When we can begin to take our failures non-seriously, it means we are ceasing to be afraid of them. It is of immense importance to learn to laugh at ourselves. - Katherine Mansfield
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 189, 01 October 1993



Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.





RUSSIA



CHURCH-MEDIATED COMPROMISE REJECTED. Russian deputies still in
the parliament building have rejected a compromise agreement
with President Boris Yeltsin, Reuters reported on 1 October.
The agreement had been reached at a meeting between representatives
of Yeltsin and the parliament on the night of 30-September after
the two sides held separate meetings with Orthodox Patriarch
Aleksii II. The agreement would have restored some power and
telephone links to the parliament building in exchange for the
surrender of most weapons by those still inside, and would have
established joint security patrols by the parliamentary guards
and the Interior Ministry troops currently surrounding the building.
However, the parliamentary presidium and the rival Interior,
Defense, and Security ministers have demanded that deputies be
allowed access to the building, that the rival ministers be allowed
to carry out their duties, and that Yeltsin's 21-September decree
dissolving parliament be revoked. -Wendy Slater

YELTSIN AGREES TO CHANGES IN ELECTION LAW. At a meeting with
representatives of pro-democratic parties and organizations on
30 September, President Yeltsin agreed to make changes to his
decree on elections to the lower house of the proposed new parliament,
ITAR-TASS reported. These include expanding the chamber, the
State Duma, to 450 seats instead of 400 and allowing half (rather
than one-third) of them to be elected from party lists by proportional
representation. (The remainder will be elected from one-member
constituencies.) These changes had been proposed earlier in the
month [see RFE/RL Daily Report, no. 185]. Yeltsin reportedly
welcomed increasing the role of political parties, because he
preferred the "communists and national-patriots" to stand for
election rather than on the barricades. -Wendy Slater

REGIONAL LEADERS DEMAND END TO PARLIAMENT SIEGE . . . Representatives
of 62 of Russia's 89-republics and regions met in Moscow's Constitutional
Court building and demanded that Yeltsin lift the blockade of
the parliament building, Russian TV and ITAR-TASS reported on
30 September. Most participants in the meeting represented regional
and republican legislatures; only one in three delegates represented
local executive bodies. The leaders threatened the president
with "political and economic reprisals" from the regions if the
blockade was not lifted by midnight on 3 October. They called
on the disbanded Congress of People's Deputies to organize simultaneous
parliamentary and presidential elections by the end of the first
quarter of 1994. Later in the day, participants in the meeting
met with Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi to discuss the current
crisis. -Vera Tolz

. . . PROCLAIM CREATION OF NEW ASSEMBLY. Participants in the
meeting also said they were forming a Council of Members of the
Federation, ITAR-TASS reported. This announcement appeared to
conflict with President Yeltsin's plan to form a Federation Council
consisting of leaders of executive and legislative bodies in
all of Russia's republics and regions. Deputy Prime Minister
Sergei Shakhrai said the council created on 30-September could
not be viewed as legitimate, because leaders of legislative bodies
were overrepresented in it, whereas the majority of executive
officials did not join. He also said that some of the participants
in the Moscow meeting did not have the authority to sign any
official documents. Vera Tolz

THREE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT JUDGES SUSPENDED. On September 30
the Russian Constitutional Court suspended the membership of
two judges, Ernst Ametistov and Nikolai Vitruk, because they
had failed to attend four court sessions without a valid reason.
The membership of another judge, Anatolii Kononov, was suspended
due to his poor health. The anchor of the Ostankino newscasts
in which the suspensions were reported observed that Ametistov
and Vitruk had frequently disagreed with the decisions of the
court majority. The news anchor failed to note that a few days
earlier both Vitruk and Ametistov had declared their intention
to suspend their own membership in the court. The Constitutional
Court is legally entitled to suspend the membership of a judge
who misses at least three consecutive sessions. -Julia Wishnevsky


YELTSIN'S PRESS SERVICE DENIES MEDIA CENSORSHIP. President Yeltsin's
press service denied on 30 September that media coverage of the
country's political crisis was being censored, ITAR-TASS reported.
In the past few days, a number of independent Russian journalists
quoted from what they said were Russian government instructions
to the state-run media on how to cover the crisis. The press
service's denial came in response to a formal protest filed with
the Russian government by a group of foreign journalists in Moscow
who complained that their accreditations to the parliament had
been taken away. This complaint was reported on 29 September
in Russian TV "Vesti" newscasts, which said that Russian journalists
probably would file a similar protest. Yeltsin's press service
said that access to parliament for journalists was restricted
because of concern for journalists' safety. -Vera Tolz and Julia
Wishnevsky

POLICE VIOLENCE IN MOSCOW. RL stringers in Moscow reported an
increase in police use of force against supporters of the parliament,
passers-by and journalists on 30 September. According to the
reports, members of the elite riot police (OMON) and of the Ministry
of Security (former KGB) attacked groups of people in the center
of Moscow without determining whether they were supporters of
the president's foes or innocent citizens going about their lawful
business. Andrei Babitsky said the RL crew witnessed an OMON
trooper beating up an elderly woman and breaking her leg in the
course of a brutal police attack on would-be demonstrators approaching
Pushkin Square. Other stringers reported that Viktor Alksnis,
the well-known right-wing former deputy to the USSR Supreme Soviet,
and Chairman of the Cheremushky Raion Soviet Stepovoi were attacked
by police; Alksnis was hospitalized with a concussion and broken
bones. Many sources noted police attacks on foreign journalists,
in particular TV cameramen. Julia Wishnevsky

YELTSIN, KOZYREV URGE HALT TO NATO MEMBERSHIP FOR EASTERN EUROPE.
President Yeltsin has sent a letter to government leaders in
the US, Britain, France, and Germany warning them against expanding
NATO to include former Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe,
Reuters reported. The warning comes less than a month after Yeltsin
himself, during a trip to Poland, appeared to open the door for
Eastern European countries to join the alliance. Unnamed NATO
spokesmen were quoted by Reuters as suggesting that the letter
had sent shock waves through the organization. They also said
that it would infuriate countries like Poland and Hungary. Some
of the points made in the letter were apparently echoed in an
interview with Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev published
on 30 September in the German magazine Der Stern. According to
Reuters, Kozyrev urged NATO not to isolate Russia by hastily
expanding into Eastern Europe and suggested instead that NATO
and Russia work in tandem to provide security in the region.
-Stephen Foye CIS

MASSANDRA SUMMIT DISAGREEMENTS CONTINUE. Disputes continue over
the status of the agreements concluded at the Massandra summit.
A Russian foreign ministry spokesman on 21 September said that
the protocol on nuclear warhead withdrawal and dismantlement
was void because it had been altered by hand after its signing
by Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin. On 24 September
the UNIAR press agency reported a statement from the Ukrainian
Foreign Ministry asserting that the prepared typed text "was
not the one discussed" and that the handwritten changes were
made with Russian agreement. The statement noted that Russia
had not questioned the change earlier and that it was inappropriate
to do so via a press briefing rather than in a formal note. At
a UN symposium held in Kiev on 27 September, the head of the
Russian Foreign Ministry's planning department, Ednan Agaev,
remarked that the agreement had not been formally annulled but
that he "would not be surprised" if it were, an RFE/RL correspondent
reported. -John Lepingwell

DETAILS OF THE NUCLEAR AGREEMENTS REVEALED. An RFE/RL correspondent
in Kiev has obtained copies of all agreements signed at the Massandra
summit. While two protocols have been published, three additional
agreements were signed by Kuchma and Chernomyrdin: two more detailed
agreements on warhead dismantling and one on weapons maintenance.
The "Agreement on the Utilization of Nuclear Warheads" specifies
that uranium extracted from the warheads will be returned to
Ukraine as reactor fuel, provided the reactors are under IAEA
safeguards. A contract on the timetable is to be concluded within
six months of ratification of the agreement. Russian costs for
dismantling and converting the warhead materials will be deducted
from the value of the returned material. According to the document
"Basic Principles of Nuclear Warhead Utilization" compensation
for each warhead will be received no more than one year after
its withdrawal. Plutonium from dismantled weapons will be stored
in Russia. -John Lepingwell

AGREEMENT ON NUCLEAR MAINTENANCE. The Massandra agreement on
maintenance appears to have escaped criticism and it is not tied
to the apparently annulled protocol on warheads. The agreement
allows Russian enterprises to conduct manufacturer's maintenance
and oversight of weapons systems in Ukraine, and vice versa.
Maintenance schedules will be set by the Russian Strategic Rocket
Forces (SRF) in agreement with Ukraine, and Ukraine will pay
the SRF for the work. The agreement does not require ratification
and entered into force on the date of its signing. -John Lepingwell


TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA



ABKHAZ FORCES TAKE OCHAMCHIRA, GALI. Forces loyal to ousted Georgian
President Zviad Gamsakhurdia withdrew from the coastal town of
Ochamchira on 29-September, paving the way for its capture by
Abkhaz troops on 30 September; the Abkhaz then advanced to and
occupied Gali, the last Georgian-held town in Abkhazia, Radio
Mayak and Western agencies reported. Thousands of Georgian civilians
continue to flee from Abkhazia. In Tbilisi, Georgian parliament
chairman Eduard Shevardnadze has appointed his former defense
minister Tengiz Kitovani as commander of what remains of the
Georgian forces, according to AFP. Pope John Paul II and CSCE
Council chairwoman Margaretha af Ugglas have both called for
a halt to hostilities, according to ITAR-TASS. -Liz Fuller

KARABAKH CEASEFIRE EXTENDED. The ongoing ceasefire agreed in
July between Azerbaijan and the Karabakh Armenian authorities
was extended for a further month, until 7-November, at a meeting
in Moscow last weekend between Azerbaijan's acting President
Geidar Aliev and the head of the acting government in Stepanakert,
Robert Kocharyan, AFP reported on 30 September. -Liz Fuller

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE



BOSNIAN SERBS AND CROATS TIGHTEN STAND AGAINST MUSLIMS. Following
the effective rejection of the Geneva peace plan by the mainly
Muslim Bosnian legislature on 29-September, the Bosnian Croat
assembly voted the next day to withdraw "concessions" the Croat
side had made to the Muslims, international media report. These
points include an outlet to the Adriatic Sea, and a provisional
administration for Mostar. Elsewhere, Bosnian Serb leader Radovan
Karadzic said his group's parliament will meet in a few days
and similarly withdraw its earlier "concessions" toward the Muslims.
Karadzic has repeatedly warned the Muslims that they had better
accept the Geneva plan or face a real chance of being left with
nothing. Finally, in the breakaway Bihac pocket, or Cazinska
Krajina, under the maverick leadership of Fikret Abdic, forces
loyal to Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic fired at the ground
to disperse thousands of pro-Abdic demonstrators in Cazin. The
protesters had earlier taken control of local broadcasting facilities,
but now Abdic seems to control only his main power base of Velika
Kladusa, having lost Bihac and Cazin to the pro-Izetbegovic troops.
Reuters and Yugoslav-area media ran the story. -Patrick Moore


NERVOUS COUNTDOWN CONTINUES OVER UNPROFOR'S MANDATE IN CROATIA.
International media said on 30 September that the UN Security
Council voted to extend the mandate for UN forces in Croatia
by one additional day in hope of reaching a settlement on 1-October,
but the BBC's Croatian Service suggested that the chances of
success are slim. Zagreb is impatient with the failure of UNPROFOR
to carry out key provisions of the January 1992 Vance plan, which
include disarming Serb insurgents controlling about 30% of Croatia's
territory, enabling refugees to return safely home, and economically
and politically reintegrating the Serb-held areas with the rest
of the republic. The UN troops have, in fact, simply acted as
a buffer between Croat and Serb forces, and their withdrawal-if
an agreement cannot be reached-could easily lead to a renewed
large-scale Serb-Croat war. Impatience is running high in Croatia
and the issue is the most important one in domestic politics,
but most Western projections suggest that the Serbs would still
outgun the Croats in any fresh fighting, although the Croatian
military has been greatly strengthened over the past year and
a half. -Patrick Moore

BULATOVIC STONED IN PODGORICA. Montenegrin President Momir Bulatovic
was pelted with stones and bricks on 30 September by demonstrators
favoring independence from Serbia. Belgrade media said that the
president's car was demolished but that guards got him to safety.
Montenegrin political life has long been torn between factions
favoring union with Serbia and those wanting only loose ties
or outright independence from their Serbian "cousins." Under
the impact of economic sanctions, however, pro-independence groups
have gained new strength, and Bulatovic himself has tried to
acquire more equality and a clearer profile for Montenegro within
rump Yugoslavia. Meanwhile, following a trip to Tirana on 15-September,
Bulatovic said in an interview given to Politika on the 24th
that Kosovo's problems in education, health-care and culture
should be solved in a "flexible way." He noted that the Kosovo
crisis "must be solved in a democratic way. Albania can help
by recognizing that Kosovo is an internal affair of the Republic
of Serbia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia." He rejected
any change in borders and denied that his visit indicated a rift
between Montenegro and Serbia, adding that his trip had been
coordinated with the rump Yugoslav government in Belgrade. -Fabian
Schmidt

US CONGRESS FAILS TO APPROVE FUNDS FOR EBRD. Wire services report
that the US House of Representatives has not included any contribution
for the London-based European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
(EBRD) in the foreign aid bill passed on 29-September. The EBRD
is the only financial institution charged with lending money
exclusively to post-communist countries. The move came after
several House members objected to the bank's lavish spending
on facilities and high salaries for executives. -Karoly Okolicsanyi


WALESA CONVENES NEW PARLIAMENT. As required by the constitution,
Polish President Lech Walesa scheduled the new Sejm's inaugural
session for 14 October, PAP reports. The new Senate will convene
on 15-October. In keeping with tradition, the oldest deputy,
Aleksander Malachowski, will call the Sejm to order and take
the oath of office from the new parliamentarians, who will then
elect the Speaker of the Sejm. The largest parties have not yet
reached agreement on a candidate for this post; both the Democratic
Left Alliance (SLD) and the Polish Peasant Party (PSL) are believed
to seek control of the highest parliamentary office. Meanwhile,
President Walesa on 30 September restated his refusal to begin
consultations with the SLD on the formation of a new government
until he receives the names of three prime minister candidates
for consideration. Responding to the SLD's request to meet to
discuss the situation in the country and the election results,
a presidential staff-member said that "the president has an excellent
sense of the current situation and his own analysis of 19-September,"
the date of the elections. -Louisa Vinton

POLISH COALITION ACCEPTS "NON-INFLATIONARY" DEFICIT. Representatives
from the PSL and the SLD met on 30 September to hammer out a
government economic program acceptable to both coalition partners.
The two sides agreed in principle that revenues should cover
spending and that the budget deficit should be reduced. However,
the two parties also concluded that, in the words of SLD economic
spokesman Jozef Oleksy, "if money should be lacking for essential
needs, then we allow the possibility of a slight, temporary,
non-inflationary increase in the deficit." The SLD and the PSL
also agreed on a list of economic priorities: export promotion;
new investment in housing construction; easier credit for small
firms and farmers; greater spending on education, health, and
culture; higher wages for public sector workers; restructuring
mining and the arms industry; increased assistance to the poor;
and "radical" improvements in tax collection and customs enforcement.
Asked how the government would fund these programs, coalition
officials cited only back taxes and new revenues from economic
growth. Polish TV carried the report. -Louisa Vinton

POLISH RIGHT-WING REGROUPS. Forty-seven politicians representing
eight different parties, including the Christian National Union,
the Liberal Democratic Congress, the Center Alliance, the Party
of Christian Democrats, the Real Politics Union, and the Coalition
for the Republic, met in Warsaw on 30 September to discuss the
"defeat of the Right" in the parliamentary elections, PAP reports.
None of the parties is represented in the Sejm. The participants
formed a "Polish Right Discussion Forum" as a start toward integrating
Poland's many fractious right-wing parties. So far, the attempt
to rebuild a united right wing seems to have been undermined
by the same rival leadership ambitions that prevented the Right
from uniting before the elections. -Louisa Vinton

BODIES OF EXPULSION VICTIMS EXHUMED. Members of the Austrian
Red Cross have exhumed the bodies of 15 Germans killed by Czechs
during the post-war expulsion of Czechoslovakia's 3.5 million
member-strong German minority, CTK reports on 30-September. Charles
University professor Jan Mlynarik, who attended the opening of
the mass grave, said that the 13-men and 2 women were inhabitants
of Tust, a small village in southern Bohemia, who were executed
by a member of the Czech "Red Guards" on 24 May 1945 on the order
of a local teacher. Children and the remaining female inhabitants
of Tust had been expelled to Austria a few days earlier. The
bodies are to be transferred to the Austrian city of Gmnd, where
they will be reburied. This is the first known transfer of bodies
of expulsion victims from the territory of the former Czechoslovakia
to Germany or Austria. While representatives of the Sudeten Germans
claim that up to 250,000 people were killed during the expulsion,
many Czech historians assume that the figure of 40,000 is more
realistic. -Jan Obrman

RESTITUTION OF CHURCH PROPERTY IN SLOVAKIA. On 29 September the
Slovak parliament passed a law on the restitution of property
to churches and religious communities. Out of 106 deputies present,
76-voted in favor, 20 voted against, and 10 deputies abstained
from voting, TASR reports. The law, which was approved by the
Slovak cabinet on 20 July, involves the restitution of farmland,
forests, vineyards and church buildings. Property taken after
1945 will be returned to Christian churches, while Jewish organizations
will get back property confiscated after 1938. Any property which
is already under private ownership will not be returned, Reuters
reports. -Sharon Fisher

SLOVAK PARTIES COMMENT ON EARLY ELECTIONS, "INDIAGATE." In a
Christian Democratic Party press conference on 30 September,
chairman Jan Carnogursky said that even if certain representatives
of the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia and the Party of the
Democratic Left agree on early elections, "it does not mean that
these parties will manage to persuade a majority of their parliamentary
clubs to support this idea." Slovak National Party Deputy Chairman
Anton Hrnko said in a 30 September press conference that following
the results in Lithuania and Poland, "it would be very dangerous"
to hold new elections before they take place in Hungary. Meanwhile,
concerning the "Indiagate" affair, Carnogursky said his party
"will search for an explanation of the whole incident, regardless
of whether or not a parliamentary commission designated to investigate
this matter is established." Hrnko said that since leading officials
were implicated in the case, the government should conduct a
serious investigation of the matter. -Sharon Fisher

WALLENBERG WORKED FOR US AGENCY. Newly released CIA documents
reveal that the Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg, who while
stationed in Hungary saved thousands of Jews during the final
phases of the Second World War, was working for a semi-clandestine
US agency, Reuters reported on 1 October. Wallenberg is said
to have received instructions, money, and information useful
to his work from the US War Refugee Board, the CIA said in a
newly declassified report. The US connection may possibly have
led to his arrest by the Soviet authorities and subsequent disappearance,
the CIA report said. -Karoly Okolicsanyi

HUNGARIAN DAILY IN VOJVODINA TO BE CLOSED. Hungarian radio reported
on 30-September that the only Hungarian language daily serving
the Hungarian minority in Vojvodina, Magyar Szo, will cease publication
on Friday. The editor-in-chief said that funds have run out and
there is no more paper or ink. He also said that, lacking state
support, the 50,000 million dinar revenues are not enough to
cover even basic expenses. -Karoly Okolicsanyi

SEVEN ROMANIAN VESSELS SEEN UNLOADING FUEL IN SERBIA. The customs
chief of Romania, Mihai Pinzariu, said on 30 September in an
interview with Radio Bucharest that seven Romanian vessels have
been seen unloading fuel in Serbia in violation of the UN-imposed
international sanctions. The vessels were part of a convoy led
by the tugboat Giurgiu-18, which was detained one day earlier
by custom officials on Romanian territory. The tugboat reached
its original Romanian destination without the vessels, and the
explanation offered, namely that it had suffered an engine defect,
has been found to be untrue. -Michael Shafir

IFC HEAD SAYS ROMANIA WEAK ON PRIVATIZATION; IMF STILL WITHHOLDING
LOAN. A top official of the International Finance Corporation,
a World Bank organization, says Romanian authorities have been
"less strong" in their push for privatization than other former
communist countries. An RFE/RL correspondent in Washington reports
that Sir William Ryrie, executive vice-president of the IFC,
on 30 September told journalists his organization is ready to
help Romania launch a privatization program but that the initiative
must come from Bucharest. In a related development Radio Bucharest
on the same day quoted Mircea Cosea, Minister of State for Economic
Reform and Strategy, as denying that talks with the International
Monetary Fund which recently concluded in Washington had been
"a failure" although aid from the IMF and the World Bank will
be delayed at least a few months. Cosea was a member of the delegation
which renewed talks in Washington following an IMF decision to
postpone the granting of new loans pending a revision of Romania's
economic policies. -Michael Shafir

BEROV SAYS BALKANS NEED "EUROPEANIZATION." In an address to the
Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe on 30 September,
Bulgarian Prime Minister Lyuben Berov said the solution to problems
in the Balkans should be sought on a collective, European level.
Berov stated that "without European unity there can be no peace
in the Balkans, and without peace in the Balkans, there can be
no united Europe." He also told the Strasbourg assembly that
Bulgaria has endured "extreme hardship" when upholding United
Nations sanctions against Iraq, and presently, against rump Yugoslavia,
saying that total costs exceed $6 billion. On Bulgaria's democratic
performance, Berov said there is a "steady commitment to peaceful
and democratic means for resolving problems." In connection with
the premier's visit to the Council of Europe, a Bulgarian member
of the assembly, Lachesar Toshev of the Union of Democratic Forces,
submitted a formal motion challenging the legitimacy of Bulgaria's
key state institutions including the constitution. Toshev argues
that most post-1989 institutions are illegitimate since created
by the Bulgarian parliament elected in June 1990, a poll in which
many irregularities were registered. An RFE/RL correspondent
filed the report. -Kjell Engelbrekt

CHORNOVIL ANNOUNCES PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDACY. Vyacheslav Chornovil,
leader of the largest opposition political party Rukh, told a
press conference in Kiev on 30 September that he will be a candidate
in next summer's presidential elections in Ukraine, Western agencies
reported. Chornovil said the electoral campaign will be discussed
at the next Rukh congress. Pre-term presidential elections are
slated for June 1994. -Roman Solchanyk

CRIMEA OPPOSED TO KIEV'S STAND ON ECONOMIC UNION. The Crimean
parliament has expressed its emphatic disagreement with the position
taken by the Ukrainian delegation at the CIS summit in Moscow,
Radio Ukraine reported on 30 September. Ukraine's rejection of
full fledged membership in the economic union, argued the Crimean
lawmakers, does not correspond to the national interests of Ukraine
and the wishes of the majority of its citizens. Further, the
statement maintained that Ukraine's position in Moscow reflected
Kiev's readiness to make concessions to those forces bent on
"isolationism." -Roman Solchanyk

MOLDOVAN-ROMANIAN TALKS SET BACK. Talks between Moldova and Romania
on a basic treaty have been deadlocked for nearly two years over
Bucharest's insistence to codify the notions of "fraternity and
integration." Now new Romanian demands have led to another setback
in the negotiations. After the latest round of negotiations held
in Chisinau, Romanian Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
Marcel Dinu on 29-September told Basapress that Romania proposes
a "treaty of union," a concept that-he explained-"would establish
the dimensions of a special relationship between Romania and
Moldova, without necessarily involving their unification." In
addition, Dinu called for the establishment of a "Romanian economic
community" comprised of Romania and Moldova. Reflecting the disagreements,
the talks have now been relegated from the political to the staff
level. -Vladimir Socor

ESTONIAN POPULAR FRONT TO DISBAND. On 30-September the Council
of the Estonian Popular Front issued a statement declaring that
its fifth and final congress will be held on 5-November, BNS
reports. The front held its first congress on 2 October 1988
and served to unite the country in its campaign for Estonia's
independence, but did not win the 1992 parliamentary elections
and is today viewed as a center and left-of-center opposition.
The statement noted that since almost all the goals of its original
program of 1988 have been achieved and Estonian society has developed
sufficiently, the popular movement no longer needs to play a
role in the country's political life. -Saulius Girnius

[As of 1200 CET]

Compiled by Bess Brown and Kjell Engelbrekt





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