|When I was a boy of fourteen, my father was so ignorant I could hardly stand to have the old man around. But when I got to be twenty-one, I was astonished at how much he had learned in seven years. - Mark Twain|
No. 188, 30 September 1993
RUSSIA ULTIMATUM ISSUED TO PARLIAMENT. The deputies still remaining in the Russian parliament building in defiance of President Boris Yeltsin's decree dissolving the legislature have been given an ultimatum to leave the building by 4 October, Russian and Western media reported on 29 September. The ultimatum, signed by the Russian government and the Moscow city government, says that parliamentary chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov and "acting president" Aleksandr Rutskoi are responsible for organizing the evacuation of the building and the surrounding area, and for the surrender of all weapons. Failure to do so, warns the ultimatum, will result in "severe consequences" for which Khasbulatov and Rutskoi would be responsible. Confusingly, the text also guarantees that no weapons will be used to clear the building. The building was surrounded by troops on 28 September and remains without electricity. -Wendy Slater REGIONAL LEADERS CONSIDER CREATION OF SIBERIAN REPUBLIC. A group of leaders of regional legislatures attending a meeting in Novosibirsk said they would set up a Siberian republic within the Russian Federation unless Yeltsin repeals his decree dissolving parliament, ITAR-TASS reported on 29 September. The decision was spelled out in a document passed almost unanimously by some 140 delegates representing 14-out of 19-Siberian regions and republics. The agency quoted Aman Tuleev, chairman of the Kemerovo Oblast Council, as stressing that the Siberian republic would not seek independence from Moscow, but would demand more economic and political rights. The regional leaders also threatened to temporarily cut the Trans-Siberian railway and withhold taxes, unless Yeltsin ended the encirclement of the Russian parliament building. They intend to offer the parliament an alternative seat in one of Siberia's cities. -Vera Tolz RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTRY REJECTS LINKAGE. In a statement issued on 29 September, the Foreign Ministry took umbrage at the US Senate's adoption of an amendment making aid to Russia contingent on the schedule of troop withdrawal from Latvia and Estonia, as well as on Russia's refraining from giving aid to Cuba. The Ministry said the linkage resembled a relapse into the Cold War and contended that such a move was not in the spirit of US-Russian cooperation, Ostankino television reported. -Suzanne Crow KOKOSHIN, GRACHEV REMARKS ON LOYALTY OF ARMY. Russian First Deputy Defense Minister Andrei Kokoshin, amplifying remarks he had made a day earlier to ITAR-TASS, told Izvestiya on 29 September that there was no evidence of mutinous activity among Russian troops. Kokoshin nevertheless suggested that the penalty would be harsh for a military commander who did come to the support of the parliament. He was quoted as saying: "Khasbulatov is not putting his life at risk . . . unlike, for example, the commander of a regiment who, on taking the path of war against the Ministry of Defense, immediately condemns himself to the 'supreme measure.'" Kokoshin also suggested that the army was under the close scrutiny of the security services and that any mutinous activities would be quickly discovered. Meanwhile, during a meeting with his Hungarian counterpart on 29-September, Defense Minister Pavel Grachev was quoted by ITAR-TASS as saying that "never before has the army obeyed so strictly and precisely." -Stephen Foye FILATOV JUSTIFIES YELTSIN'S ACTIONS. The head of President Yeltsin's administrative office, Sergei Filatov, told a news conference on 29 September that the president had dissolved the parliament to prevent a coup, Reuters reported. Filatov claimed that Yeltsin's move preempted a coup being prepared by the parliament, which was planning to take control from the executive with the help of the local soviets and the official trade unions, which were planning strikes. The campaign would have culminated at the November session of the Congress of People's Deputies. Filatov said that, although Yeltsin's actions had violated the constitution, the fact that Russia was "a nuclear state with powerful armed forces and armed conflicts raging around it," meant that such measures were justified to preserve the country's integrity and security. -Wendy Slater PATRIARCH ALEKSII OFFERS TO MEDIATE. Reports from ITAR-TASS suggest that the head of the Russian Orthodox Church, Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Aleksii II could emerge as a conciliatory force in the stalemate between the parliamentary deputies and the presidential administration. On 29 September, the patriarch met with Constitutional Court chairman Valerii Zorkin who has been trying to formulate a possible solution to the crisis, and also issued a statement calling on the two sides not to allow bloodshed. In reply to the statement, deputies continuing to attend the Congress of People's Deputies dissolved by President Yeltsin announced that they were prepared to begin negotiations under the mediation of the patriarch. Aleksii curtailed a visit to the US because of the crisis in Moscow. -Wendy Slater NEWS ACCURACY, RUSSIAN STYLE. Sergei Vozianov, anchor of the 29 September afternoon edition of "Vesti," told the Russian TV audience that US Secretary of State Warren Christopher had again reaffirmed US support for President Yeltsin's reforms in Russia. Vozianov quoted Christopher as saying that "the Russian leadership's policies accord with human rights and the principles of democracy." Vozianov was misquoting Christopher's statement broadcast by CNN a few hours earlier, in which the Secretary expressed concern about the stand-off at the Russian parliament building in Moscow. Christopher's actual words were: "President Yeltsin, as well as other officials in the Russian government, have assured us that they intend to act in a way consistent with democratic values and human rights. We would be concerned if they did otherwise, but we're expecting that they will act in accordance with their intentions." -Julia Wishnevsky JURY TRIALS TO BE REINTRODUCED. According to Western reports from Moscow, trial by jury will return to Russian courts in November. Jury trials were abolished in Russia in 1917. Initially, the jury system will be available only at certain Moscow courts and only people charged with particularly serious offenses such as murder, rape or terrorism will be able to request such a trial, but later it is hoped that the system will be extended to courts in other cities too. -Elizabeth Teague FARMERS TO STRIKE. Farmers in 120 sovkhozes in the Leningrad Oblast plan to start an unlimited strike on 17 October, an RFE/RL correspondent in St. Petersburg reported on 29-September. The farmers are protesting delays in payment for their food deliveries. They have reportedly not been paid for deliveries made in February and have no money to buy seed grain, fuel, and fertilizers. (On 22 September, President Yeltsin signed a decree providing for penalties for delays in payment for agricultural deliveries.) On 27 September, the trade union representing some 16 million workers in the agro-industrial complex threatened to take strike action, primarily over arrears in payments. Strike threats have also been aired by representatives of the military-industrial complex, the coal miners, and health workers. -Keith Bush CLINTON-KOZYREV TALKS. US President Bill Clinton held talks with Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev on 29 September in Washington. Following the talks, Clinton said, "they're doing everything they can to preserve peace," offering continued support for Boris Yeltsin. Kozyrev, for his part, offered assurances that "there is no intention to use force against the White House in Moscow." During meetings earlier that day with US Secretary of State Warren Christopher in New York, Kozyrev assured him that Yeltsin would deal with the situation democratically and peacefully, Reuters reported. -Suzanne Crow YELTSIN WILL NOT GIVE AWAY KURILS. As Boris Yeltsin's 12 October visit to Japan approaches, officials in Moscow and Tokyo have begun to joust over the Kuril Islands dispute. AFP quoted Russian presidential aide Sergei Filatov on 29 September as saying that the territorial problem would not dominate the talks in Tokyo, that it would be "naive" to assume that Yeltsin would resolve the issue in Japan's favor "at a stroke of the pen," and that, in any event, Tokyo would not want to give ammunition to Yeltsin's domestic opponents. Reuters, meanwhile, quoted a Japanese Foreign Ministry official on the same day as saying that Tokyo "attaches the greatest importance to the territorial issue" and believes that "there will be progress" in the negotiations. He emphasized that Japan still wanted the return of the four islands. AFP reported on 30 September that several economic and technical agreements are expected to be signed during the visit. -Stephen Foye TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA ABKHAZ UPDATE. Abkhaz forces advanced eastwards on 29 September and succeeded in lifting the Georgian blockade of Tkvarcheli, ITAR-TASS reported. Vessels of the Black Sea fleet evacuated a further 2,900-civilians from Sukhumi, raising the total number to 14,000-over three days. The head of the Russian contingent of the tripartite commission to monitor the 27 July ceasefire sent a letter to the Georgian leadership expressing condolences for the execution by the Abkhaz of Prime Minister Zhiuli Shartava and asserting that his killers "and those who began the war on 16 September" should be brought to trial, according to ITAR-TASS. -Liz Fuller DIPLOMATIC REACTION. Speaking at a press conference in New York, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev called on the Abkhaz forces to lay down their arms and observe the 27 July ceasefire, reported an RFE/RL correspondent. Kozyrev also stated that Russia had imposed economic sanctions on the Abkhaz. In Moscow, Abkhaz Supreme Soviet deputy chairman Sokrat Dzhindzholia told journalists that Abkhazia might now hold a referendum on independence from Georgia and then ask for protection from the Russian Federation, Reuters reported. -Liz Fuller ARMENIAN PRIME MINISTER CRITICIZES WORLD BANK. Addressing the annual meeting of the IMF and World Bank in Washington on 29 September, Armenian prime Minister Hrant Bagratyan charged that the failure of the two organizations to provide any assistance to Armenia over the past few years, even for reconstruction in areas devastated by the 1988 earthquake, has slowed reforms and hurt the population, reported an RFE/RL correspondent. -Liz Fuller UZBEK BANK CHIEF APPEALS FOR INVESTMENT. Although his country's leadership is clinging determinedly to its commitment to a slow transition to a market economy, the chairman of Uzbekistan's Central Bank, Faizulla Mulladzhonov, told the annual IMF-World Bank meeting on 29 September that Uzbekistan needs large infusions of foreign investment funds and foreign loans. A report by an RFE/RL correspondent noted that Uzbekistan presently allows foreign investment only in areas that produce export earnings, primarily oil and gas extraction, gold and textiles. Mulladzhonov said that the greatest need at the moment is for outside investment in the oil and gas industries. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIAN LEGISLATURE EFFECTIVELY KILLS PEACE PLAN. International media reported on 29 September that Bosnia-Herzegovina's Muslim-dominated parliament voted overwhelmingly to accept the Geneva plan only on the condition that some territories taken by the Serbs are given to the Muslim republic. Foreign Minister Haris Silajdzic told the legislators that "territories taken by force, especially where genocide occurred, must be returned to their rightful owners. Otherwise, we are living in a jungle. It will be a new Stone Age." The Serbs, however, have told the Muslims that the package is "take-it-or-leave-it," a point that their leader Radovan Karadzic reaffirmed after the parliament's vote. President Alija Izetbegovic had told the legislature that the Serbs outgun the Bosnian army and that there is no hope of a successful Muslim offensive before the winter sets in November. The choice, he added, is between a "just war" and an "unjust peace," while army commander Rasim Delic concluded: "fighters, soldiers, let us be ready to defend this country." A spokesman for the international mediators said: "it is hard to know where we go from here." Shortly after the parliament's vote, Serb gunners fired large artillery shells into the Muslim old town of Sarajevo. -Patrick Moore RUGOVA CALLS ON KOSOVARS TO GET ORGANIZED. In an interview published in Rilindja on 27-September, the president of the self-proclaimed ethnic Albanian Republic of Kosovo, Ibrahim Rugova, rejected the idea of partitioning the area between Serbs and Albanians. He stressed that the Albanians "have to understand that [they] . . . are occupied," adding that it is necessary to transform the shadow state made up of political parties into an institutionalized state. For this purpose he called on the underground parliament, which was elected on 24 May 1992, but which has yet to meet, to convene as a constituent assembly. Rugova is also quoted as saying that the Republic of Kosovo needs an executive power, which it really does not yet have. Elsewhere, the Belgrade weekly NIN in its latest issue quoted the Kosovar intellectual Shqelcen Maliqi as saying that Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic does not need a war in Kosovo to stay in power, as some observers have suggested. -Fabian Schmidt REACTION TO SERBIAN SOCIALIST-RADICAL RIFT. Reactions to an attack by Serbia's ruling Socialist Party (SPS) against Vojislav Seselj, head of the Serbian Radical Party (SRS) and previously regarded as an SPS ally, is setting the tone for Serbia's political wars in the immediate weeks ahead. The conflict erupted after Seselj set in motion a vote of no confidence in the Socialist Serbian government on 27 September. Next day the SPS attacked Seselj for "promoting hatred and war" and threatened publicly to expose "war crimes" committed by paramilitary units loyal to him in Croatia and Bosnia. Seselj criticized the SPS in several interviews, charging it with war crimes by having financed and armed Serbs in former Yugoslav republics. On Studio B TV Seselj remarked: "We have always supported [Serbian President Slobodan] Milosevic. If he thinks he can stay in power without our support, let him try." Though Seselj is on record for criticizing the SPS, this is the first time he has ever threatened Milosevic. Seselj's motion seems destined to fail because of a lack of votes in parliament. Television Serbia and Studio B TV carried the reports on 29 September. -Milan Andrejevich POLISH COALITION UPDATE. A spokesman for the Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) announced on 29 September that his party intends to present President Lech Walesa with a government program and a proposed list of cabinet members in the first week of October, PAP reports. The SLD and the Polish Peasant Party (PSL) reached "preliminary agreement" on a joint coalition on 28 September. A third round of talks between the two parties' economic experts, focusing on the budget for 1994, is scheduled for 30 September. The SLD apparently wants to raise the budget deficit by 1-1.5% of GDP, while the PSL seems to favor even greater deficit spending. PSL officials said the chief difference between the two sides on economic matters was that the SLD wants to restrict "state intervention" to social policies while preserving a generally "liberal" approach to economic growth, whereas the PSL believes direct intervention in production will spur growth. It is not clear whether this difference in approach will translate into difficulties in the formation of a workable coalition government. -Louisa Vinton POLISH OFFICIALS ADVISE AGAINST PANIC. Meanwhile, in Washington on 29 September, the current finance minister, Jerzy Osiatynski, encouraged IMF and World Bank officials to judge any new government by its deeds and not by its origins or the pledges made during the election campaign. Osiatynski said it would be difficult for any new government to deviate dramatically from the economic policies pursued since 1989, at least in the next six months, if only because of the need to maintain good standing with the IMF in order to secure a further reduction in Poland's foreign debt. Speaking to the same audience, National Bank chairman Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz said that Poland's economic reforms are so far advanced that the current dangers are slight. Poland's frequent elections, she said, are a "costly learning process," but economic growth will continue despite them. However, she added, the tendency in Europe to close markets to imports from the East could easily undermine economic progress. -Louisa Vinton POLISH TRADE UNIONS DIGEST ELECTION RESULTS. At a press conference on 29-September, leaders of the former official OPZZ trade union federation announced that they will not join any future government, even if headed by the Democratic Left Alliance (SLD). The OPZZ has 61 deputies in the new Sejm, all of whom ran on the SLD ticket. OPZZ chairman Ewa Spychalska said that while the OPZZ supports the SLD's election program, the union federation will not hestitate to vote against an SLD government if its legislative proposals run counter to the unions' interests. Meanwhile, Solidarity leaders convened in Gdansk to discuss the union's defeat in the elections. The union failed to reach the threshold required for seats in the Sejm but managed to elect nine senators. Solidarity chairman Marian Krzaklewski criticized the new parliament as unrepresentative and announced that the union will function as part of the "extraparliamentary opposition." -Louisa Vinton CZECHS LAUNCH SECOND WAVE OF VOUCHER PRIVATIZATION. Voucher booklets for the second wave of voucher privatization in the Czech Republic went on sale on 29 September, reports CTK. A voucher booklet can be obtained for 1,050 koruny ($36); after 1-January 1994, the purchased vouchers can be exchanged for shares in some 770 companies slated for the second wave of voucher privatization. The first wave took place in 1992 before the split of Czechoslovakia; more than 8.5 million Czechs and Slovakia participated. More than 1,490-large state-owned companies in both the Czech lands and in Slovakia were auctioned off. -Jiri Pehe SME DID NOT CHECK SOURCES IN "INDIAGATE" SCANDAL. In an article signed by Sme's editor-in-chief Karol Jezik on 29 September, the daily said it did not verify the information it published on 28 September implicating top government officials in a fraud involving $22 million dollars. The daily said it was a mistake, and "we are conscious of our responsibility." The information provided in the 28 September article was based on a fax which was sent to all Slovak newspapers and political parties, though only Sme printed it. Jezik said the article was published to "initiate a discussion" on the issue of India's trade debt to Slovakia, which the paper has been trying to investigate for the past month. Jezik complained that there remained many unanswered questions, and "no one wanted to give their official views" on the matter. Finance Minister Julius Toth, one of the officials implicated in the fraud, called the Sme story a "fabrication" and said "it is necessary that authors of such articles bear responsibility for their content," TASR reports on 29 September. -Sharon Fisher MOVEMENT FOR A DEMOCRATIC SLOVAKIA PRESS CONFERENCE. The MDS, which has led a minority government for several months, held a press conference on 29 September to discuss early elections and media policy. In response to the statement of 25-September by the Party of the Democratic Left supporting premature elections, MDS Deputy Chairman Roman Zelenay said early elections "are not a good solution," though his movement expects to win once again. He also said the resignation of the Slovak cabinet is "absolutely not under consideration" and denied that President Michal Kovac "is forming a parallel power center." Concerning the establishment of a new Ministry of Information, Zelenay said a press law has been proposed which should "secure the right of citizens to obtain information and protect them against its abuse." -Sharon Fisher HUNGARIAN DEFENSE MINISTER IN MOSCOW. Hungarian radio reported on 29 September that Lajos Fur met in Moscow with Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev. The three-day visit is meant to demonstrate the Hungarian government's support for Yeltsin and the democratic forces, Fur said. Topics for discussion were the continued supply of Russian military spare parts, since 80% of the Hungarian defense technology is of Soviet origin, as well as training of Hungarian officers in Russia. Fur said Russian military academies are basically on a par with those in the West. -Karoly Okolicsanyi VACAROIU MEETS YELTSIN, RETURNS HOME. Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu met on 29 September Russian President Yeltsin before flying back to Bucharest. Before receiving the Romanian guest, Yeltsin said relations between the two countries were "more or less satisfactory" but that "no understanding could be achieved" on several important bilateral issues. After landing in Bucharest, however, Vacaroiu attempted to present the visit as a complete success. He said in a statement broadcast over Radio Bucharest that the two sides had discussed problems linked to the finalization of the basic treaty between Romania and Russia, and had agreed to hold meetings at expert level to discuss the issue of the Romanian state treasure which the Bolshevik government failed to return after the First World War. Reuters reported from Moscow that one problem concerning the basic treaty was a reference to the 1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, as a result of which Romania was forced to cede the territories of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina following a Soviet ultimatum. Reuters also quoted Vacaroiu as saying he hoped the text of the new treaty would be ready in time for a visit by Yeltsin to Romania. No date for that visit was announced, although Vacaroiu renewed an invitation from President Ion Iliescu. -Michael Shafir PERES AND ARAFAT INVITED TO ROMANIA. Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat have been invited to visit Romania, an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 29 September. A spokesman for the foreign ministry said Peres received his invitation in New York on 29 September during a meeting with Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu. On the same day Arafat received an invitation delivered by the Romanian ambassador in Tunis. Meanwhile, Western agencies reported from Bucharest that next month Romania will deliver two Puma helicopters to the United Arab Emirates and expects other Gulf states to make other orders. The helicopters are manufactured under French license. -Michael Shafir ROMANIAN AUTHORITIES SUSPECT OWN CONVOY OF EMBARGO VIOLATION. A Romanian river convoy returning from former Yugoslavia has been stopped on the Danube by the Romanian authorities. Radio Bucharest said the convoy was suspected of having violated the UN- imposed embargo by delivering oil to the Serbian Danube port of Prahovo. The convoy was originally reported to be headed for the Romanian port of Orsova. -Michael Shafir DEFENSE MINISTER: "BULGARIA CAN STABILIZE BALKANS." Speaking at the 39th General Assembly of the Atlantic Treaty Association (ATA) in Athens, Bulgarian Defense Minister Valentin Aleksandrov said his country is ready to assume its responsibilities in the Balkans. Aleksandrov told 400 politicians, scholars and military officers that Bulgaria is firmly committed to becoming a member of NATO and that its entry would help strengthening security in southeastern Europe. The meeting of the ATA was called "New Challenges in Europe" and primarily devoted to ongoing military conflicts in former Yugoslavia, Georgia and Russia. -Kjell Engelbrekt CRIMEAN TATAR PROTESTS. Crimean Tatar activists attempted to block railway traffic in various regions of the peninsula in support of their demands that representatives of deported nations be allocated quotas in the next elections to the Crimean parliament, Ukrinform-TASS reported on 29 September. Meanwhile, parliamentary speaker Mykola Bahrov, who offered to resign from his post in support of the quotas, told a press conference that he would continue to support the introduction of quotas for the deported nations. -Roman Solchanyk "DNIESTER" FIGHTERS IN MOSCOW. TASS and Trud report that Russian First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko and First Deputy Minister of State Security Sergei Stepashin on 29 September confirmed reports that armed fighters from the "Dniester republic" have joined the forces defending the Russian Supreme Soviet in Moscow. Besides the Dniester troops, ex-Soviet OMON officers formerly serving in the Baltic countries and members of the extremist National Russian Union have taken up positions at the so-called White House. Officials of the would-be Dniester republic told on 27 September told AFP that they support Russian Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi because "he wants to see the Soviet Union rebuilt." -Vladimir Socor MOLDOVA SEEKS FOREIGN PARTNERS FOR OIL, GAS PROSPECTING. Based on initial finds, Moldovan and Ukrainian geologists estimate that there are significant oil and gas deposits in an area comprised of Moldova's Cahul and Vulcanesti raions and Ukraine's Reni raion in southern Bessarabia, the latest issue of Moldova i Mir (5-6 1993) reports. Moldova's Ministry of National Economy says it is seeking foreign partners to assist in the prospecting and exploitation of the deposits on the Moldovan side, in a partnership based on product sharing. -Vladimir Socor LATVIAN PRESIDENT ADDRESSES UN. On 29 September Guntis Ulmanis told the UN General Assembly that although the UN and CSCE have passed resolutions calling for the speedy withdrawal of Russian troops from his country, talks on their removal are making little progress. Due to mass deportations and immigration of foreign workers under communism, the share of the ethnic Latvian population has fallen from 75% in 1940 to the current 52%. Ulmanis said that, in order to survive as a nation, Latvia needs the citizenship law which Russia claims to be discriminatory. Russia is also making demands to retain three military bases and special pension benefits for retired military officers, requests that Latvia says are unacceptable. The speech was broadcast live to Latvia by VOA's Latvian Service. -Saulius Girnius LITTLE PROGRESS IN LATVIAN-RUSSIAN TALKS. On 28-29 September Latvian-Russian talks on troop withdrawal were held in Jurmala, RFE/RL Latvian Service reports. While three agreements on a consular convention, easier crossings for border residents, and lifting travel restrictions between the two countries were initialed, no progress was made on the major issue of the troop withdrawal deadline, as well as Russia's desire to retain 3 installations, questions concerning property rights, and special benefits for retired officers. Russian delegation head Sergei Zotov noted that if no agreement is reached this year, the Russian withdrawal would be completed only in 1995. He said that the negotiations would have been more successful if Latvia had not tried to pressure Russia through the US. -Saulius Girnius COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF LITHUANIAN ARMED FORCES? ON 29 SEPTEMBER THE LITHUANIAN PARLIAMENT'S NATIONAL SECURITY COMMITTEE DISCUSSED THE NOMINATION BY PRESIDENT ALGIRDAS BRAZAUSKAS OF THE HEAD OF THE VILNIUS MILITARY SCHOOL COL. Jonas Andriuskevicius as commander-in-chief of the armed forces, Radio Lithuania reports. The 49-year old Andriuskevicius, a graduate of Leningrad and Frunze military schools, was a member of the Communist Party from 1966 to 1990 and has served in East Germany and Ethiopia. Although the committee has not yet voted on his approval, some members have expressed reservations noting that the candidate's curriculum vitae failed to mention his former party membership and military service abroad. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Bess Brown and Kjell Engelbrekt THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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