during his visit to Britain, Belarusian foreign minister Piotr Krauchanka said he hoped Belarus would be successful in its candidacy for a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council, Reuters reported on 13 October. Voting for five of ten non-permanent seats will take place on 29 October. Both the Czech Republic and Belarus are competing for the East European seat. According to Krauchanka, Belarus's voluntary renunciation of its nuclear status and its record on disarmament should help the country be successful in its bid for the seat. -Ustina Markus LEBED ON "DNIESTER" INVOLVEMENT IN MOSCOW REBELLION. In public statements on 11, 12, and 13 October in Tiraspol, Lt. Gen. Aleksandr Lebed, commander of Russia's 14th Army, accused the "Dniester republic's" Minister of State Security and Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs of having sent armed fighters to Moscow who defended the Supreme Soviet and participated in the rebellion there. Lebed urged that the two officials, Col. Vadim Shevtsov and Col. Nikolai Matveev, be dismissed and prosecuted, and warned that failure to do so "would be a serious blow to the republic's prestige" and might cause Russia to withhold economic support from the "republic." Lebed also claimed that the "Dniester republic's" other leaders were not aware of the dispatch of men and arms to Moscow. Lebed is a protege of Russia's Defense Minister, General Pavel Grachev, who played a major role in quelling the Moscow rebellion. Basapress, Radio Ekho Moskvy, ITAR-TASS, and Reuters reported the statements. -Vladimir Socor LITHUANIAN-RUSSIAN BORDERS DISCUSSED. A commission of Lithuanian and Russian representatives completed a two-day meeting on 13 October in Moscow on various issues concerning borders between their respective countries, BNS reported. The meeting focused on setting the boundaries between Lithuania and Kaliningrad; a few of the problems concerning sea borders were also discussed. The next meeting is to take place in early November in Kaliningrad. -Dzintra Bungs SWEDEN HELPS EQUIP ESTONIAN DEFENSE FORCES. On 13 October two Swedish warships loaded with winter uniforms, bicycles, and equipment for field kitchens and two field hospitals arrived in Tallinn. The equipment is part of Sweden's effort to boost the capabilities of the Estonian defense forces. The shipment did not include any weapons. In November, Swedish specialists are expected in Estonia to provide training in the use of the field hospital equipment, BNS reported. -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Liz Fuller and Stan Markotich THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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