|The fool wonders, the wise man asks. - Benjamin Disraeli|
No. 191, 05 October 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA SITUATION IN MOSCOW. The White House continued to burn throughout the night of 4-5 October. An overnight curfew was imposed in Moscow and the city authorities said some 5,000 militiamen were on duty. Sniper fire continued and shooting was reported from districts in the vicinity of the parliament. Early in the morning of 5 October, the headquarters of the ITAR-TASS news agency came under fire. One person was reported killed and several were injured. Outside Moscow the country was reported calm, though anti-Yeltsin demonstrations were reported in St. Petersburg and some other cities. -Elizabeth Teague OPPOSITION LEADERS ARRESTED. The top leaders of the hard-line opposition, Ruslan Khasbulatov, Aleksandr Rutskoi and General Albert Makashov, surrendered after government forces stormed the White House on 4 October; they were taken to the Ministry of Security's Lefortovo Prison. Several Western TV stations broadcast scenes of the arrest. Prior to their surrender, Khasbulatov and Rutskoi had asked that Western ambassadors guarantee their safety; the Belgian Embassy played a mediating role. Rutskoi told French journalists shortly before his arrest that he had never used his weapon in the fighting. Khasbulatov said that he had nothing to do with the violent actions of White House supporters in Moscow during the night of 3-4 October. -Alexander Rahr CASUALTY FIGURES RELEASED. On 5 October ITAR-TASS reported that according to the Main Medical Directorate of Moscow the total casualties from 9-am on 3 October to 6 am on 5-October numbered some 526 people. Of this number some 421 were hospitalized. Fifty-nine people were reported to have died during this period. -John Lepingwell CHERNOMYRDIN MEETS REPUBLICAN AND REGIONAL LEADERS. Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin held a meeting with the heads of administration of the regions and republican leaders in Moscow on the afternoon of 4 October, ITAR-TASS reported. Chernomyrdin said that he was going to ask Yeltsin to bring the meeting of the Federation Council forward from 9 to 5 October. He said that the draft agreement on the formation of the council and its statutes were ready. The meeting adopted a joint statement on the political situation in Russia fully supporting all the recent measures taken by Yeltsin and calling on local authorities to carry out all the president's and government's decree since 21-September and ensure the uninterrupted functioning of industry, transport, and communications. -Ann Sheehy FUTURE OF FEDERATION COUNCIL TO BE RETHOUGHT? NIKOLAI MEDVEDEV, HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT FOR WORK WITH THE TERRITORIES IN YELTSIN'S ADMINISTRATION, TOLD ITAR-TASS ON 5-OCTOBER THAT THE MEETING OF THE FEDERATION COUNCIL RESCHEDULED FOR 5-OCTOBER HAD BEEN POSTPONED. Yeltsin's press secretary Vyacheslav Kostikov told ITAR-TASS in a telephone interview that this was because of the new political situation. Kostikov stated that the role of the Federation Council and its political fate needed to be rethought. After all, he said, some subjects of the federation had supported the putchisty. Clearly Yeltsin feels he no longer needs the regions now in his battle with the parliament and is determined to put them back in their place, but this may not be so easy. -Ann Sheehy MEDVEDEV HOLDS SOME REGIONAL SOVIETS PARTLY TO BLAME. Medvedev told ITAR-TASS that some of the krai and oblast soviets deserved a large part of the blame for what happened in Moscow, since their rejection of Yeltsin's decree of 21 September influenced the attitude of Khasbulatov and Rutskoi, ITAR-TASS reported on 5 October. Medvedev said the soviets of Belgorod, Novosibirsk, Chelyabinsk, Kemerovo, Tambov, Lipetsk, Saratov, and Bryansk Oblasts should be disbanded and reelected. Medvedev said several republican parliaments and in particular the Mordovian were also guilty of rejecting Yeltsin's decree. Medvedev added that he got the impression at the meeting of the heads of administration of the regions with Chernomyrdin on 4 October that the regional elites had not realized yet that the president's power had been radically strengthened and that the regions and republics could no longer be seen as playing the key role. -Ann Sheehy YELTSIN'S FOES TO BE PROSECUTED, STEPANKOV SAYS. Russian Prosecutor-General Valentin Stepankov appeared on the Russian TV news show "Vesti" at 1730 on 4 October to assure the audience that all those involved in violent resistence to the president would be brought to justice. Stepankov himself sided with the parliament against Yeltsin up to 21-September but changed sides on the eve of Yeltsin's decree banning the parliament. -Julia Wishnevsky MOSCOW CITY AND DISTRICT SOVIETS SUSPENDED. On 4 October President Yeltsin issued a decree suspending the activities of the Moscow City Soviet and a number of raion soviets in the city that had come out against him, RFE/RL correspondents reported. The premises of the soviets were sealed. The deputies reportedly did not resist the action. Vera Tolz OPPOSITION GROUPS SUSPENDED. Following the disturbances in Moscow, the Russian government suspended the actitivities of a number of extreme nationalist and Communist opposition groups, ITAR-TASS reported on 4 October. Among the suspended groups are the National Salvation Front, the Russian Communist Party, the Communist Youth Organization (Komsomol) and the Officers' Union. Interviewed by RFE/RL on 4 October, a leader of the Russian Komsomol said he and other members of the organization would "continue working underground." He did not elaborate. -Vera Tolz MINISTRY OF INFORMATION SUSPENDS PUBLICATION OF OPPOSITION NEWSPAPERS. The Ministry of Information issued a resolution closing down newspapers published by "groups that have taken part in mass disturbances and other illegal actions in the city of Moscow," ITAR-TASS reported on 4-October. The closures, according to the resolution, are one of the measures taken in the city following President Yeltsin's decree imposing a state of emergency in the Russian capital. Among the newspapers whose publication is being suspended are the pro-Communist and nationalist Pravda, Den and Sovetskaya Rossiya. In an interview with RFE/RL the deputy chief editor of Pravda questioned the legality of the action, saying the newspaper is no longer an organ of the Communist Party but is an independent newspaper, established by its staff members. None of them took part in the disturbances in the Russian capital, he said. -Vera Tolz CENSORSHIP OF MOSCOW NEWSPAPERS INTRODUCED. An RFE/RL correspondent reported on 4-October that a meeting of the Russian government chaired by Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin discussed the possibility of introducing censorship of the newspapers published in Moscow and not closed by the Ministry of Information. This was reported to be a temporary measure during the state of emergency. The legislation on a state of emergency permits such censorship. According to the report, only military censors are currently available in Russia to do the job. Later in the day Igor Chernyak of Komsomolskaya pravda told RFE/RL that a censor had already started work at his newspaper but his interference had been limited. -Julia Wishnevsky PEOPLE'S PARTY OF FREE RUSSIA CONDEMNS RUTSKOI. The People's Party of Free Russia, set up by Aleksandr Rutskoi in 1991, has denounced its leader, ITAR-TASS reported. The party had already come out against Rutskoi when earlier in the year he became increasingly close ideologically to the extreme nationalist position of the National Salvation Front. The chaiman of the coordination council of the Party, Vasilii Lipitsky, told RFE/RL later in the day that the headquarters of the youth branch of the party in Moscow had been searched. Lipitsky criticized the action, saying it make him feel concerned over the future of democratic developments in Russia.-Vera Tolz EVENTS IN ST. PETERSBURG. On 4 October about 2,000 people held a meeting in St.-Petersburg organized by the pro-Yeltsin Democratic Russia movement, an RFE/RL correspondent reported. Meanwhile, members of the opposition gathered in the city to protest the detention of the controversial opposition St. Petersburg TV reporter Aleksandr Nevzorov in suburban Zelenogorsk. Nevzorov and an unidentified companion were reportedly detained for carrying weapons, but were soon released. Later on 4 October some 1,000 demonstrators opposed to Yeltsin mobbed the St.-Petersburg TV center, demanding they be given the right to broadcast their views, Reuters reported. OMON special forces guarding the building refused them access and the unarmed demonstrators left after an hour and a half. -Vera Tolz BARANNIKOV DISCHARGED. Russian President Boris Yeltsin has discharged former Security Minister Viktor Barannikov from the military, ITAR-TASS reported on 4-October. Barannikov was fired from his post as Security Minister in July allegedly because of the poor performance of Russian border guards in the fighting on the Tajik-Afghan border. During the current crisis Barannikov supported the parliamentary side, and has reportedly been involved in organizing the defense of the White House. -John Lepingwell BAN ON TRANSACTIONS IN FOREIGN CASH. The Russian Central Bank is to ban all transactions in foreign cash effective 1 January 1994, Reuters reported on 5-October, citing Interfax. Enterprises are to hand in all foreign banknotes to banks by 31 December. Transactions using hard-currency credit and charge cards and other internationally accepted forms of dealing will still be permitted. Permission to trade in foreign cash will be withheld effective 1 November. Reuters also cited a television interview with Finance Minister Boris Fedorov who said that Russian banks held $11 billion in deposits from private citizens and enterprises. Fedorov claimed that government reserves had doubled, and that 75-80% of rubles in circulation are now backed by hard currency. -Keith Bush TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA GEORGIAN GOVERNMENT FORCES RETAKE KHONI. Georgian troops retook the western town of Khoni, occupied on 3 October by forces loyal to ousted president Zviad Gamsakhurdia, during the morning of 4 October and now control the surrounding region, Reuters reported quoting a Georgian Interior Ministry spokesman. In Warsaw, the chief Georgian delegate to the CSCE conference made a dramatic appeal to the West to sever diplomatic and economic relations with Georgia should Gamsakhurdia's troops overthrow the Shevardnadze leadership by force, according to an RFE/RL correspondent. Liz Fuller AZERBAIJAN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS RESULTS. To the surprise of no one, Azerbaijan Parliament Chairman Geidar Aliev won an estimated 90 per cent of the votes in the 3 October presidential election, AFP reported. Voter turnout for the country as a whole was 96.8 per cent. In Aliev's home base of Nakhichevan, where ousted President Abulfaz Elchibey has taken refuge and adherents of the Azerbaijan Popular Front staged an abortive attempt to interrupt voting, voter turnout was 96 per cent, of whom 99.1 per cent voted for Aliev, an RFE/RL correspondent reported.--Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE UNPROFOR TO STAY SIX MORE MONTHS IN CROATIA. The UN Security Council voted on 4 October by 15-0 to approve Resolution 871 extending the mandate of the more than 20,000 peace-keepers in the former Yugoslavia, including 12,600 in Croatia. Russia voted for the measure it had earlier questioned because of implied sanctions against Serbia if Belgrade continues to support Serb rebels in Croatia. The Los Angeles Times on 5 October says that the text uses a "complex, convoluted way" of making the point to the Serbs, adding that US Ambassador Madeleine K. Albright underscored the warning by telling the Council that "the Serbian authorities must stop their interference in the internal affairs of Croatia." Reuters comments that the Croats did not get as tough a resolution as they had originally hoped for, but the Croatian media have been upbeat in their coverage of it and Vjesnik runs the headline: "Croatian demands accepted." It also quotes UN Ambassador Mario Nobilo as calling 871 the most important UN resolution on Croatia to date. -Patrick Moore MORE FIGHTING BETWEEN MUSLIMS IN BIHAC POCKET. Borba of 5 October reports that at least nine people have died in fighting between forces loyal to Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic and those supporting the break-away leader of the Cazina region, Fikret Abdic. The first reported blood was spilled on 3 October when Izetbegovic's troops stormed a radio station, and now both sides blame each other for continued fighting and shelling. Abdic has called for UNPROFOR to come to the region and for the involvement of international negotiators, while Izetbegovic has sent him an ultimatum demanding that Abdic surrender or risk the destruction of government offices and his Agrokomerc business complex. Abdic says that what is at stake is the local people's "free will to live in peace in their own land." -Patrick Moore SEPARATISTS CALL FOR BIG RALLIES IN KOSOVO. The Party for Albanian National Unity (UNIKOMB) repeated a call for the unification of "the ethnic Albanian territories, which are divided and conquered by the Slavic enemies," Rilindja reports on 2 October. At a press conference in Pristina, party leader Bajrush Behrami said that the forms of protest should center on "peaceful, active resistance" which means "massive protests and rallies." Rilindja says Behrami stressed the growing cooperation among all Albanian parties, "especially among those calling for the unity of (ethnic) Albanian territory in their programs." The UNIKOMB is part of the Coordination Council of the Albanian Political Parties in Ex-Yugoslavia, which met in Pristina on 7-September and which aims at building a policy consensus among them. The unity of all "ethnic Albanian territory," however, is the policy neither of the Coordination Council nor of the largest party, the Democratic League of Kosovo, which simply calls for the sovereignty of the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo and the recognition of Albanians in Macedonia as a "people of the state" instead of as an ethnic minority. -Fabian Schmidt POLISH POLITICAL UPDATE. Final results of the 19-September parliamentary elections were published on 4 October, meaning that any complaints about the results must be submitted by 11 October. Experts of the Democratic Left Alliance, the Polish Peasant Party and the Labor Union plan to have "the framework of a coalition program" ready to present to President Lech Walesa by 7 October, PAP reported on 4 October. The other parties that won parliamentary representation reaffirmed their intent to remain in opposition. The Democratic Union offered the liberals a merger. The Confederation for an Independent Poland said that it would have to represent the interests of the center-right parties not represented in parliament. Its leader Leszek Moczulski forecasts that public discontent could force new elections in Spring 1994. The Nonparty Reform Bloc transformed itself into an association. Its patron Walesa urged activists at a 4 October meeting to cooperate with other post-Solidarity groups in the creation of a strong center-right force. Most of the right-of-center parties that failed to win parliamentary representation are still in disarray and preoccupied with internal retribution. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka POLES REACT TO NATO DISCUSSION. At a press conference in Warsaw on 4 October, Foreign Minister Krzysztof Skubiszewski said that Poland's objective of NATO membership is irreversible. "Poland expects NATO's confirmation in January that Poland's admission lies in its (NATO's) interest," he said. Referring to Russian President Boris Yeltsin's recent letter to the principal NATO allies, warning against over-hasty broadening of the alliance, Skubiszewski expressed confidence in Yeltsin's commitment to the principle of sovereignty of states. He said that NATO has to adapt itself to the post-Cold War situation in Europe and that Poland's geo-strategic position enables it to play a stabilizing pro-reform role with regard to the East. He said any isolation of Russia was out of the question but rejected any Russian security guarantees for Poland since "such guarantees had not led to anything positive in the past." -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka CZECH AND SLOVAK OFFICIALS EXPRESS SUPPORT FOR YELTSIN. Czech President Vaclav Havel has, in several interviews on 4 October, urged support for Russian President Boris Yeltsin. Havel said that the crisis in Moscow was not the result of a power struggle, but rather a fight between democracy and totalitarianism. In an interview with CTK, Havel was quoted as saying that he is "disappointed" with former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. Havel said that Gorbachev's recent comments on the Russian crisis indicate that he is linked with the opponents of democracy. Meanwhile on 4-October TASR reported the reactions of several top Slovak officials to the events in Russia, all of which were supportive of President Yeltsin. Slovak President Michal Kovac said "since the very beginning, we have been supporting democratic forces concentrated around President Boris Yeltsin." He also said "the conservative politicians are fully responsible for the looting, violence and bloodshed in Moscow." Jan Obrman and Sharon Fisher SLOVAKS, CZECHS SIGN ASSOCIATION AGREEMENTS WITH EC. Czech Foreign Minister Jozef Zieleniec and Slovak Premier Vladimir Meciar were in Luxembourg on 4 October for the signing of their respective countries' Association Agreements with the EC. Meciar said, "by signing this agreement, Slovakia expressed that it wants to become a part of a stable and prosperous Europe, developing its market economy and respecting human rights and civil liberties," TASR reports. The agreements, which provide for the gradual opening of the European market to Czech and Slovak products, replace Czechoslovakia's agreement with the EC, which was signed in December 1991. The new agreements include articles on human rights, especially for minorities, as well as on the respect for democracy and a market economy. -Sharon Fisher HUNGARIAN-SLOVAK MILITARY ACCORD. Hungarian Defense Minister Lajos Fur and his Slovak counterpart Imrich Andrejcak signed a bilateral cooperation accord between their respective ministries on 4 October in Budapest. The accord provides for the mutual exchange of information in case of larger troop movements, exchange of military observers, and coordinated air defense and aviation steps in border areas. The two ministers said they hoped the agreement will strengthen mutual trust and friendship between Hungary and Slovakia; they came out in support of Russia's President Boris Yeltsin. Fur and Andrejcak also discussed the acquisition of MiG-29 combat aircraft from Russia by their respective air force and the possibility of training Hungarian pilots at Slovakia's air force officers' school in Kosice, MTI reports. -Alfred Reisch HUNGARIAN PRIME MINISTER TO GERMANY FOR TREATMENT. Prime Minister Jozsef Antall told parliament on 4 October that he will be receiving medical treatment in Cologne for approximately four weeks, MTI reports. Antall is suffering from a curable lymph gland cancer, and has been undergoing chemotherapy since 1990. Thus far, Antall's illness has interfered little with his ability to carry out his duties as prime minister. During Antall's absence, Interior Minister Peter Boross will be substituting for the prime minister but Antall will be consulted on major issues and remain in regular touch with the government. -Edith Oltay HUNGARIAN SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC PARTIES UNITE. On 3 October three social democratic parties united and adopted the name Social Democratic Party of Hungary (SDPH), MTI and Radio Budapest report. The parties' leaderships voted for the unification in preparation for the 1994 national elections. Personal rivalries have until now prevented the emergence of a united social democratic party with a program distinct from that of the former reform communists. The SDPH elected Zoltan Kiraly as its chairman. Continuing the process of democratization, joining Europe, and economic reforms will form the basis of its program. -Edith Oltay COUNCIL OF EUROPE MINISTERS APPROVE ROMANIA'S FULL MEMBERSHIP. The Council of Europe's Committee of Ministers approved Romania's full membership on the Council of Europe on 4 October, an RFE/RL correspondent and Radio Bucharest reported on 4-October. The action clears the way for Romania's formal entry as the Council's 32nd member state on 7 October, at a ceremony to be held in Vienna. President Ion Iliescu is expected to attend a Council summit meeting there on 8 October. Council officials in Strasbourg told an RFE/RL correspondent that the admission was approved with one abstention-that of Hungary. In an interview with Radio Bucharest Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu said Hungary had nonetheless congratulated Romania on its admission. Budapest's abstention allowed the consensus necessary for the membership of the new state. -Michael Shafir ROMANIA ADJUSTING FOR NATO MEMBERSHIP. National Defense Minister Nicolae Spiroiu says Romania is adjusting its legislation on all military activities so as to be ready for eventual membership in the NATO alliance. Spiroiu spoke in parliament on 4 October, an RFE/RL correspondent reports. He said Romania wanted to be at European standards when the question of NATO membership becomes reality. Leaders of the NATO alliance are to discuss the issue of eventual prospective membership for East European countries at their January summit, but NATO officials have already said that an early expansion of NATO was unlikely. -Michael Shafir UDF ENDS "THEORETICAL CONFERENCE." At a so-called "National Theoretical Conference" of the Union of Democratic Forces, in Sofia on 2 and 3 October, leading UDF personalities emphasized the need to maintain organizational unity though at the same time adapting to the new political conditions in Bulgaria. In assessing the current tactics of the alliance, Ventseslav Dimitrov defended the current "dual character" of the UDF, in its capacity as a coalition of independent parties and at the same time a popular movement, rejecting the idea of transforming it into a regular political party. Others said the coalition needs to seek out new allies in Bulgarian society, especially among trade unions sympathetic to the UDF. Demokratsiya carried the report on 4 and 5-October. -Kjell Engelbrekt UKRAINIAN DEFENSE MINISTER RESIGNS. Ukraine's Minister of Defense, Konstantin Morozov, resigned on 4 October because of political conflicts within parliament, various agencies reported. Morozov had been appointed defense minister by President Leonid Kravchuk in September 1991 and was a strong supporter of Ukrainian independence. His commitment to giving up the nuclear weapons on Ukrainian territory alienated many nationalists, however, who see these as the best deterrence against Russia. The pro-Russian hard-liners, on the other hand, opposed him because of his refusal to cooperate with the CIS in military affairs and his measures to Ukrainianize the army. On 21 September parliament had voted no confidence in the government reducing Morozov's position to Acting Minister of Defense. Morozov, and five other key ministers, were due to be confirmed in their posts on 5-October. In his letter of resignation Morozov stated that his decision was based on the fear that his nomination would cause a split within parliament and he did not want the army dragged into "political games." Kravchuk accepted his resignation and offered the post to deputy Defense Minister Ivan Bizhan. -Ustina Markus RUSSIAN TROOPS TO LEAVE BELARUS IN 1996. The press service of the Belarusian Ministry of Defense announced that the withdrawal of Russian troops from the country should be completed in 1996 instead of 1998, when all nuclear weapons should be removed under the Lisbon Protocol, Belarusian television reported on 1 October. Russian Strategic Rocket Forces guard the nuclear weapons in Belarus and are to be withdrawn once the weapons are removed. Unlike Ukraine, Belarus has ratified both START-1 and the NPT agreement, and has declared its intention to be nuclear free within two years, rather than the seven allowed for by the Protocol. Currently it is believed that there are some 35-40,000 Russian servicemen in Belarus, although unofficial estimates say the number is much higher. Many of these are not part of the rocket forces, but troops who have ended up in the republic while being withdrawn from Eastern Europe and cannot be taken further to Russia because there is no housing for them there. The new timetable for the withdrawal still has to be ratified by the Russian and Belarusian parliaments. Ustina Markus MOLDOVA SUPPORTS YELTSIN. On the evening of 3-October, as rebels were advancing in Moscow, President Mircea Snegur cabled President Yeltsin with the message that "the Moldovan leadership and people strongly condemn the pro-communist and pro-imperial forces" working against Yeltsin's reforms. According to Basa Press Snegur, in what was his third official statement of support for Yeltsin since 21 September, urged the Russian president to "a decisive victory" and expressed the hope that Russia would continue along the path of genuine democratic reforms. Snegur noted that "the involvement of armed groups of the 'Dniester' communist-military regime in the rebellion in Moscow demonstrates yet again the close links between Russia's reactionary forces and the 'Dniester' leaders." This last remark was omitted by Ostankino TV's coverage of Snegur's message. Vladimir Socor MORE ON "DNIESTER" FIGHTERS IN MOSCOW. Confirming reports of "Dniester" Russians being involved in recent events in Moscow, ITAR-TASS and Russian TV reported on 2 and 3 October that residents of Tiraspol and Bendery participated in the unauthorized rally in Moscow's Smolensk Square, which sparked the armed rebellion, and attacked the police. Petr Filippov, a member of Yeltsin's Presidential Council and director of its analytical center, told Radio Mayak on 4-October that the police had "faced organized bands . . . which had killed people in Moldova and Abkhazia." Vladimir Socor BALTIC PRESIDENTS SUPPORT YELTSIN. On 4 October Baltic Presidents Lennart Meri (Estonia), Guntis Ulmanis (Latvia), and Algirdas Brazauskas (Lithuania) issued a joint statement supporting Russian President Boris Yeltsin in his struggle against the Russian parliament, Radio Lithuania reports. It noted that the struggle in Moscow was "a contest between a democratically elected president and anti-democratic power structures." Alongside other world democracies, the Baltic States supported Yeltsin's plans to hold free and democratic elections in Russia and his plans for accelerating the pace of reform. -Saulius Girnius WORLD BANK AND EBRD MISSIONS IN ESTONIA. On 4 October Estonian Prime Minister Mart Laar met with missions from the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in Tallinn to discuss the possibility of receiving credits for resolving problems in rural Estonia, BNS reports. The missions noted that the country's economic policies make it easier for Estonia to obtain credits from non-government sources. World Bank assistance could help Estonian banks to establish a credit resource worth tens of millions of US dollars which could be used to provide loans to the farm sector. The EBRD was asked to invest in the privatization of a large textile plant in Narva and the Estonian Shipping Co. as well as help update the country's infrastructure, and modernize the ports and energy sector. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Bess Brown and Stan Markotich THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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