|Our most basic common link is that we all inhabit this planet. We all breathe the same air. We all cherish our children's future. And we are all mortal. - John F. Kennedy|
No. 195, 11 October 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA YELTSIN TRIP TO JAPAN. Russian President Boris Yeltsin departed from Moscow on 11-October for what could prove to be a contentious three-day trip to Japan. On the eve of his departure, press agency reports indicated that some fifteen documents and agreements of various sorts were expected to be signed in Tokyo, but the two sides continued to joust over whether or not the key issue that has separated Tokyo from Moscow-the disposition of the Kuril Islands-would be on the agenda. Meanwhile, amid reports that Japanese leaders had viewed Yeltsin's recent crackdown in Moscow with more skepticism than their Western counterparts, AFP reported on 8 October that some sixty million Japanese had signed a petition calling for Russia to return the disputed Kuril Islands to Japan. The issue has been a divisive one in Russia as well, and Yeltsin has twice been forced to cancel trips to Japan because of it. -Stephen Foye YELTSIN DISSOLVES LOCAL SOVIETS. On 9 October, President Yeltsin issued a decree dissolving local (city, district and village) soviets throughout Russia, Russian Television reported. The decree does not apply to regional soviets and republican parliaments. In his decree, Yeltsin said local administrations, such as city mayors, would keep their jobs and assume the responsibilities of the local councils in Russia's cities and villages. The decree also orders the government to establish a federal commission to examine ways to create local representative bodies and encourage municipal self-government. The commission is to work out plans by October 15 for elections to new local legislatures. -Vera Tolz FILATOV COMMENTS ON ELECTIONS; NEW CONSTITUTION. The chief of the presidential apparatus, Sergei Filatov, said on 8 October that Russia's local and regional soviets would be given several days to decide whether they would comply with President Yeltsin's request that they disband themselves. (Prior to issuing the above-mentioned decree dissolving local soviets, Yeltsin suggested in a TV address to the nation on 6-October that those regional and local soviets that had opposed him during the latest crisis should voluntarily disband themselves.) The leadership of a number of soviets have already agreed to disband, while the others suggested this issue should be put to a referendum. Filatov did not specify what measures would be taken against those soviets which refuse to comply with Yeltsin's request. Filatov was also quoted on Russian Television as saying the president was considering holding a referendum on a new constitution simultaneously with the parliamentary elections in December. -Vera Tolz YELTSIN: FEDERATION COUNCIL TO BE ELECTED. Reuters and AFP reported on 11-October that President Yeltsin has issued a decree ordering elections to the proposed new upper house of the Russian parliament, the Federation Council. The elections, with each of the 88 regions to be represented by two deputies, are to be held December 12. Originally the Federation Council was to have at first consisted of the heads of the regional parliaments and executive branches, and it was to draw up a revised electoral law for the upper chamber of parliament. Yeltsin's aides have been hinting, however, that the composition of the Council would be changed because many of the regions sided with the Russian parliament during the recent crisis. John Lepingwell SOME REPUBLICAN PARLIAMENTS GOING ALONG WITH YELTSIN'S PLANS. There is no clear picture yet of how the republics are reacting to calls by Yeltsin to fall into line, hold early elections to their parliaments, and reorganize the local system of state power. Nikolai Medvedev, head of the department for territorial affairs in Yeltsin's administration, told ITAR-TASS on 10 October that five republics-Mordovia, Bashkortostan, Buryatia, Kabardino-Balkaria, and Komi-had failed to give satisfactory replies to demands that they reverse their decisions opposing Yeltsin's decrees. ITAR-TASS reported on 8 October that the leadership of Tatarstan had decided to reform the soviets at all levels. The Karelian parliament decided the same day to hold early elections-not later than June 1994-to the republican parliament and local government organs. It also decided that a referendum on reforming the organs of state power in the republic should be held on 12 December. -Ann Sheehy YELTSIN BANS RUTSKOI'S PARTY, COMMUNISTS. Following President Yeltsin's ban of the People's Party of Free Russia-which had been led by former Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi-the chairman of the Party, Vasillii Lipitsky, told The Los Angeles Times on 9-October that Yeltsin was now banning even "centrist parties" in order to neutralize rival parties for parliamentary elections. The leader of the banned Russian Communist Party, Gennadii Zyuganov, was quoted by The Guardian on 9 October as saying that communists would set up voters' clubs or put out support behind other sympathetic movements to participate in the elections. Zyuganov claimed that his party had been the strongest and most organized and therefore constituted a threat to democrats in the elections. -Alexander Rahr SOBCHAK RUNS FOR MOVEMENT OF DEMOCRATIC REFORMS. The Russian Movement of Democratic Reforms has decided to run for parliamentary elections as a separate bloc, Russian TV reported on 9 October. St. Petersburg mayor Anatolii Sobchak will head the candidate list of the Movement. In an interview with Bild am Sonntag on 10 October, Sobchak did not rule out the possibility that he may also run for president in 1994. But he called for a postponement of parliamentary elections until spring of 1994. Gavriil Popov, the leader of the Movement, said he will not run for parliament. The Movement intends to field 150 candidates for parliamentary elections, and may become a serious rival for the pro-Yeltsin bloc "Russia's choice". -Alexander Rahr STATE OF EMERGENCY EXTENDED. The state of emergency and curfew that were declared in Moscow on 3 October were extended on 9 October for a further eight days. They will now be in effect until 0500 Moscow time on Monday, 18 October, Reuters reported. The agency saw this as a sign that the situation in the Russian capital was still "far from normal" after the events of the previous three weeks. -Elizabeth Teague RUSSIA'S INDEPENDENT TV CHANNEL STARTS BROADCASTING. The first independent TV channel in Russia to produce its own newscasts started broadcasting on 10 October. It was set up by a group of reporters from the government TV company Ostankino. The group, which includes such well known TV journalists as Oleg Dobrodeev, Tatyana Mitkova and Leonid Parfenov, left Ostankino, saying they wanted more creative freedom than offered by Ostankino. A number of private businesses, including private banks, have invested money in the new TV channel. Organizers of the new channel signed an agreement with St. Petersburg Television, which leases it airtime. -Vera Tolz GRACHEV DEFENDED. Yeltsin press spokesman Vyacheslav Kostikov on 7 October rejected intimations in several Russian press reports (allegedly based on sources close to the Russian president) that Defense Minister Pavel Grachev had been reluctant to authorize the use of army units against proparliament forces on the night of 3-4 October. According to ITAR-TASS, Kostikov declared that he had been authorized by Yeltsin to say that Grachev's conduct had been exemplary. In a series of interviews, Grachev himself also denied the charges. In the most interesting, which was published by Komsomolskaya pravda on 10 October, Grachev also belittled the actions of Deputy Defense Minister Konstantin Kobets, who had been portrayed in the earlier press reports as the real organizer of the assault on the Russian "White House." -Stephen Foye DEFENSE MINISTRY MACHINATIONS? THE SAME KOMSOMOLSKAYA PRAVDA ARTICLE ALSO REPORTED THAT THE COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE RUSSIAN AIR FORCE, PETR DEINEKIN, HAD BEEN IN CONSTANT CONTACT UNTIL 4 OCTOBER WITH KHASBULATOV AND RUTSKOI, AND HAD INFORMED THEM FULLY OF WHAT HAD BEEN DISCUSSED AT MEETINGS OF THE RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTRY COLLEGIUM. A letter was also reportedly sent from several commanders to Yeltsin and Khasbulatov urging them to accept the "zero option" (simultaneous elections for President and parliament) as a way out of the existing political impasse. Deputy Defense Minister Boris Gromov was also said to have been in contact with Rutskoi. In separate comments, Grachev affirmed his awareness that at least some of these contacts were taking place, but he stressed that the military leadership had always remained loyal to Yeltsin. -Stephen Foye CIS GEORGIA TO JOIN CIS. Following the meeting of the three Transcaucasus leaders with Yeltsin on 8 October, Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze announced at a press conference that Georgia would become a member of the CIS, ITAR-TASS reported. Shevardnadze characterized this decision, which was apparently taken in response to crude economic blackmail ("if you want gas, oil, raw materials . . . then join the CIS") and must still be endorsed by the Georgian parliament, as "the last chance" to save Georgia from civil war and economic disintegration. The announcement was met with widespread shock and anger in Tbilisi, Reuters reported. -Liz Fuller TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA TRANSCAUCASUS LEADERS MEET WITH YELTSIN. Armenian President Levon Ter-Petrossyan, acting Azerbaijani President Geidar Aliev and Georgian parliament chairman Shevardnadze held two hours of frank discussions with Russian President Boris Yeltsin on 8-October on the complex situation in the Transcaucasus, ITAR-TASS reported. Agreement was reached on the need to coordinate efforts in conflict mediation with the help of international organizations, and on the deployment of Russian troops to restore rail links from the Black Sea to Tbilisi and to Armenia. -Liz Fuller CHANTURIA, GAMSAKHURDIA CALL FOR SHEVARDNADZE'S OVERTHROW. Georgian National Democratic Party leader Giorgi Chanturia termed Shevardnadze's decision to commit Georgia to CIS membership "suicidal", and vowed that his party would do everything to prevent it, AFP reported on 10-October. Speaking in the Mingrelian capital, Zugdidi, on 10-October, ousted President Zviad Gamsakhurdia likewise called for the overthrow of the "criminal junta" in Tbilisi, Reuters reported. On 9 October Georgian government troops launched a new offensive against the Black Sea port of Poti, which is held by Gamsakhurdia's forces; on 10 October they gave the rebels an ultimatum to withdraw from Poti by 1000 CET on 11 October. A Russian army commander in Georgia told Reuters on 9-October his troops would back the Georgian government if attacked by Gamsakhurdia's forces. -Liz Fuller TAJIKISTAN UPDATE. On 8 October six Russian border guards and six members of the peacekeeping force from Kazakhstan were abducted on the Tajik-Afghan border but were freed shortly afterward, Russian agencies reported. According to ITAR-TASS, Tajikistan's Foreign Ministry lodged a protest with the Afghan consul in Dushanbe, complaining that the abductions violated the August agreement between the governments of Tajikistan and Afghanistan on preventing such incidents. On 10 October ITAR-TASS reported that Tajikistan's Ministry of Internal Affairs was restricting access to those in possession of special passes. A ministry official said that the action was intended to prevent anti-government forces from entering the capital. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CROATIA SACKS TWO OFFICERS IN ATROCITIES INVESTIGATION. AFP reported on 9-October that the Croatian Defense Ministry has fired two commanders in the Gospic area in connection with the massacre of Serb civilians by retreating Croatian troops in September. From Zagreb The New York Times of 10 October quotes UN civilian affairs chief Cedric Thornberry as saying that the Croat-Serb conflict could explode at any time and is "in some ways, even more dangerous than that in Bosnia and Herzegovina." Security Council Resolution 871 passed on 4 October calls on Serbia-Montenegro not to help Croatia's Serb rebels holding about 30% of the republic's territory, but President Slobodan Milosevic of Serbia has said: "who can prohibit us from helping our brothers in Krajina?" Meanwhile, UNPROFOR commander Gen. Jean Cot told AFP on 8 October that he needs 4,000 more soldiers to carry out new tasks included in Resolution 871, but warns President Franjo Tudjman to be more patient in his expectations of what UNPROFOR can do. "Mr. Tudjman wants everything that benefits Croatia to be implemented tomorrow morning," Gen. Cot said. Croatia, however, waited over a year and a half in vain for UNPROFOR to implement the January 1992 Vance Plan and is now determined to get moving on key points, including the restoration of infrastructure links, the disarming of Serb rebels, and the return of refugees to their homes in safety. Finally, Reuters reported from Belgrade on 10 October that Serb insurgents beat up three UNPROFOR soldiers trying to stop Serb fighters from entering occupied Croatia. -Patrick Moore CROATIAN OPPOSITION PARTY TO CONTINUE LIMITED BOYCOTT OF PARLIAMENT. Vecernji list of 9-October quoted Croatian Social Liberal Party leader Drazen Budisa as saying that his faction, the largest in the opposition, would take part in parliamentary committee meetings and would draft legislation but would for now continue its boycott of the main sessions. The walkout by the Liberals and two regional parties last week was prompted by the ruling party's (HDZ) failure to include a new law on liberalizing radio and television on the legislative agenda. The regional parties are also angry at what they regard as Tudjman's and the HDZ's fundamental antagonism to regionalism, declaring the regional parties in effect to be enemies of the state. Vjesnik of 9 October quotes deputies from one of the two parties, the Istrian Democratic Party, as slamming the HDZ's treatment of them as "Bolshevik," adding that the regional parties did right to walk out in solidarity with the Liberals. Vecernji list of 9-October quotes parliament speaker Stipe Mesic of the HDZ's progressive wing as saying that the walkout was "no scandal" and simply a part of democratic political life. -Patrick Moore BUKOSHI OFFERS FREE ACCESS TO KOSOVO FOR SERBS. The Prime Minister of the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo, Bujar Bukoshi, repeated demands for the independence of Kosovo, The Washington Times reported on 9 October. He said that the Kosovar government would respect Serbian historic and religious monuments and offered free access to Serbs visiting the region. Meanwhile, there are, however, hardly any signs pointing toward either independence or even autonomy. The Serbian police continued raids on ethnic Albanians, whom they accused of planing an armed uprising, Politika reported on 8 October. Among those arrested since 20 September were scholars and former Yugoslav military officers, ATA said on 30-September. Bukoshi in The Washington Times called the raids "a new wave of repression," saying that 83 persons had been arrested within a single week by the Serbian security police. He charged Macedonia with effectively helping Serbia by requiring travelers from Serbia to carry rump Yugoslav passports, which, he continued, "the Serbs refused to issue" to ethnic Albanians. Since the "only outlet to the world ... is gone," he claimed that "this is the final stage of destruction of Kosovo's economy" and "ethnic cleansing is now in the open," adding that the police threatened to expel entire villages to make room for Serbs. -Fabian Schmidt FIKRET ABDIC BUILDS UP HIS POSITION. Politika of 10 October reported that more soldiers of the Bosnian army's Fifth Corps have gone over to the side of the maverick leader of the Bihac pocket. Abdic, meanwhile, continues to reject any negotiations that do not include his rival, President Alija Izetbegovic. Vecernji list on 9 October, moreover, reported that Abdic has joined the Muslim Democratic Party (MDS), which is smaller than Izetbegovic's Party for Democratic Action (SDA) but also more moderate in its national identification. The Zagreb daily went on to note that Tudjman and other top Croatian officials met with members of the MDS and its Croatian affiliate, and the Croatian media in general continue to give favorable and respectful coverage to Abdic. The Serbian press, for its part, tends to treat the developments in the Bihac pocket as a Muslim comic opera, and refers to Abdic by his popular nickname of "Babo," or "Daddy." Elsewhere in the Serbian media, NIN of 9 October runs a poll indicating a growth in political cynicism among the respondents. Given a list of politicians to choose from on the basis of trust, 63% responded "none of the above," up from 55% a month ago. Almost all those named dropped in credibility, including list-leader President Slobodan Milosevic, who fell from 19% to 18%. Furthermore, a plurality of respondents said that the current feuding between Milosevic's party and that of Vojislav Seselj is not serious but just a "political maneuver," while over half added that the open battle is "not good for Serbia." -Patrick Moore PAPANDREOU, GREECE'S NEW PRIME MINISTER -AND FOR ALBANIA AND MACEDONIA . . . ? With more than one third of the votes counted, Reuters reports that Andreas Papandreou and his Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK) have carried the national elections defeating prime minister Constantine Mitsotakis and the New Democracy Party by a projected 46.1% to 41.2% of the electorate. The party occupying the third place is the Political Spring, organized by former foreign minister Andonis Samaras, which is expected to win something less than 5% of the vote. If his campaign statements can be believed, Papandreou will not recognize the Republic of Macedonia so long as that state officially uses a name which includes the word "Macedonia." In Albania, the opposition Socialists are greeting the PASOK victory with joy, while the governing Democratic Party is evidently concerned about the turn the already strained Albanian-Greek relations will take as a result. -Duncan Perry and Robert Austin POLISH COALITION PARTIES AGREE ON ECONOMIC PLAN . . . Experts for the three potential coalition partners-the Democratic Left Alliance (SLD), the Polish Peasant Party (PSL), and the Union of Labor-drafted a joint statement on economic policy on 8-October, PAP reports. The statement asserts that the economy is stagnant, not growing, as official statistics suggest, and points to a deep crisis in public finance and foreign trade. It calls for "industrial policy" to replace "free-market liberalism;" cheaper credit for small firms and debt relief for large ones; "equal treatment" for the state and private sectors; a determined fight against unemployment, set at 30% (rather than the official figure of 15.6%); a crackdown on tax evasion, especially in the "gray sphere;" and the reduction of income disparities. The three parties agreed the budget deficit should be reduced in the long-run but said it "cannot be mechanically reduced at the cost of economic growth." Leaders of the three parties agreed to present the joint economic document to their organizations for consideration on 12-October, but only the SLD was openly enthusiastic about the chances for a formal coalition. PSL leader Waldemar Pawlak was noncommittal. No agreement has been reached on the key political bargain; the SLD has offered the PSL the prime minister's post in return for the Sejm speaker. Further delay may be inevitable, as press speculation suggests that the SLD is treating the Sejm leadership elections, expected on 14-October, as a "loyalty test" for the PSL. -Louisa Vinton . . . AND ENDORSE NATO MEMBERSHIP. Foreign policy experts for the three potential coalition parties agreed on 9 October that Poland should join NATO as swiftly as possible, Polish TV reports. The experts stressed, however, that the alliance should be "restructured" as it accepts new members. NATO provides Poland's only credible guarantee of security, the experts concluded. They criticized Russian President Boris Yeltsin's recent letter to Western leaders warning the alliance not to accept East European members. They also stressed Poland's need to build uniformly good relations with Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Lithuania. They endorsed integration with the EC but demanded "respect for Polish economic interests." -Louisa Vinton CZECH OFFICIALS ON NATO. Speaking to journalists in Washington on 8 October 1993, Czech Foreign Minister Josef Zieleniec said that membership of Central and East European countries in the NATO alliance should be seen as the culmination of a process of building close East-West ties. Zieleniec was in Washington trying to advance the Czech Republic's security interests in two days of talks with senior US officials. Zieleniec also told journalists that Prague seeks a clear commitment from Washington on the Czech Republic's goal of NATO membership. In Prague on 7 October, German Defense Minister Volker Ruehe linked early entry of East European states into NATO with their progress toward joining the European Community. Ruehe also said Russia cannot be excluded from the process. On October 9, Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus said in Lidove Noviny that European security is "unimaginable" without future admission to NATO for former Soviet satellite states. -Jiri Pehe ILIESCU ADDRESSES THE VIENNA SUMMIT. On 9-October Romania's President Ion Iliescu addressed the Council of Europe's first summit meeting in Vienna. In a rather low-key speech, Iliescu expressed hopes that Romania's recent admission to the Council would help consolidate the rule of law in that country. He praised Romania's policy towards ethnic minorities, including the setting up of a Council for National Minorities earlier this year. Radio Bucharest further quoted Iliescu as saying that Romania "adhered without reservations" to all documents submitted for the meeting's approval. -Dan Ionescu ILIESCU CALLS ON US CONGRESS TO LIFT TRADE RESTRICTIONS. In an interview with The New York Times on 9 October, Iliescu called on the US Congress to reinstate preferential trade status to Bucharest. He suggested that Balkan-style chaos could overwhelm Romania unless it gets a helping hand from the West. In a hint at the conflicts in former Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, Iliescu said that "it is in the interest of the US to help stabilize Romania in this part of the world." "Maintaining old-style attitudes [towards Romania]," he added, "will only help extremist forces [there]." Nicolae Ceausescu's regime had renounced the US most-favored nation trading status in 1988, just as Washington was about to suspend it over human rights violations. The US Congress has been reluctant to reinstate the MFN status because of persisting concerns about democratization and human rights in Romania. -Dan Ionescu NEW AMBASSADOR TO BULGARIA. An RFE/RL correspondent reports that on the evening of 7 October William Dale Montgomery received confirmation from the US Senate and has become Washington's new ambassador to Bulgaria. Montgomery, who is a State Department official, had previously served in Bulgaria from 1988 to 1991. -Stan Markotich BULGARIA OPTS FOR CLOSER TIES WITH TURKEY AND NATO. According to Reuters, Turkey's Chief of General Staff General Doan Gyresh said, at the end of a two-day visit to Bulgaria on 8 October, that Turkey and Bulgaria are planning to forge co-operation in military affairs. Gyresh reportedly said that Turkey and Bulgaria will keep each other informed about maneuvers along their common 37 mile (60 km) border which involve over 150 tanks and 7, 500 troops. In addition, on 9 October AFP, basing its report on comments Bulgarian President Zhelyu Zhelev made to the Bulgarian newspaper Standart, reported that Zhelev will not support Russian President Boris Yeltsin on the issue of East European states joining NATO. Yeltsin has reportedly articulated reservations over the prospect of East European states being allowed into NATO while Zhelev has observed that Bulgaria is a fully independent country and as such is interested in seeking NATO membership. -Stan Markotich UKRAINE'S NEW DEFENSE MINISTER. Col. Gen.-Vitalii Hryhorovych Radetsky was approved as Ukraine's new defense minister by parliament on 8-October, various agencies reported. Born in 1944, he was educated at the M. V. Frunze military academy, and also attended the general-staff academy of the USSR. Radetsky served in the Odessa, Carpathian, Baltic and the Far Eastern Military Districts, and in the Western Group Forces. On 27 January 1992 he was appointed Commander of the Odessa MD by President Leonid Kravchuk. In recent months Radetsky came under fire in the democratic press for allegedly misappropriating military property. He refuted these charges in the national military paper Narodna Armiya, on 2 September. In the parliamentary session following his nomination, Radetsky said he supports Ukraine's ratification of the START-1 and NPT treaties, but believes the country should receive security guarantees and compensation for the weapons. He replaces Ukraine's first Minister of Defense, Konstantin Morozov, who resigned ostensibly because his reappointment would have polarized parliament. -Ustina Markus UKRAINIAN COMMUNIST PARTY OFFICIALLY REGISTERED. Ukraine's democratic leaders have been pointing to the irony that just as Russian President Yeltsin has banned the Russian Communist Party, the Ukrainian Ministry of Justice has, on 5 October, officially registered the Communist Party of Ukraine (CPU), which had been banned in Ukraine after the attempted coup in Moscow in August 1991. According to the Kiev newspaper Nezavisimost of 8 October, the revived CPU, which claims a membership of 128,000, is the 29th political party to be registered in Ukraine and is preparing for the elections scheduled for next spring. Headed by Petro Symonenko, the CPU's leaders include Gorbachev's former ally Boris Oliinyk and the head of the parliamentary commission on legislation and legality, Oleksandr Kotsyuba. -Bohdan Nahaylo MOLDOVAN PRESIDENT SEEKS YELTSIN'S SUPPORT ON DNIESTER PROBLEM. In his fourth public message to Boris Yeltsin since the latter dissolved the Russian parliament, Mircea Snegur again endorsed Yeltsin's "firm actions to uphold democratic reforms," Basapress reported on 8 October. Recalling the Moscow rebel leaders' previous statements that "the restoration of the USSR had started from the 'Dniester republic,'" Snegur noted that the area is "the first in which power was seized by the same reactionary forces which then tried to take over in Moscow." He regretted that Tiraspol had, nevertheless, received substantial economic and military aid from "outside" for, ostensibly, defending the rights of Russians and ethnic minorities. Urging Russia to draw lessons from the Moscow rebellion, in which 'Dniester' fighters were actively involved, Snegur asked Yeltsin to "support us in a series of steps to stabilize the situation in Transdniester." -Vladimir Socor UNEMPLOYMENT IN LATVIA AND LITHUANIA. The Latvian State Employment Service reported that the official unemployment rate was 5.5%. Hidden unemployment (those working only several hours a day or placed on unpaid leave) would raise this to 12-14%, BNS reported on 5 and 8 October. On 5 October there were about 88,600 seeking jobs and of those, 73,600 were considered officially unemployed. In addition, about 22,000 were on unpaid leave because production had temporarily stopped in their factories. Most of the factory workers are Slavs who migrated to Latvia during the decades of Soviet rule and comprise about 70% of the unemployed. Unemployment in Lithuania has remained constant at a rate of about 1.5%. On 1 October 32,091 unemployed people were registered; a slight drop from the 32,375 registered on 1 September. Hidden unemployment is also a serious problem in Lithuania. -Saulius Girnius and Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Liz Fuller and Stan Markotich THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.RFE/RL Daily Report
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