|Human life is but a series of footnotes to a vast obscure unfinished masterpiece. - Vladimir Nabokov|
No. 190, 04 October 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA SITUATION AT WHITE HOUSE UNCLEAR; KHASBULATOV STILL DEFIANT. Paratroopers were reported by CNN at 12.20 Moscow time to have taken over the first five floors of the White House; Yeltsin-loyalist troops must by now be in control of Parliament Chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov's office and that of Vice-President Aleksandr Rutskoi. Khasbulatov's office has come under fire from tanks on the street outside. As of 1 p.m. Moscow time fire was raging in some of the offices on upper floors of the White House and riot police had arrived, presumably to disperse a crowd of several thousand bystanders on the bridge close to the White House. Khasbulatov and Rutskoi were refusing to surrender or leave the building. -Elizabeth Teague RUTSKOI SEEKS NEGOTIATIONS. Rutskoi was reported by CNN on the morning of 4-October to have asked for negotiations with the Russian government. A spokesman for the government said however that the assault on the parliament building by troops loyal to Yeltsin would end only when the fighters inside had surrendered. Rutskoi's offer followed several hours of gunfire around the parliament building and attacks by troops loyal to the president. Before the assault on the parliament building started Russian TV broadcast President Boris Yeltsin's taped address in which the president said that "the armed fascist rebellion in Moscow would be suppressed." -Vera Tolz RUSSIAN ARMY ON THE OFFENSIVE. TV and news agency reports indicate that the forces involved in the assault on the White House are drawn from a number of units based near Moscow. The Taman Guards division apparently started the attack, with support from the Interior Ministry's Dzherzhinsky division. The latter was formerly a special division under the KGB and is comparatively heavily armed for Interior Ministry forces. Units drawn from the airborne division based in Tula are reportedly storming the building. The Pskov airborne division has also apparently been deployed in Moscow. The size of the pro-Yeltsin force is thus much greater than that which appears to be deployed around the White House, suggesting that substantial reserves are available. -John Lepingwell CHERNOMYRDIN CONVENING FEDERATION COUNCIL ON 4 OCTOBER. Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin is convening the Federation Council at 1400 hours Moscow time on 4-October, Radio Rossii reported on the evening of 3 October. This was stated by Constitutional Court chairman Valerii Zorkin after a meeting with Chernomyrdin. Earlier on 3 October Yeltsin had issued a decree calling a meeting of the Federation Council for 9 October, ITAR-TASS reported. Participants in a conference of subjects of the federation being held in the Constitutional Court building have appealed to Chernomyrdin, demanding that the force of the constitution be immediately and fully restored, that conditions be created urgently for the activity of the Supreme Soviet, that all shades of opinion be reflected in the mass media, and that the violence be halted, Radio Rossii reported. -Ann Sheehy CHERNOMYRDIN TO ASSUME PRESIDENCY IN CASE YELTSIN INCAPACITATED. Yeltsin has issued a decree stipulating that Prime Minister Chernomyrdin would assume presidential powers if Yeltsin could not carry out his duties, ITAR-TASS reported on 3-October. Presidential advisor Sergei Stankevich told Russian TV that Chernomyrdin has not been actually appointed Vice President. Yeltsin also ordered Aleksandr Rutskoi dismissed from the post of Vice President and fired from the armed forces. Russian TV carried an appeal of Chernomyrdin to the Russian population to support the government's use of force against the opposition. -Alexander Rahr ANTI-YELTSIN FORCES SEIZE MAYOR'S OFFICE. In the afternoon of 3 October thousands of anti-Yeltsin protesters gathered outside the parliament building and the Moscow mayor's office after breaking through police cordons on the city's Ring Road, ITAR-TASS reported. RFE/RL correspondents in Moscow said police offered surprisingly little resistance. The crowd began moving toward the mayor's office after being addressed at the parliament building by Vice-President Rutskoi, who urged them to attack the mayor's office and the Ostankino TV center. Parliamentary chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov also addressed the crowd, calling on the demonstrators to attack the Kremlin. Both Rutskoi and Khasbulatov issued an "Address to Russian People," stating that "the time to defend the motherland has come." The demonstrators seized and destroyed five stories of the Moscow's mayor's office and captured one official. The media said that two military men and two policemen were killed during the attack on the mayor's office. ITAR-TASS quoted a leader of the ultra-nationalist National Salvation Front Ilya Konstantinov as saying the protesters were armed with a variety of weapons "including armored personnel carriers." -Vera Tolz YELTSIN INTRODUCES STATE OF EMERGENCY. On the evening of 3 October, Radio Rossii broadcast the text of a decree issued by President Yeltsin introducing a state of emergency in the Russian capital until 10-October in connection "with attempts by extremist forces to provoke mass violence." -Vera Tolz FIGHT FOR OSTANKINO. In the evening of 3 October, anti-Yeltsin protesters armed with grenades seized the Ostankino broadcast center, shutting down the first Russian TV channel, ITAR-TASS and Western agencies reported. Ostankino's Radio Mayak also went off the air, but the Russian second TV channel continued to broadcast. A number of people were killed and wounded in the attack at Ostankino. Work at the ITAR-TASS office was briefly disrupted when protesters blockaded it. One of the main opposition demands has been that Russian TV give air time to its leaders. After Yeltsin introduced a state of emergency, government troops recaptured the broadcasting center during the night of 4 October and programming was restored. -Vera Tolz CHURCH MEDIATION FAILS TO BRING RESULTS. Speaking to reporters on 3 October, Khasbulatov described Yeltsin as a "criminal" and said there could be no negotiations with the Russian president to end the political standoff, ITAR-TASS reported. Khasbulatov made the statement after attending a church service inside the parliament building. Meanwhile, the next round of negotiations in Moscow's Danilov Monastery between representatives of the president and the parliament on ways to end the political standoff ended in the afternoon of 3 October without result. Presidential staff head Sergei Filatov said it was not clear when the talks could resume. RFE/RL correspondents reported that negotiations between representatives of the government and the parliament continued on the night of 4 October, without progress being made. On 3 October, the media reported that Patriarch Aleksii, who has been mediating in the negotiations, suffered from heart problems; earlier in the day he had conducted a church service to pray for peace in Russia, ITAR-TASS reported. -Vera Tolz GAIDAR CALLS PEOPLE TO SUPPORT PRESIDENT, GOVERNMENT. In the evening of 3-October, First Deputy Prime Minister Egor Gaidar called on citizens of Russia to support the president and government. Speaking on Russian TV, he said: "Honestly, tonight we need your support. We cannot place responsibility for saving democracy just on the police and internal ministry troops. We call those who are ready to support Russian democracy to assemble at the Moscow's mayor's office to protect our future, our children's future and to prevent making our country a huge concentration camp for decades." Indeed, according to ITAR-TASS and Western agencies late on 3 October thousands of Yeltsin's supporters gathered in the center of Moscow, including the Red Square, being ready to resist the actions of the opposition. -Vera Tolz REST OF RUSSIA REPORTED CALM. Most Russian cities, including St. Petersburg, were reported quiet, apparently untouched by the violence in Moscow. ITAR-TASS reported early in the morning of 4 October. -Elizabeth Teague WEST SUPPORTS USE OF FORCE BY YELTSIN. The United States, Britain, Germany and the European Community all expressed support for the use of force by Yeltsin against his conservative opponents in parliament on 3 and 4 October. Bill Clinton said "it is clear that the violence was perpetrated by the Rutskoi-Khasbulatov forces . . . it is also clear that President Yeltsin bent over backwards to avoid the use of force. . . ." Clinton added that the West cannot afford to give encouragement to Yeltsin's opponents by wavering in its support for Yeltsin. A spokesman for Britain's John Major said that the British Prime Minister's position was the same as that of Clinton. A spokesman for Germany's Helmut Kohl said, "we hope that President Yeltsin, who is the only freely elected and legitimate leader of the Russian people, can put his reforms into practice and that there are free elections soon." The European Community issued a statement of 4 October via Belgian Foreign Minister Willy Claes, saying, "we support this [use of force]. We only hope, of course, that order will come back with the minimum of casualties," A number of former Soviet republics, the first of which was Ukraine, also came out in support of Yeltsin. -Suzanne Crow MOSCOW DEPUTIES DETAINED. At least six deputies to the Moscow City Soviet were arrested by policemen loyal to Moscow Mayor Yurii Luzhkov when the city administration moved from their own headquarters-seized by supporters of the parliament-to the building of the City Council, RFE/RL correspondents in Moscow reported on 4 October. The group included Moscow Soviet Deputy Chairman Yurii Sedykh-Bondarenko and at least five members of the committee on legislation. They are members of the radical anti-communist faction of the council, who strongly opposed Luzhkov's appointment by the president, urging that the city's mayor be elected rather than appointed. They have also accused Luzhkov and his team of corruption. None of them are known to have been involved in the violent takeover of government buildings by communist hard-liners. -Julia Wishnevsky YELTSIN'S RIVAL CONDEMNS VIOLENCE IN MOSCOW. Liberal economist Grigorii Yavlinsky, Yeltsin's frontrunning competitor for the post of president, was among many speakers who addressed TV viewers in the early hours of 4 October from the reserve studio of Russian TV. Yavlinsky, who is reported to have been censored by Ostankino TV in the past, lambasted the actions of Yeltsin's opponents in the strongest terms possible, calling on the Russian President to undertake "the toughest measures" to cleanse the streets of Russian cities of the violence-prone "gangsters." Yavlinsky also called on his fellow countrymen to support the government by peaceful means.Julia Wishnevsky KHASBULATOV CRITICIZES REGIONS. Addressing a news conference on 2 October, Khasbulatov expressed disappointment that Russia's regions had not taken swifter action to protest Yeltsin's dissolution of parliament. Khasbulatov said he had been relying on the regions to apply economic sanctions, including disrupting railway services and oil pipelines. The legislatures in many Russian regions have condemned Yeltsin's action, but it seems that the regions are also profiting from the standoff in Moscow to increase their autonomy, so they have an interest in seeing it continue at least for a while. Meanwhile, the parliament in Sakha (Yakutia), Russia's largest diamond-producing region, on 2 October bucked the trend and voted in support of Yeltsin, ITAR-TASS reported. -Elizabeth Teague RUSSIA ASKS FOR MORE DEBT RELIEF. Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Shokhin told a Moscow news conference on 1 October that Russia is seeking further debt relief from its Western creditors, Reuters reported. A total of roughly $20 billion in principal and interest is due for repayment in 1994. Government and commercial creditors have already reduced that to about $6-billion, but Shokhin declared that Russia will be able to repay only some $2.5-billion next year. -Keith Bush WORLD BANK FRUSTRATION AT RUSSIAN DELAYS. World Bank President Lewis Preston told a news conference in Washington on 30 September that the Bank is "frustrated" over Russian delays in accepting and utilizing some of its credits, an RFE/RL correspondent reported. Preston cited a $90-million loan to aid the privatization process and a $70-million credit to finance a social safety net. Extension of the loans had been held up because parliament had not granted approval. -Keith Bush TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA GAMSAKHURDIA FORCES TAKE POTI, KHONI, VANI. Abkhaz troops continued on 1-October to liquidate pockets of resistance by Georgian government troops and advanced to the River Inguri (Abkhazia's southern border), ITAR-TASS reported. On 2 October forces loyal to ousted president Zviad Gamsakhurdia took the coastal town of Poti after a surprise ground and artillery attack in which at least ten Georgian government troops were killed, Western agencies reported. On 3 October Gamsakhurdia's troops advanced to occupy the towns of Vani and Khoni (former Tsulukidze), meeting little resistance from government forces which are concentrated 20 miles further east in Kutaisi, said a Georgian Ministry of Defense spokesman. -Liz Fuller PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS IN AZERBAIJAN. Speaking to journalists in Baku on 2-October, Azerbaijan parliament chairman and presidential candidate Geidar Aliev claimed that security officials had foiled a plot to assassinate him by a Turkish citizen and Azerbaijan Popular Front members with links to the extreme right wing Boz Gurd (Grey Wolves) organization, Turan reported. By late afternoon local time on 3 October some 88.5 per cent of the electorate had voted in the presidential elections, in which Aliev is expected to beat rival candidates Zakhir Tagiev, leader of the Gummet Party and Kirar Abilov of the United Azerbaijan Party. -Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE IMPASSE CONTINUES OVER UNPROFOR IN CROATIA. International media reported on 1-October that the UN Security Council voted to extend UNPROFOR's mandate in Croatia until 5 October as negotiations continue over the particulars of a proposed six-month extension of the term that ran out on 30 September. Vjesnik reported on 2 October that the resolution largely meets Croatian demands that UNPROFOR stop being primarily a buffer between Serb and Croat forces and become an active instrument for restoring Croatian sovereignty in the 30% of the republic's territory held by Serb rebels. The Zagreb daily specifically mentioned that the resolution calls for dividing the UNPROFOR command in Croatia from that in Bosnia and Macedonia; for returning the "pink zones" adjacent to Serb-held UN protected zones "to Croatian sovereignty"; for disarming Serb paramilitaries and restoring Croatian sovereignty to those zones themselves; for reviving rail, road, and other infrastructural links; for additional confidence-building measures; and for allowing UNPROFOR to engage in self-defense. Russia said it needs more time to consider the proposal, which reportedly has the backing of the remaining 14 members of the Security Council led by the United States, according to Croatian media. The hitch apparently stems from a clause calling for tightening economic sanctions against Serbia-Montenegro if Belgrade does not exercise a restraining influence on Croatia's Serb rebels. Borba, however, on 4 October quotes rebel leaders meeting over the weekend as reminding Belgrade not to leave them in the lurch. Zagreb, for its part, did not hide its bitterness at the Russian action, and the BBC's Croatian Service on 2-October quoted President Franjo Tudjman as calling Russia "Serbia's Bolshevik, Eastern Orthodox ally." Vjesnik ran a headline reading "one more Russian present for Serbia," while AFP quoted Tudjman as telling a military audience in Osijek that they might have to free "every last inch" of Croatian territory. -Patrick Moore CONFUSION OVER THE "BOSNIAN LIECHTENSTEIN." A complex picture is emerging regarding events surrounding the self-proclaimed autonomous Bihac pocket region of western Bosnia. President Alija Izetbegovic was quoted by Reuters on 2 October as calling local leader Fikret Abdic a traitor and a tribal chief, while Politika cites Abdic as urging UNPROFOR to intervene on behalf of what the Sueddeutsche Zeitung calls Abdic's would-be "Bosnian Liechtenstein." Western news agencies cite Sarajevo radio as reporting that Abdic has declared himself military commander of western Bosnia against the pro-Izetbegovic Fifth Corps and that pro-Abdic forces have blocked roads leading to his power base of Velika Kladusa. Reuters adds on 3-October that gunmen loyal to Izetbegovic shot up a Bihac radio station and killed the guard. Croatian media have been covering the entire Bihac pocket story with sympathy for Abdic from the start, while the Belgrade papers seem to regard it as a sort of comic opera between rival Muslims. -Patrick Moore "ANOTHER CAMPAIGN OF ARRESTS IN KOSOVO." The exile daily Rilindja reports on 1-October. The paper says that about 60 political activists of various Kosovar parties as well as ethnic Albanian former high-ranking Yugoslav army officers have been detained since 27-September. According to Serb authorities, more than 30-people have been detained since 23-September on the suspicion of preparing an armed uprising, international agencies report. According to Tanjug of 1 October, the Serbian Interior Ministry said that the detainees were part of a self-proclaimed "Ministry of Defense," adding that the police seized large quantities of arms, explosives and propaganda material. There is apparently no word on any comment from those detained, nor any independent confirmation of the Serbs' story. Meanwhile, Rilindja also reports about cases of torture and further human rights abuses all over the province. Elsewhere, in an interview given to the Kosovar daily Bujku, the president of the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo, Ibrahim Rugova, said that the question of Kosovo is not likely to be solved in the near future, adding that for Albania the "national question is on the back burner." The daily 24 ore carries the report on 3-October. -Fabian Schmidt REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA TO SEEK NATO MEMBERSHIP? ACCORDING TO THE 1 OCTOBER ISSUE OF NOVA MAKEDONIJA, THE GOVERNMENT IN SKOPJE HAS ASKED THE LEGISLATURE TO CONSIDER APPLYING FOR NATO MEMBERSHIP. Should the deputies decide to endorse the idea, admission would be an uphill battle both because of current NATO reticence to admit countries from Eastern Europe and because Greece would very likely seek to obstruct membership given the tenor of current Greek-Macedonian relations. -Duncan Perry POLISH REACTIONS TO MOSCOW EVENTS. In a statement published on 3 October, Poland's Foreign Affairs Ministry said it was following events in Moscow attentively and with great concern. It expressed regret that lives had been lost and stressed that Poland and the entire region were interested in the success of democratic reforms in Russia. Polish press comments on 4-October expressed concern for Poland's sovereignty and security. Aleksander Kwasniewski, leader of the Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland and of the Democratic Left Alliance told Gazeta Wyborcza that neither his party nor the alliance was interested "in cooperation with those who wished to rebuild Russia's imperialist tradition." -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka POLISH COALITION TALKS UPDATE. The social-democratic post-Solidarity Labor Union (UP), which has 41 seats in the Sejm, agreed on 1 October to join the Democratic Left Alliance and the Polish Peasant Party in negotiations aimed at establishing a common program of government. The UP made its participation in the potential coalition conditional on amendments in budgetary policy, taxation, and privatization. Experts of the three parties meet in 6 working groups on 4 October. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka SLOVAK PREMIER COMMENTS ON RECENT DEVELOPMENTS. On 3 October Vladimir Meciar met with foreign journalists to discuss minority issues. Regarding rights for ethnic Hungarians, Meciar said Slovakia is "afraid because some efforts to restore Greater Hungary have become apparent," TASR reports. He also said that the "rights of Slovak citizens cannot be subordinate to minority rights," but that he is willing to resolve the issue at the European level. Concerning the possibility of early elections, Meciar said they "will take place when they will be acceptable for us." According to Meciar, there is no danger that the Party of the Democratic Left will win the next election and he went on to say that "in Slovakia there will be a strong orientation towards the center." In a 1 October press conference, Meciar said "Slovakia unambiguously supports turning the Visegrad Group into a permanent institution, while Hungary and the Czech Republic are busy racing for early membership in the EC." He also said that Slovakia "follows no political aims" in its efforts to renew economic ties with Russia, TASR reports. -Sharon Fisher HUNGARIAN PRIME MINISTER SUPPORTS YELTSIN. Addressing the Moscow crisis on Hungarian television on 3 October Prime Minister Jozsef Antall reiterated support for Russian President Boris Yeltsin and expressed the belief that Yeltsin would be able to restore order, MTI reports. Antall said that Hungary was prepared for an emergency situation in which energy supplies coming from Russia could be cut. Hungary depends heavily on Russian oil, natural gas, and raw materials. -Edith Oltay HUNGARIAN DEMOCRATIC FORUM PREPARES FOR ELECTIONS. Hungarian Democratic Forum (HDF) managing chairman Sandor Lezsak told a meeting of the party's local organization on 2 October in Szolnok that the HDF has been able to overcome its crisis, and is capable of restoring its self-confidence in time for the 1994 national elections. He stressed that the "HDF must win the elections...[and]... a convincing electoral program must demonstrate that the country has no other choice [but to support the HDF]." Defense Minister and HDF presidium member Lajos Fur warned that the 1994 elections will decide whether the country will stay on the democratic path it had embarked on in 1990 or "swing toward the left." -Edith Oltay ILIESCU REACTS TO MOSCOW EVENTS. In what appeared to be a clear step back from his previous statement on the events in Russia, President Ion Iliescu refrained from openly backing Boris Yeltsin in the power struggle in Moscow. In a statement broadcast by Radio Bucharest on 3 October, Iliescu sought to take a neutral position, saying the use of force can only hamper Russia's democratization and that only "free, democratic elections" can ensure stability. He said Romania was backing "Russia's democratic forces" but failed to specify which of the two opposing camps in Moscow might be identified with these forces. -Michael Shafir ILIESCU OPPOSES SHOCK THERAPY. Romanian president Ion Iliescu says quick privatization and "shock therapy" are not the way to modernize the country's sluggish economy. Speaking in Bucharest on 2 October at the official launch of a mass education campaign by the government's National Privatization Agency which is assisted by the US International Development Agency, Iliescu said "the inertia of the economic system proved greater than the political one and cannot endure brusque and radical changes." His speech was broadcast by Radio Bucharest. The president said "shock therapy proved everywhere to be nothing but words which have not and cannot have . . . [the] . . . active support" of the population. He added that privatization was not an easy process and that any reorganization provokes disorganization. The most complicated job, he said, was to change the mentality of people. Iliescu also said that the most difficult enterprises to privatize were the 6,000 large state-owned enterprises. The speech was in stark contrast to remarks made by the Minister of State for Economic Reform and Strategy Mircea Cosea, who, in a press conference broadcast by Radio Bucharest one day earlier, said Romania must face difficult decisions in coming months if negotiations with the IMF are to be successfully concluded. In this connection he mentioned the ending of subsidies for large, inefficient state enterprises. -Michael Shafir NEW AGENCIES TO SUPERVISE BULGARIAN ARMS INDUSTRY. At an extra session on 1-October the government decided to set up an Interdepartmental Council on issues concerning Bulgaria's arms industry and mobilizational preparedness. Chaired by a deputy prime minister, the council will chiefly coordinate government policies, prepare plans for the future development of the arms industry, and license purchases and sales of weaponry. BTA says the council has also been charged with working out a strategy for the restructuring of the entire arms industry, dividing it up into trading companies that are to be partly owned by the state. On 30 September the National Assembly had voted to create a permanent parliamentary Committee on Defense Industry and Mobilizational Preparedness. The new agencies are replacing the Board for Control on the Manufacturing and Trade with Military and Special Production, which was set up by the previous UDF government. -Kjell Engelbrekt YELTSIN, RUSSIAN OFFICIALS BLAST "DNIESTER" FIGHTERS IN MOSCOW. Russian President Boris Yeltsin, in an interview with Ostankino on 1 October, specifically warned fighters from the "Dniester republic" and other armed supporters of the Russian Supreme Soviet from outside Russia against "spilling Russian blood" in Moscow. On the same day Russian First Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Soskovets warned that "Dniester" and other "extremists" may end up spilling blood, ITAR-TASS reported. Russian First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko told ITAR-TASS also on 1-October that "criminal suspects from the Dniester battalion" are among those who "call the tune in the [Moscow] White House." Moscow Mayor Yuri Luzhkov, negotiator for Yeltsin at the Church-mediated talks with the Supreme Soviet, told Ostankino TV on 2 October, that Yeltsin's side was demanding that the fighters from Dniester and other outside units vacate the White House and leave Russia as part of a possible political settlement. -Vladimir Socor LATVIA OPENS CRISIS CONTROL CENTER. On 3-October Latvian Defense Minister Valdis Pavlovskis told the RFE/RL Latvian Service that Latvia had opened a crisis control center in response to the unrest in Moscow. All branches of the Latvian armed forces have been placed on alert status and are ready to respond to any violence. There have not been any Russian troop movements in Latvia and the leaders of the Northwest Group of Forces based in Riga have declared that they will remain neutral in the conflict. -Saulius Girnius LATVIAN GOVERNMENT APPROVES GREATER BUDGET DEFICIT. On 1 October the Latvian government approved an increase in this year's budget deficit by 8-million lats to 12.8-million lats, BNS reported on 2-October. The increase was due to growing expenditures and a decrease of 6.5 million lats in revenues due to the parliament's decision to annul increased customs tariffs for oil products. State Minister for the Budget Janis Platais said that the increased budget deficit is becoming dangerous and the government must try to prevent inflation from increasing. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Bess Brown and Stan Markotich THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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