Cooking is like love. It should be entered into with abandon or not at all. - Harriet Van Horne
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 195, 11 October 1993



Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.



RUSSIA



YELTSIN TRIP TO JAPAN. Russian President Boris Yeltsin departed
from Moscow on 11-October for what could prove to be a contentious
three-day trip to Japan. On the eve of his departure, press agency
reports indicated that some fifteen documents and agreements
of various sorts were expected to be signed in Tokyo, but the
two sides continued to joust over whether or not the key issue
that has separated Tokyo from Moscow-the disposition of the Kuril
Islands-would be on the agenda. Meanwhile, amid reports that
Japanese leaders had viewed Yeltsin's recent crackdown in Moscow
with more skepticism than their Western counterparts, AFP reported
on 8 October that some sixty million Japanese had signed a petition
calling for Russia to return the disputed Kuril Islands to Japan.
The issue has been a divisive one in Russia as well, and Yeltsin
has twice been forced to cancel trips to Japan because of it.
-Stephen Foye

YELTSIN DISSOLVES LOCAL SOVIETS. On 9 October, President Yeltsin
issued a decree dissolving local (city, district and village)
soviets throughout Russia, Russian Television reported. The decree
does not apply to regional soviets and republican parliaments.
In his decree, Yeltsin said local administrations, such as city
mayors, would keep their jobs and assume the responsibilities
of the local councils in Russia's cities and villages. The decree
also orders the government to establish a federal commission
to examine ways to create local representative bodies and encourage
municipal self-government. The commission is to work out plans
by October 15 for elections to new local legislatures. -Vera
Tolz

FILATOV COMMENTS ON ELECTIONS; NEW CONSTITUTION. The chief of
the presidential apparatus, Sergei Filatov, said on 8 October
that Russia's local and regional soviets would be given several
days to decide whether they would comply with President Yeltsin's
request that they disband themselves. (Prior to issuing the above-mentioned
decree dissolving local soviets, Yeltsin suggested in a TV address
to the nation on 6-October that those regional and local soviets
that had opposed him during the latest crisis should voluntarily
disband themselves.) The leadership of a number of soviets have
already agreed to disband, while the others suggested this issue
should be put to a referendum. Filatov did not specify what measures
would be taken against those soviets which refuse to comply with
Yeltsin's request. Filatov was also quoted on Russian Television
as saying the president was considering holding a referendum
on a new constitution simultaneously with the parliamentary elections
in December. -Vera Tolz

YELTSIN: FEDERATION COUNCIL TO BE ELECTED. Reuters and AFP reported
on 11-October that President Yeltsin has issued a decree ordering
elections to the proposed new upper house of the Russian parliament,
the Federation Council. The elections, with each of the 88 regions
to be represented by two deputies, are to be held December 12.
Originally the Federation Council was to have at first consisted
of the heads of the regional parliaments and executive branches,
and it was to draw up a revised electoral law for the upper chamber
of parliament. Yeltsin's aides have been hinting, however, that
the composition of the Council would be changed because many
of the regions sided with the Russian parliament during the recent
crisis. John Lepingwell

SOME REPUBLICAN PARLIAMENTS GOING ALONG WITH YELTSIN'S PLANS.
There is no clear picture yet of how the republics are reacting
to calls by Yeltsin to fall into line, hold early elections to
their parliaments, and reorganize the local system of state power.
Nikolai Medvedev, head of the department for territorial affairs
in Yeltsin's administration, told ITAR-TASS on 10 October that
five republics-Mordovia, Bashkortostan, Buryatia, Kabardino-Balkaria,
and Komi-had failed to give satisfactory replies to demands that
they reverse their decisions opposing Yeltsin's decrees. ITAR-TASS
reported on 8 October that the leadership of Tatarstan had decided
to reform the soviets at all levels. The Karelian parliament
decided the same day to hold early elections-not later than June
1994-to the republican parliament and local government organs.
It also decided that a referendum on reforming the organs of
state power in the republic should be held on 12 December. -Ann
Sheehy

YELTSIN BANS RUTSKOI'S PARTY, COMMUNISTS. Following President
Yeltsin's ban of the People's Party of Free Russia-which had
been led by former Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi-the chairman
of the Party, Vasillii Lipitsky, told The Los Angeles Times on
9-October that Yeltsin was now banning even "centrist parties"
in order to neutralize rival parties for parliamentary elections.
The leader of the banned Russian Communist Party, Gennadii Zyuganov,
was quoted by The Guardian on 9 October as saying that communists
would set up voters' clubs or put out support behind other sympathetic
movements to participate in the elections. Zyuganov claimed that
his party had been the strongest and most organized and therefore
constituted a threat to democrats in the elections. -Alexander
Rahr

SOBCHAK RUNS FOR MOVEMENT OF DEMOCRATIC REFORMS. The Russian
Movement of Democratic Reforms has decided to run for parliamentary
elections as a separate bloc, Russian TV reported on 9 October.
St. Petersburg mayor Anatolii Sobchak will head the candidate
list of the Movement. In an interview with Bild am Sonntag on
10 October, Sobchak did not rule out the possibility that he
may also run for president in 1994. But he called for a postponement
of parliamentary elections until spring of 1994. Gavriil Popov,
the leader of the Movement, said he will not run for parliament.
The Movement intends to field 150 candidates for parliamentary
elections, and may become a serious rival for the pro-Yeltsin
bloc "Russia's choice". -Alexander Rahr

STATE OF EMERGENCY EXTENDED. The state of emergency and curfew
that were declared in Moscow on 3 October were extended on 9
October for a further eight days. They will now be in effect
until 0500 Moscow time on Monday, 18 October, Reuters reported.
The agency saw this as a sign that the situation in the Russian
capital was still "far from normal" after the events of the previous
three weeks. -Elizabeth Teague

RUSSIA'S INDEPENDENT TV CHANNEL STARTS BROADCASTING. The first
independent TV channel in Russia to produce its own newscasts
started broadcasting on 10 October. It was set up by a group
of reporters from the government TV company Ostankino. The group,
which includes such well known TV journalists as Oleg Dobrodeev,
Tatyana Mitkova and Leonid Parfenov, left Ostankino, saying they
wanted more creative freedom than offered by Ostankino. A number
of private businesses, including private banks, have invested
money in the new TV channel. Organizers of the new channel signed
an agreement with St. Petersburg Television, which leases it
airtime. -Vera Tolz

GRACHEV DEFENDED. Yeltsin press spokesman Vyacheslav Kostikov
on 7 October rejected intimations in several Russian press reports
(allegedly based on sources close to the Russian president) that
Defense Minister Pavel Grachev had been reluctant to authorize
the use of army units against proparliament forces on the night
of 3-4 October. According to ITAR-TASS, Kostikov declared that
he had been authorized by Yeltsin to say that Grachev's conduct
had been exemplary. In a series of interviews, Grachev himself
also denied the charges. In the most interesting, which was published
by Komsomolskaya pravda on 10 October, Grachev also belittled
the actions of Deputy Defense Minister Konstantin Kobets, who
had been portrayed in the earlier press reports as the real organizer
of the assault on the Russian "White House." -Stephen Foye

DEFENSE MINISTRY MACHINATIONS? THE SAME KOMSOMOLSKAYA PRAVDA
ARTICLE ALSO REPORTED THAT THE COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE RUSSIAN
AIR FORCE, PETR DEINEKIN, HAD BEEN IN CONSTANT CONTACT UNTIL
4 OCTOBER WITH KHASBULATOV AND RUTSKOI, AND HAD INFORMED THEM
FULLY OF WHAT HAD BEEN DISCUSSED AT MEETINGS OF THE RUSSIAN DEFENSE
MINISTRY COLLEGIUM. A letter was also reportedly sent from several
commanders to Yeltsin and Khasbulatov urging them to accept the
"zero option" (simultaneous elections for President and parliament)
as a way out of the existing political impasse. Deputy Defense
Minister Boris Gromov was also said to have been in contact with
Rutskoi. In separate comments, Grachev affirmed his awareness
that at least some of these contacts were taking place, but he
stressed that the military leadership had always remained loyal
to Yeltsin. -Stephen Foye

CIS

GEORGIA TO JOIN CIS. Following the meeting of the three Transcaucasus
leaders with Yeltsin on 8 October, Georgian parliament chairman
Eduard Shevardnadze announced at a press conference that Georgia
would become a member of the CIS, ITAR-TASS reported. Shevardnadze
characterized this decision, which was apparently taken in response
to crude economic blackmail ("if you want gas, oil, raw materials
. . . then join the CIS") and must still be endorsed by the Georgian
parliament, as "the last chance" to save Georgia from civil war
and economic disintegration. The announcement was met with widespread
shock and anger in Tbilisi, Reuters reported. -Liz Fuller

TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA



TRANSCAUCASUS LEADERS MEET WITH YELTSIN. Armenian President Levon
Ter-Petrossyan, acting Azerbaijani President Geidar Aliev and
Georgian parliament chairman Shevardnadze held two hours of frank
discussions with Russian President Boris Yeltsin on 8-October
on the complex situation in the Transcaucasus, ITAR-TASS reported.
Agreement was reached on the need to coordinate efforts in conflict
mediation with the help of international organizations, and on
the deployment of Russian troops to restore rail links from the
Black Sea to Tbilisi and to Armenia. -Liz Fuller

CHANTURIA, GAMSAKHURDIA CALL FOR SHEVARDNADZE'S OVERTHROW. Georgian
National Democratic Party leader Giorgi Chanturia termed Shevardnadze's
decision to commit Georgia to CIS membership "suicidal", and
vowed that his party would do everything to prevent it, AFP reported
on 10-October. Speaking in the Mingrelian capital, Zugdidi, on
10-October, ousted President Zviad Gamsakhurdia likewise called
for the overthrow of the "criminal junta" in Tbilisi, Reuters
reported. On 9 October Georgian government troops launched a
new offensive against the Black Sea port of Poti, which is held
by Gamsakhurdia's forces; on 10 October they gave the rebels
an ultimatum to withdraw from Poti by 1000 CET on 11 October.
A Russian army commander in Georgia told Reuters on 9-October
his troops would back the Georgian government if attacked by
Gamsakhurdia's forces. -Liz Fuller

TAJIKISTAN UPDATE. On 8 October six Russian border guards and
six members of the peacekeeping force from Kazakhstan were abducted
on the Tajik-Afghan border but were freed shortly afterward,
Russian agencies reported. According to ITAR-TASS, Tajikistan's
Foreign Ministry lodged a protest with the Afghan consul in Dushanbe,
complaining that the abductions violated the August agreement
between the governments of Tajikistan and Afghanistan on preventing
such incidents. On 10 October ITAR-TASS reported that Tajikistan's
Ministry of Internal Affairs was restricting access to those
in possession of special passes. A ministry official said that
the action was intended to prevent anti-government forces from
entering the capital. -Bess Brown

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE



CROATIA SACKS TWO OFFICERS IN ATROCITIES INVESTIGATION. AFP reported
on 9-October that the Croatian Defense Ministry has fired two
commanders in the Gospic area in connection with the massacre
of Serb civilians by retreating Croatian troops in September.
From Zagreb The New York Times of 10 October quotes UN civilian
affairs chief Cedric Thornberry as saying that the Croat-Serb
conflict could explode at any time and is "in some ways, even
more dangerous than that in Bosnia and Herzegovina." Security
Council Resolution 871 passed on 4 October calls on Serbia-Montenegro
not to help Croatia's Serb rebels holding about 30% of the republic's
territory, but President Slobodan Milosevic of Serbia has said:
"who can prohibit us from helping our brothers in Krajina?" Meanwhile,
UNPROFOR commander Gen. Jean Cot told AFP on 8 October that he
needs 4,000 more soldiers to carry out new tasks included in
Resolution 871, but warns President Franjo Tudjman to be more
patient in his expectations of what UNPROFOR can do. "Mr. Tudjman
wants everything that benefits Croatia to be implemented tomorrow
morning," Gen. Cot said. Croatia, however, waited over a year
and a half in vain for UNPROFOR to implement the January 1992
Vance Plan and is now determined to get moving on key points,
including the restoration of infrastructure links, the disarming
of Serb rebels, and the return of refugees to their homes in
safety. Finally, Reuters reported from Belgrade on 10 October
that Serb insurgents beat up three UNPROFOR soldiers trying to
stop Serb fighters from entering occupied Croatia. -Patrick Moore


CROATIAN OPPOSITION PARTY TO CONTINUE LIMITED BOYCOTT OF PARLIAMENT.
Vecernji list of 9-October quoted Croatian Social Liberal Party
leader Drazen Budisa as saying that his faction, the largest
in the opposition, would take part in parliamentary committee
meetings and would draft legislation but would for now continue
its boycott of the main sessions. The walkout by the Liberals
and two regional parties last week was prompted by the ruling
party's (HDZ) failure to include a new law on liberalizing radio
and television on the legislative agenda. The regional parties
are also angry at what they regard as Tudjman's and the HDZ's
fundamental antagonism to regionalism, declaring the regional
parties in effect to be enemies of the state. Vjesnik of 9 October
quotes deputies from one of the two parties, the Istrian Democratic
Party, as slamming the HDZ's treatment of them as "Bolshevik,"
adding that the regional parties did right to walk out in solidarity
with the Liberals. Vecernji list of 9-October quotes parliament
speaker Stipe Mesic of the HDZ's progressive wing as saying that
the walkout was "no scandal" and simply a part of democratic
political life. -Patrick Moore

BUKOSHI OFFERS FREE ACCESS TO KOSOVO FOR SERBS. The Prime Minister
of the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo, Bujar Bukoshi, repeated
demands for the independence of Kosovo, The Washington Times
reported on 9 October. He said that the Kosovar government would
respect Serbian historic and religious monuments and offered
free access to Serbs visiting the region. Meanwhile, there are,
however, hardly any signs pointing toward either independence
or even autonomy. The Serbian police continued raids on ethnic
Albanians, whom they accused of planing an armed uprising, Politika
reported on 8 October. Among those arrested since 20 September
were scholars and former Yugoslav military officers, ATA said
on 30-September. Bukoshi in The Washington Times called the raids
"a new wave of repression," saying that 83 persons had been arrested
within a single week by the Serbian security police. He charged
Macedonia with effectively helping Serbia by requiring travelers
from Serbia to carry rump Yugoslav passports, which, he continued,
"the Serbs refused to issue" to ethnic Albanians. Since the "only
outlet to the world ... is gone," he claimed that "this is the
final stage of destruction of Kosovo's economy" and "ethnic cleansing
is now in the open," adding that the police threatened to expel
entire villages to make room for Serbs. -Fabian Schmidt

FIKRET ABDIC BUILDS UP HIS POSITION. Politika of 10 October reported
that more soldiers of the Bosnian army's Fifth Corps have gone
over to the side of the maverick leader of the Bihac pocket.
Abdic, meanwhile, continues to reject any negotiations that do
not include his rival, President Alija Izetbegovic. Vecernji
list on 9 October, moreover, reported that Abdic has joined the
Muslim Democratic Party (MDS), which is smaller than Izetbegovic's
Party for Democratic Action (SDA) but also more moderate in its
national identification. The Zagreb daily went on to note that
Tudjman and other top Croatian officials met with members of
the MDS and its Croatian affiliate, and the Croatian media in
general continue to give favorable and respectful coverage to
Abdic. The Serbian press, for its part, tends to treat the developments
in the Bihac pocket as a Muslim comic opera, and refers to Abdic
by his popular nickname of "Babo," or "Daddy." Elsewhere in the
Serbian media, NIN of 9 October runs a poll indicating a growth
in political cynicism among the respondents. Given a list of
politicians to choose from on the basis of trust, 63% responded
"none of the above," up from 55% a month ago. Almost all those
named dropped in credibility, including list-leader President
Slobodan Milosevic, who fell from 19% to 18%. Furthermore, a
plurality of respondents said that the current feuding between
Milosevic's party and that of Vojislav Seselj is not serious
but just a "political maneuver," while over half added that the
open battle is "not good for Serbia." -Patrick Moore

PAPANDREOU, GREECE'S NEW PRIME MINISTER -AND FOR ALBANIA AND
MACEDONIA . . . ? With more than one third of the votes counted,
Reuters reports that Andreas Papandreou and his Panhellenic Socialist
Movement (PASOK) have carried the national elections defeating
prime minister Constantine Mitsotakis and the New Democracy Party
by a projected 46.1% to 41.2% of the electorate. The party occupying
the third place is the Political Spring, organized by former
foreign minister Andonis Samaras, which is expected to win something
less than 5% of the vote. If his campaign statements can be believed,
Papandreou will not recognize the Republic of Macedonia so long
as that state officially uses a name which includes the word
"Macedonia." In Albania, the opposition Socialists are greeting
the PASOK victory with joy, while the governing Democratic Party
is evidently concerned about the turn the already strained Albanian-Greek
relations will take as a result. -Duncan Perry and Robert Austin


POLISH COALITION PARTIES AGREE ON ECONOMIC PLAN . . . Experts
for the three potential coalition partners-the Democratic Left
Alliance (SLD), the Polish Peasant Party (PSL), and the Union
of Labor-drafted a joint statement on economic policy on 8-October,
PAP reports. The statement asserts that the economy is stagnant,
not growing, as official statistics suggest, and points to a
deep crisis in public finance and foreign trade. It calls for
"industrial policy" to replace "free-market liberalism;" cheaper
credit for small firms and debt relief for large ones; "equal
treatment" for the state and private sectors; a determined fight
against unemployment, set at 30% (rather than the official figure
of 15.6%); a crackdown on tax evasion, especially in the "gray
sphere;" and the reduction of income disparities. The three parties
agreed the budget deficit should be reduced in the long-run but
said it "cannot be mechanically reduced at the cost of economic
growth." Leaders of the three parties agreed to present the joint
economic document to their organizations for consideration on
12-October, but only the SLD was openly enthusiastic about the
chances for a formal coalition. PSL leader Waldemar Pawlak was
noncommittal. No agreement has been reached on the key political
bargain; the SLD has offered the PSL the prime minister's post
in return for the Sejm speaker. Further delay may be inevitable,
as press speculation suggests that the SLD is treating the Sejm
leadership elections, expected on 14-October, as a "loyalty test"
for the PSL. -Louisa Vinton

. . . AND ENDORSE NATO MEMBERSHIP. Foreign policy experts for
the three potential coalition parties agreed on 9 October that
Poland should join NATO as swiftly as possible, Polish TV reports.
The experts stressed, however, that the alliance should be "restructured"
as it accepts new members. NATO provides Poland's only credible
guarantee of security, the experts concluded. They criticized
Russian President Boris Yeltsin's recent letter to Western leaders
warning the alliance not to accept East European members. They
also stressed Poland's need to build uniformly good relations
with Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Lithuania. They endorsed integration
with the EC but demanded "respect for Polish economic interests."
-Louisa Vinton

CZECH OFFICIALS ON NATO. Speaking to journalists in Washington
on 8 October 1993, Czech Foreign Minister Josef Zieleniec said
that membership of Central and East European countries in the
NATO alliance should be seen as the culmination of a process
of building close East-West ties. Zieleniec was in Washington
trying to advance the Czech Republic's security interests in
two days of talks with senior US officials. Zieleniec also told
journalists that Prague seeks a clear commitment from Washington
on the Czech Republic's goal of NATO membership. In Prague on
7 October, German Defense Minister Volker Ruehe linked early
entry of East European states into NATO with their progress toward
joining the European Community. Ruehe also said Russia cannot
be excluded from the process. On October 9, Czech Prime Minister
Vaclav Klaus said in Lidove Noviny that European security is
"unimaginable" without future admission to NATO for former Soviet
satellite states. -Jiri Pehe

ILIESCU ADDRESSES THE VIENNA SUMMIT. On 9-October Romania's President
Ion Iliescu addressed the Council of Europe's first summit meeting
in Vienna. In a rather low-key speech, Iliescu expressed hopes
that Romania's recent admission to the Council would help consolidate
the rule of law in that country. He praised Romania's policy
towards ethnic minorities, including the setting up of a Council
for National Minorities earlier this year. Radio Bucharest further
quoted Iliescu as saying that Romania "adhered without reservations"
to all documents submitted for the meeting's approval. -Dan Ionescu


ILIESCU CALLS ON US CONGRESS TO LIFT TRADE RESTRICTIONS. In an
interview with The New York Times on 9 October, Iliescu called
on the US Congress to reinstate preferential trade status to
Bucharest. He suggested that Balkan-style chaos could overwhelm
Romania unless it gets a helping hand from the West. In a hint
at the conflicts in former Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, Iliescu
said that "it is in the interest of the US to help stabilize
Romania in this part of the world." "Maintaining old-style attitudes
[towards Romania]," he added, "will only help extremist forces
[there]." Nicolae Ceausescu's regime had renounced the US most-favored
nation trading status in 1988, just as Washington was about to
suspend it over human rights violations. The US Congress has
been reluctant to reinstate the MFN status because of persisting
concerns about democratization and human rights in Romania. -Dan
Ionescu

NEW AMBASSADOR TO BULGARIA. An RFE/RL correspondent reports that
on the evening of 7 October William Dale Montgomery received
confirmation from the US Senate and has become Washington's new
ambassador to Bulgaria. Montgomery, who is a State Department
official, had previously served in Bulgaria from 1988 to 1991.
-Stan Markotich

BULGARIA OPTS FOR CLOSER TIES WITH TURKEY AND NATO. According
to Reuters, Turkey's Chief of General Staff General Doan Gyresh
said, at the end of a two-day visit to Bulgaria on 8 October,
that Turkey and Bulgaria are planning to forge co-operation in
military affairs. Gyresh reportedly said that Turkey and Bulgaria
will keep each other informed about maneuvers along their common
37 mile (60 km) border which involve over 150 tanks and 7, 500
troops. In addition, on 9 October AFP, basing its report on comments
Bulgarian President Zhelyu Zhelev made to the Bulgarian newspaper
Standart, reported that Zhelev will not support Russian President
Boris Yeltsin on the issue of East European states joining NATO.
Yeltsin has reportedly articulated reservations over the prospect
of East European states being allowed into NATO while Zhelev
has observed that Bulgaria is a fully independent country and
as such is interested in seeking NATO membership. -Stan Markotich


UKRAINE'S NEW DEFENSE MINISTER. Col. Gen.-Vitalii Hryhorovych
Radetsky was approved as Ukraine's new defense minister by parliament
on 8-October, various agencies reported. Born in 1944, he was
educated at the M. V. Frunze military academy, and also attended
the general-staff academy of the USSR. Radetsky served in the
Odessa, Carpathian, Baltic and the Far Eastern Military Districts,
and in the Western Group Forces. On 27 January 1992 he was appointed
Commander of the Odessa MD by President Leonid Kravchuk. In recent
months Radetsky came under fire in the democratic press for allegedly
misappropriating military property. He refuted these charges
in the national military paper Narodna Armiya, on 2 September.
In the parliamentary session following his nomination, Radetsky
said he supports Ukraine's ratification of the START-1 and NPT
treaties, but believes the country should receive security guarantees
and compensation for the weapons. He replaces Ukraine's first
Minister of Defense, Konstantin Morozov, who resigned ostensibly
because his reappointment would have polarized parliament. -Ustina
Markus

UKRAINIAN COMMUNIST PARTY OFFICIALLY REGISTERED. Ukraine's democratic
leaders have been pointing to the irony that just as Russian
President Yeltsin has banned the Russian Communist Party, the
Ukrainian Ministry of Justice has, on 5 October, officially registered
the Communist Party of Ukraine (CPU), which had been banned in
Ukraine after the attempted coup in Moscow in August 1991. According
to the Kiev newspaper Nezavisimost of 8 October, the revived
CPU, which claims a membership of 128,000, is the 29th political
party to be registered in Ukraine and is preparing for the elections
scheduled for next spring. Headed by Petro Symonenko, the CPU's
leaders include Gorbachev's former ally Boris Oliinyk and the
head of the parliamentary commission on legislation and legality,
Oleksandr Kotsyuba. -Bohdan Nahaylo

MOLDOVAN PRESIDENT SEEKS YELTSIN'S SUPPORT ON DNIESTER PROBLEM.
In his fourth public message to Boris Yeltsin since the latter
dissolved the Russian parliament, Mircea Snegur again endorsed
Yeltsin's "firm actions to uphold democratic reforms," Basapress
reported on 8 October. Recalling the Moscow rebel leaders' previous
statements that "the restoration of the USSR had started from
the 'Dniester republic,'" Snegur noted that the area is "the
first in which power was seized by the same reactionary forces
which then tried to take over in Moscow." He regretted that Tiraspol
had, nevertheless, received substantial economic and military
aid from "outside" for, ostensibly, defending the rights of Russians
and ethnic minorities. Urging Russia to draw lessons from the
Moscow rebellion, in which 'Dniester' fighters were actively
involved, Snegur asked Yeltsin to "support us in a series of
steps to stabilize the situation in Transdniester." -Vladimir
Socor

UNEMPLOYMENT IN LATVIA AND LITHUANIA. The Latvian State Employment
Service reported that the official unemployment rate was 5.5%.
Hidden unemployment (those working only several hours a day or
placed on unpaid leave) would raise this to 12-14%, BNS reported
on 5 and 8 October. On 5 October there were about 88,600 seeking
jobs and of those, 73,600 were considered officially unemployed.
In addition, about 22,000 were on unpaid leave because production
had temporarily stopped in their factories. Most of the factory
workers are Slavs who migrated to Latvia during the decades of
Soviet rule and comprise about 70% of the unemployed. Unemployment
in Lithuania has remained constant at a rate of about 1.5%. On
1 October 32,091 unemployed people were registered; a slight
drop from the 32,375 registered on 1 September. Hidden unemployment
is also a serious problem in Lithuania. -Saulius Girnius and
Dzintra Bungs

[As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Liz Fuller and Stan Markotich









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