|We are all apt to believe what the world believes about us. - George Eliot|
No. 194, 08 October 1993
RUSSIA PREPARATION FOR PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS UNDERWAY. President Yeltsin issued a decree on 7 October stating that the new legislature, to be elected in December, will have 450 seats, ITAR-TASS reported. Deputies for half of the 450 seats will be elected by a simple majority vote, while the rest will be chosen on a proportional basis, with voters picking a party rather than a candidate. Earlier draft legislation had called for the parliament with 400 seats. The same day, the head of the Central Electoral Commission, Nikolai Ryabov, told journalists that all legal parties would have equal access to state media during the electoral campaign. Since the state-run television firmly sides with Yeltsin, the opposition fears that pro-Yeltsin parties will have privileged access to the electronic media. Ryabov also told ITAR-TASS that eight parties and organizations, banned after the weekend disturbances, have been excluded fom the list of those which can take part in the elections. Vera Tolz YELTSIN SUSPENDS CONSTITUTIONAL COURT. On 7 October, Russian television newscasts and agencies reported that Yeltsin has decreed the suspension of the Constitutional Court. According to the reports, the court's activities have brought Russia "to the verge of a civil war"-a reference to the ruling by the court that Yeltsin's 21 September decree "On a Gradual Constitutional Reform" was unconstitutional, as well as to the president's earlier attempt to introduce rule by decree in March of this year. The decree orders the activities of the Constitutional Court to be terminated until a new parliament adopts a new constitution and elects a new constitutional court. Julia Wishnevsky YELTSIN'S DECREE ON APPOINTMENTS OF LOCAL EXECUTIVES. On 7 October, President Yeltsin issued a decree to the effect that heads of regional administrations (governors) would be appointed and dismissed by the president, and not elected, ITAR-TASS reported. In late 1991, the Congress of People's Deputies gave Yeltsin special powers to appoint the governors, despite the fact that their popular elections had already been scheduled. Earlier this year, the Congress had deprived Yeltsin of the power to appoint heads of regional administrations, and in result several regional held elections of govenors. Some of these elected govenors turned against Yeltsin when he had disbanded the parliament. Vera Tolz SOVIETS DEBATE THEIR FUTURE. Russian Television reported on 7 October that city and regional councils in Arkhangelsk, Krasnodar and Saratov, among others, were debating whether to comply with Yeltsin's demand that they should voluntarily disband. According to AFP, the proposal is being resisted not only by municipal leaders in St.-Petersburg but also by Yeltsin's close aide, Sergei Shakrai, who reportedly threatened to resign if Yeltsin himself disbanded the regional councils. Elizabeth Teague CHAIRMAN OF KOMI SUPREME SOVIET AGAINST ITS SELF-DISSOLUTION. The chairman of the Komi Supreme Soviet Yurii Spiridonov told a meeting in Syktyvkar that he was against its self-dissolution, ITAR-TASS reported on 7 October. He denied an Interfax report that the presidium of the Supeme Soviet had discussed the matter. It was up to the Supreme Soviet itself to decide, Spiridonov said, but he would rather it was put to a referendum. The leaders of the workers movement in the coal mining city of Vorkuta in the Komi republic said, on the other hand, that they supported the self-dissolution of the local soviets. According to Izvestiya of 7 October, the standing commissions of the Marii-El parliament will decide whether or not the question of self-dissolution should be put on the parliament's agenda. Ann Sheehy KHASBULATOV, RUTSKOI CHARGED WITH INCITING "MASS DISORDERS." On 8 October ITAR-TASS reported that the new Russian Procurator General, Aleksei Kazannikov has formally arrested and charged Ruslan Khasbulatov, Aleksandr Rutskoi, Viktor Barannikov, Andrei Dunaev, and Vladislav Achalov with "organizing mass disorders" under Article 79 of the Russian criminal code. (General Albert Makashov and others were charged earlier.) While those charged were detained earlier, it was unclear what charges would be laid against them, and it had been hinted that they could be charged with treason. It appears that a decision has been made to file lesser charges, and thereby circumvent a potential defense argument that the defendants were acting constitutionally. On 7 October, President Yeltsin issued a decree instructing Russia's Procurator General, the police and the Ministry of Security to investigate as promptly as possible the cases of people responsible for the disturbances. John Lepingwell YELTSIN HONORS MINISTERS. President Yeltsin has awarded Interior Minister Viktor Erin with the country's highest order-the title of Hero of the Russian Federation, ITAR-TASS reported on 7 October. That title was also awarded to eight soldiers, four posthumously, for suppressing the rebellion on 3-4-October. The heads of the ministries of defense and security, Nikolai Golushko and Pavel Grachev, respectively, were awarded, together with Deputy Defense Minister Konstantin Kobets with the Order of Personal Courage. Alexander Rahr CIS KOZYREV ON MAINTAINING CONQUESTS. In an interview with Izvestiya on 8 October, Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev said that Russia would strive to create effective peacekeeping forces as a means of dealing with regional conflicts in the former Soviet Union as well as in other parts of the world. Kozyrev said Russia was particularly interested in using such forces in the "near abroad," highlighting the danger of "losing geopolitical positions that took centuries to conquer." He said Russians shouldn't worry about U.S. meddling in the area, but should be concerned about interference from Asian countries, adding: "We have plenty of neighbors in Asia who are prepared to send soldiers and weapons into the former Soviet republics, even under the guise of peacekeeping forces." Kozyrev's linkage of developing Russian peacekeeping structures and maintaining spheres of influence does not bode well for Russian relations with the near abroad. Suzanne Crow KOZYREV ON "VITAL INTERESTS" IN THE CAUCASUS. In the same Izvestiya interview, Kozyrev stated that Russia will insist that Abkhazia abides in future by the terms of the Sochi ceasefiire agreement, and that the Russian sanctions imposed on Abkhazia, which he said had been only partially implemented, could be lifted only after a peaceful solution had been found to the conflict. He said that "Russia must be ready to conduct peacemaking operations in Abkhazia," arguing that the Transcaucasus represents "a zone of vital interest" to Russia, and that the dismemberment of Georgia could set "a most dangerous precedent" and lead to that of Russia. Liz Fuller UKRAINE DENIES RUSSIAN WARHEAD CHARGES. The Ukrainian Defense Ministry has rejected the new Russian charges concerning warhead storage at the Pervomaysk ICBM base. According to a spokesman, some of the warheads have been moved to other storage facilities in Ukraine. Meanwhile, Reuters reported that US Assistant Secretary of Defense Graham Allison visited Kiev on 7 October to initiate a new US-Ukrainian military cooperation program. Allison noted that the success of democratic forces and the end of instability in Russia should prompt Ukraine to ratify the START-1 and non-proliferation treaties. According to Allison, "A long period of dragging out international obligations....will undermine the strengthening of [Ukrainian] relations with the United States and Europe." -John Lepingwell A "DEAD HAND" OPTION FOR RUSSIAN NUCLEAR WEAPONS? AN ARTICLE PUBLISHED IN THE NEW YORK TIMES ON 8 OCTOBER, CITES BRUCE BLAIR, A NUCLEAR WEAPONS EXPERT AT THE BROOKINGS INSTITUTION AS CLAIMING THAT THE SOVIET UNION DEVELOPED A COMMAND AND CONTROL SYSTEM OPTION THAT WOULD ALLOW NUCLEAR WEAPONS TO BE FIRED AUTOMATICALLY UNDER SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES. The system could be enabled by the Russian military or political leadership if it appeared that the leadership would not survive a nuclear strike. Normally the system is designed to maintain strict centralized control. Blair based his assertion on numerous interviews with Russian officers. Other Western and Russian media have warned that during the riots on 3 October the Russian Defense Ministry building was almost unguarded and could have been overrun by pro-parliament forces. Seizure of its nuclear weapons control center probably would not have given the rebels control over nuclear weapons, however, both because they would have lacked the knowledge to use the system, and because control could have been transferred to alternative command posts located outside of Moscow. John Lepingwell TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA 20,000 GEORGIAN REFUGEES FACE DEATH FROM COLD. Up to 20,000 Georgians who fled from Abkhazia eastwards over mountain passes to Svanetia currently face death from cold, Georgian Deputy Prime Minister Irina Sarishvili told Reuters on 6 October. In an appeal to the UN Security Council made public on 6 October, Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze called for Svaneti to be designated a disaster area and for the international community to assist in evacuating refugees, ITAR-TASS reported. The US has dispatched a planeload of food and emergency medical supplies to Tbilisi, where the Minister of the Economy told Reuters on 7 October that bread riots could be imminent unless the West sends additional aid. Liz Fuller ABKHAZ UPDATE. UN Special Representative for Georgia Eduard Brunner characterized as constructive and encouraging the talks in Geneva on 6-7 October with Abkhaz representatives on a political settlement of the Abkhaz conflict, according to Western agencies. Brunner argued that Russia, which he said has "a legitimate interest" in stability in the Caucasus, should be involved in future mediation. The head of the Abkhaz delegation was quoted by ITAR-TASS as affirming that there were no obstacles to direct negotiations with Georgia. He also denied that Abkhazia had acquired any arms from Russia, claiming that its weaponry had been purchased from a Western country that he refused to name; he further claimed that over 90 per cent of the troops who fought on the Abkhaz side were ethnic Abkhaz. Abkhaz parliament chairman Vladislav Ardzinba has appealed to the international community for aid .and affirmed that the Abkhaz parliament will soon adopt a new and democratic constitution that guarantees the human rights and freedoms of all national groups in Abkhazia, ITAR-TASS reported. Liz Fuller FURTHER HARASSMENT OF OPPOSITION IN UZBEKISTAN. An Uzbek government decree issued in March required that the country's political parties and organizations reregister before 1 October. RFE/RL has learned that the Birlik Movement attempted to meet the requirement, despite having been warned that its application would not be accepted because the government has deprived the movement of an office and hence of an address which all organizations need in order to register. When Birlik members tried to hand in the application, officials refused to accept it so Birlik mailed it in. The other major legal Uzbek opposition party, Erk, has reportedly not attempted to reregister. The party held a congress on 25 September 25; party activists told RFE/RL on 7 October that their newly-elected General Secretary Samad Muradov has been beaten up in Karshi. Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE IZETBEGOVIC SLAMS "POLITICAL VIVISECTION." Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic told the UN General Assembly on 7 October that the Muslims found the Geneva peace plan unacceptable because it does not reverse the effects of ethnic cleansing and allow Muslim refugees to go home. The Muslims were now left with the choice between "a just defensive war and an unjust peace." The 8 October New York Times adds that Izetbegovic wants to continue negotiating, but within the framework of a broad settlement for the entire Yugoslav area, not just for Bosnia alone. The paper notes that international mediators are thinking along much the same lines. The Bosnian president repeated his now familiar calls for US and NATO involvement in his embattled republic, as well as for the lifting of the arms embargo. Patrick Moore TUDJMAN PROMISES TO INVESTIGATE ATROCITIES CHARGES. International media reported on 7-October that UN officials, including special human rights investigator and former Polish Prime Minister Tadeusz Mazowiecki, charged Croatian troops in the Medak area near Gospic with the systematic slaughter of at least 70 Serb civilians and the thorough destruction of their property, livestock, and villages. UNPROFOR civilian affairs chief Cedric Thornberry told the 8 October Los Angeles Times that he has "never seen anything like it... There's nothing larger than a good-sized brick left." Croat forces launched an offensive in the area on 8-9 September in response to Serb shelling, but later withdrew following an agreement that UN forces would occupy the villages in question. In response to the UN charges of massacres of helpless civilians, including an elderly blind woman, Croatian President Franjo Tudjman promised a full investigation. The Defense and National Security Council met in Zagreb and said that the inquiry should be conducted rapidly and its "findings made public," AFP reported on 7 October. Meanwhile in Mostar, other UN officials charged local Croat soldiers with expelling over 500 Muslim civilians from the Croat part of the city under brutal conditions, claiming that some young women had disappeared entirely. Patrick Moore CROATIAN UPDATE. The government is moving quickly to hold the UN to the terms of Security Council Resolution 871 passed on 4 October. Vecernji list on 8-October reports that the authorities want the east-west highway connecting Zagreb and Zupanja to be reopened by the end of the month, and negotiations with rebel Serbs on a cease-fire to be started and to be wrapped up in 8 days. Croatia's UN ambassador has also demanded that the world body maintain its telecommunication links with Serb rebels via the Croatian system and not via Belgrade. Meanwhile, Globus runs a poll showing that most respondents back the recent austerity package launched by Prime Minister Nikica Valentic, but that few expect him to succeed in tackling inflation. Most also expect the measures to lead to a fall in the already low standard of living, and Vjesnik quotes union leaders as saying that industrial action, including a general strike, might be possible. Patrick Moore NO CONFIDENCE DEBATE CONTINUES IN BELGRADE. Discussion on a no confidence motion resumes on 8 October in the Serbian parliament. Debate is expected to be lengthy as more than 100 deputies are slated to take the floor. The Radicals accuse the Socialist government of Prime Minister Nikola Sainovic of incompetence, economic mismanagement, racketeering and war crimes. Responding to the charges, Sainovic accused the SRS of deliberately disrupting the country to suit Serbia's enemies. He told parliament the Radicals are "disrupting the government at a time when Croatia is threatening to strike against Serbs in Krajina ... which can only suit [Croatian President Franjo] Tudjman's interests." SRS leader Vojislav Seselj told a news conference that it is the Serbian government that had betrayed all Serbs through its support of internationally-mediated peace plans. Once nominal allies, the Radicals and Socialists came into open conflict last week after Seselj pressed for the no confidence motion. Vuk Draskovic, leader of the third largest party, Serbian Renewal Movement, told reporters his party will not side with the Radicals, adding: "This is a fight in the family. We will have nothing to do with it." Even if the government survived the no-confidence motion, parliament's work could be crippled and this could result in early elections within six months. Radio and Television Serbia carried the reports. Milan Andrejevich COALITION AGREEMENT DRAFTED IN POLAND. The Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) presented its two potential coalition partners, the Polish Peasant Party (PSL) and the Union of Labor (UP), with a draft coalition agreement on 7 October, PAP reports. The PSL and UP are expected to decide whether to accept the SLD's proposed agreement on 12 October. The agreement stipulates that the posts of prime minister and Sejm speaker are the domain of the two largest parties in the parliament. This clause has been interpreted to mean that the SLD wants the post of Sejm speaker for one of its own leaders, Wlodzimierz Cimoszewicz, in exchange for agreeing to accept PSL chairman Waldemar Pawlak as prime minister. The PSL has reportedly been pressing for control over both posts. The draft agreement also proposes limiting to a minimum personnel changes in the state administration; making the adoption of a new constitution a first priority; and setting defense and foreign policy directions in consultation with the president. The coalition's economic program was relegated to a separate document, still to be drafted. Economic experts from the three parties announced on 7 October that remaining differences over privatization should not block the formation of a coalition. Apparently preparing the ground for a retreat from campaign spending pledges, SLD officials charged that the condition of the state budget is worse than admitted by the outgoing government. Louisa Vinton CHRISTOPHER MEETS ZIELENIEC. US Secretary of State Warren Christopher held talks with Czech Foreign Minister Josef Zieleniec in Washington, RFE/RL's Washington correspondent reports on 7 October. According to a State Department official, the talks were "substantive." Christopher reportedly welcomed Zieleniec's views on the security situation in Europe and reiterated US resolve to help Central and East European states integrate with the West. Zieleniec told Christopher that the Czech Republic is not requesting immediate full membership in NATO but said that this remains an objective. He also urged an active Western policy to check the threat of neocommunism in the region. The State Department says the US has no position yet on expanding NATO membership to Eastern Europe and will remain non-committal in bilateral discussions. Jan Obrman R†HE IN PRAGUE. German Defense Minister Volker RŸhe arrived in Prague for a two-day official visit, CTK reports on 7 October. RŸhe held talks with President Vaclav Havel, Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus, and First Deputy Foreign Minister Alexander Vondra. In an interview with Czech TV, RŸhe said that NATO "cannot remain a closed society," and that the issue at hand was not to have "new members join old NATO, but new members join new NATO." When asked about Russian President Boris Yeltsin's recent letter concerning NATO membership for Central European states, RŸhe stressed that Russia is "not categorically opposed to an extension of NATO, but that it wants to take part in the building of a new European security system." Following his meeting with the German defense minister, Klaus told journalists that the Czech Republic's joining NATO could be considered a "long-term issue." A spokesman for Havel said that the president had informed RŸhe about Czech interest in joining NATO, but that Havel, at the same time, understands that NATO has to accept new members gradually. Meanwhile, Slovakia is reportedly concerned about RŸhe's recent statements on the prospects for post-communist states wishing to join NATO. The Slovak daily Narodna obroda quoted RŸhe as having said that while he supports NATO membership for Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic, "it will be necessary to closely follow developments in Slovakia." Jan Obrman MECIAR REMAINS MOST POPULAR IN SLOVAKIA AS APATHY GROWS. According to a September poll of the Slovak Statistical Office, Premier Vladimir Meciar is still the most popular politician in Slovakia, with the trust of 22% of citizens, TASR reports on 7 October. Next are President Michal Kovac with 17%, Party of the Democratic Left Chairman Peter Weiss with 15%, Parliament Chairman Ivan Gasparovic with 8% and Deputy Premier Roman Kovac with 6%. Trust for most politicians fell from previous polls, while the percentage of the population which does not find any politician trustworthy soared to 47%, which is 9% more than in July. Support for political parties showed a similar trend, as trust in most parties has declined since July, Slovak media reported on 7 October. The most popular party is still the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, with 15%, followed by the PDL with 12%, and the Slovak National Party and the Christian Democratic Movement both with 7%. Meanwhile, 45% of the population does not sympathize with any party, up 5% from July. -Sharon Fisher SLOVAK PREMIER VISITS BAVARIA. Vladimir Meciar was in Munich on 7 October for a one-day visit, where he had discussions with political and business leaders concerning increased cooperation between Slovakia and Bavaria. Following talks with Meciar, Bavarian Prime Minister Edmund Stoiber told journalists that he favors the admission of the Central European countries into the EC and NATO and said that "no country will receive preferential treatment in this process." Sharon Fisher HUNGARY POSTS FOREIGN TRADE DEFICIT. According to data published by the Ministry of International Economic Relations on 6 October, at the end of August Hungary's foreign trade deficit was about $2.32-billion, MTI reports. Exports during the first eight months stood at $5.24 billion, a 25% drop compared to the same period last year. Imports were $7.56 billion, an increase of 2.1% compared to the first eight months of 1992. Agricultural and food exports fell the most, by 37.4%. There was a slight increase in the import of consumer goods and food products. Edith Oltay ROMANIAN FOREIGN MINISTER ON TREATY WITH HUNGARY. In an interview in the 7 October issue of the Hungarian-language paper Romaniai Magyar Szo, Teodor Melescanu called Hungary's willingness to discuss the inclusion of a border clause in the Romanian-Hungarian state treaty "an important step forward." Romania, for its part, was ready to accept the wording in the national minority clause by which it would commit itself to respect internationally recognized norms on the treatment of minorities. Melescacanu suggested that the text of the treaty could be finalized and signed before Hungary's next general elections to be held sometime between May and July 1994, and said Jeszenszky had assured him Hungary wanted the same should the two sides agree on a mutually acceptable text. Alfred Reisch ROMANIA JOINS THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE. On 7-October Romania was formally admitted as a full member to the Council of Europe. The brief admission ceremony took place in Vienna, one day before the Strasbourg-based organization began its first-ever summit meeting. Romania first applied for membership in March 1990, but doubts about its democratic progress and human rights record delayed its admission for almost four years. Radio Bucharest reported extensively on the ceremony, which included speeches by the Council's Secretary General Catherine Lalumiere, Romanian Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu and Austrian Foreign Minister Alois Mock, who is currently President of the Council's Committee of Ministers. Both Lalumiere and Mock stressed that the moment represented the beginning, not the end of Romania's process of adjustment to European standards and values. Romania will be represented at the Vienna summit by President Ion Iliescu. Dan Ionescu ROMANIAN INTELLIGENCE DIRECTOR RECONFIRMED. A joint panel of the Parliament's two houses recommended on 7 October that Virgil Magureanu, Director of the Romanian Intelligence Service, be confirmed in his position for a second term. Radio Bucharest said that five of the committee's members voted in Magureanu's favor, while one voted against and three abstained. A joint session of the both houses will give a final decision on the appointment next week. Magureanu, a rather controversial figure, was nominated by President Ion Iliescu, and has acted as director since March 1990, when the service was created to replace the former communist Securitate. Magureanu's political neutrality has been repeatedly questioned by the democratic opposition. Dan Ionescu NEW UKRAINIAN DEFENSE MINISTER. On 8 October the Ukrainian parliament confirmed the appointment of a new defense minister nominated by President Leonid Kravchuk. He is Lt. Gen. Vitalii Zaretsky, the commander of the Odessa military district. Bohdan Nahaylo ZLENKO MEETS CLINTON. Ukrainian Foreign Minister Anatolii Zlenko met with President of the United States Bill Clinton in Washington DC on 7 October, Ukrainian television reported. The two discussed Ukrainian-American relations, particularly the expansion of economic ties and technical cooperation. On 6 October Ukrainian television reported that Zlenko met with Secretary of Trade Roland Brown and Senator Joseph Biden. Discussions touched on the subjects of trade, Ukrainian-American relations, problems of global security and nuclear disarmament. Ustina Markus ENERGY CRISIS BECOMING CRITICAL IN BELARUS. On 7 October Belinform reported that the energy crisis in Belarus has reached a critical level. Within a month and a half it is possible that enterprises will begin to shut down because of fuel shortages. The fact that Belarus is, for all practical purposes, out of the ruble zone, has made it impossible for the country to purchase oil from Russia because it does not have the rubles demanded by Moscow for payment. The gas shortage has led to increased use of heavy oil. As a result, Belarus's heavy oil reserves are decreasing by 5,000 tons daily and will be depleted within a month and a half. Only 43% of the gas needed to produce Belarus's energy is being received, and the republic's debt for gas is 119 billion rubles. The director of "Minskenergo," Yurii Nikitin, said that the country would run out of oil before it could effectively join the ruble zone. Therefore, in order to keep Belarusian enterprises running, it was necessary to come to an agreement with Russia and Lithuania over a system for fuel payments. Ustina Markus RUSSIAN MINISTERS TURNING BLIND EYE TO "DNIESTER" INVOLVEMENT IN PUTSCH? ALTHOUGH THE PARTICIPATION OF "DNIESTER" COMMANDOS IN THE MOSCOW REBELLION HAS BEEN NOTED BY BORIS YELTSIN AND OTHER SENIOR RUSSIAN OFFICIALS AND DOCUMENTED BY THE RUSSIAN MEDIA, THE RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT IS SHOWING NO SIGNS OF ALTERING ITS POLICY TOWARDS MOLDOVA AND THE "DNIESTER REPUBLIC." Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev told Radio Rossii on 4 October that the involvement of Dniester and Abkhaz fighters is a matter that "has nothing to do with the defense of the interests of those autonomous regions." Those fighters were acting in their own name as "wild geese," he added. Minister of Internal Affairs Viktor Erin, at a news conference on 7 October reported by ITAR-TASS, dismissed as mere "rumors" the involvement of Dniester and ex-Baltic OMON fighters in the rebellion. Moldovan President Mircea Snegur appealed to Yeltsin on 22 September and 3 October strongly endorsing the Russian president's actions and describing the "Dniester republic" as their common adversary. It will be recalled that after the 1991 attempted coup in Moscow, Moldova, which supported the Russian democratic forces, failed to persuade the Russian government to drop its pro-communist "Dniester" client. Vladimir Socor TWO FURTHER INCIDENTS IN LITHUANIAN MILITARY. Five members of the Volunteer Home Guard Service in Kaunas have been arrested for stealing 20 Kalashnikov automatic rifles to sell on the black market, BNS reported on 7 October. Meanwhile Lietuvos rytas reported that on 5 October guards at the Vilnius military school failed to prevent an unauthorized truck from entering its facilities. They called the police to prevent the taking away of large stocks of aluminum warehoused there. It remains unclear who owns the aluminum, but Major V. Mizgaitis' reported efforts to allow its removal lend veracity to the frequent charges that some military personnel are engaged in illegal "business" deals. Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Vera Tolz and Stan Markotich THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. 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