|Standing, as I do, in the view of God and eternity, I realize that patriotism is not enough. I must have no hatred or bitterness toward anyone. - Edith Cavell 1865-1915 (Spoken to the chaplain who attended her before her execution by firing squad, 12 Oct. 1915.)|
No. 187, 29 September 1993
RUSSIA KOSTIKOV ON FEDERATION COUNCIL. President Boris Yeltsin's press secretary Vyacheslav Kostikov stated on 28 September that there was no need for a hasty summoning of the Federation Council, which some politicians were calling for, ITAR-TASS reported. Kostikov said that the date of the next session would be announced as soon as the necessary documents were ready. Kostikov then went on to accuse a number of regional leaders, particularly those who belonged to the former Communist nomenklatura, of using the crisis to try and transfer powers to the regions, advancing the idea of all kinds of "regional republics" and "regional agreements." Unfortunately, Kostikov added, the leaders of some republics were also drawn into this dangerous game, and were using the Federation Council as an instrument of pressure. -Ann Sheehy MORE CALLS FOR ELECTED FEDERATION COUNCIL. There seem to be growing objections, even in the Yeltsin camp, to the idea that the present Federation Council, with its ex officio membership, should become the upper chamber of parliament following the election of the State Duma in December. Under Yeltsin's decree on the federal organs of power in the transitional period, the council would only become an elected body at the time of the next local elections due in March 1995. The "Club-93" group of political scientists, which includes such figures as Andranik Migranyan, Georgii Satarov, and Aleksandr Tsipko, stated on 28-September that both chambers of the new parliament should be elected, ITAR-TASS reported. Constitutional Court chairman Valerii Zorkin has expressed the same view, while a Yeltsin spokesman has suggested that elections to the upper chamber should be held at the same time as that of the president. -Ann Sheehy KOKOSHIN: ARMY LEADERSHIP BEHIND YELTSIN. Russian First Deputy Defense Minister Andrei Kokoshin told ITAR-TASS on 28 September that the leadership of the armed forces is united in its willingness to implement instructions from the Russian president and government. More specifically, Kokoshin said that the Ministry of Defense Collegium, which includes all Deputy and First Deputy Defense Ministers, was at one with Defense Minister Pavel Grachev. Grachev, who has repeatedly proclaimed the army's political neutrality, has nevertheless been a strong public supporter of the Russian President. Kokoshin, the only civilian to sit on the Defense Ministry Collegium, also described as "dangerous" attempts by the parliamentary leadership to involve the army in Russia's political struggle. He noted that the army had responsibility for the safety and control of Russia's nuclear arsenal. -Stephen Foye ZORKIN CALLS FOR MEETING ON SIMULTANEOUS ELECTIONS. Constitutional Court Chairman Valerii Zorkin called for an "immediate" meeting between representatives of the president and the parliament to fix a date for simultaneous parliamentary and presidential elections. On 28 September ITAR-TASS said the proposal was part of yet another appeal by the Constitutional Court to leaders of the executive and legislative branches of power in Moscow. To date, Yeltsin has ruled out the possibility of simultaneous presidential and parliamentary elections, although this proposal is supported by the majority of Russia's republics and regions. -Vera Tolz KRASIKOV DENOUNCES KHASBULATOV'S COMMENTS. In the evening of 28 September, a spokesman for President Yeltsin denounced comments by parliamentary chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov who said earlier in the day that Yeltsin was running a fascist regime. In an interview with RFE/RL, spokesman Anatolii Krasikov said there had never been a fascist regime which had asked people to take part in nationwide parliamentary and presidential elections. Krasikov said that by setting presidential elections for June 1994, Yeltsin had demonstrated his readiness to hand over the leadership of Russia to whomever the people choose. The spokesman also denounced Khasbulatov for saying he believed plans were being made to possibly storm the parliament building. Krasikov said Yeltsin continued to exclude the possibility of using force against legislators. -Vera Tolz CONSTITUTIONAL COURT JUDGES RESIGN? ITAR-TASS, CITING "RELIABLE SOURCES," REPORTED ON 28 SEPTEMBER THAT FOUR OF THE 13 JUDGES OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT HAD DECIDED TO RESIGN. Another ITAR-TASS report, confirmed by other news agencies, said that the court's Deputy Chairman Nikolai Vitruk and judge Ernest Ametistov would stop attending court sessions in compliance with President Yeltsin's 21 September decree which "recommended" that the court not sit until a new parliament began work. In an interview with RFE/RL on 28-September, Ametistov said, however, that he intended to attend the court sessions if the court begins to evaluate the legality of the latest decrees adopted by the parliament. Of the other two rebel judges, Tamara Morshchakova denied that she had resigned, and Anatolii Kononov did not attend the court's 28 September session. These four judges opposed the court's ruling that Yeltsin's decree was unconstitutional and earlier in the year had criticized Zorkin for being too involved in politics. -Wendy Slater RL MOSCOW STRINGER BEATEN BY POLICE. Andrei Babitsky, an RL Russian Service stringer in Moscow, was beaten twice while reporting on clashes between supporters of the Russian parliament and the police in the streets close to the Russian White House on 28-September. On the second occasion, listeners to RL's Russian Service could hear Babitsky receiving blows from a police truncheon in the course of a live show. Russian television newscasts broadcast later that night failed to report the police violence. -Julia Wishnevsky INDEPENDENT JOURNALISTS REPORT MEDIA CENSORSHIP. Speaking at a press conference in Moscow on 28 September, Gleb Pavlovsky of the Postfactum independent news agency quoted from government instructions on the functioning of the state-run media which ordered that radio and television refrain from covering the negative reaction of a number of Russia's republics and regions to the dissolution of the Russian parliament; from reporting the decline of the president's popularity in Russia's provinces, and from paying too much attention to the proposals put forward by various Moscow and regional politicians on ways to achieve a compromise between the president and parliament. The press conference was reported by an RFE/RL correspondent in Moscow. On 25 September, Nezavisimaya gazeta published other instructions by the Moscow government to presidential envoys in the provinces which among other things tasked the envoys with ensuring a pro-Yeltsin coverage of the latest events by the local media. -Vera Tolz CONVERSION ADVISER GIVEN NEW POST. President Yeltsin signed a decree on 28-September appointing Mikhail Malei to the post of chairman of the Security Council's Interdepartmental Commission on Scientific-Technical Problems of the Defense Industry, ITAR-TASS reported. The decree further relieved Malei of his duties as Presidential Adviser on Conversion. Malei is known to have been unhappy with the lack of progress in converting defense industries to civilian output (see his critique in Nezavisimaya gazeta of 30 August), and he submitted his resignation from the post of presidential adviser in early August in protest against the cancellation of rocket technology sales to India. It is not known whether a new presidential adviser will be appointed. -Keith Bush BREAD ALLOWANCE FOR POOR. A government decree has set the scale and method of payment of an allowance to poor citizens to offset the higher prices of bread anticipated from 1 October, ITAR-TASS reported on 28 September. The provision of a bread allowance had been announced on 17 August, when the state price of flour sold to baking enterprises had doubled and the subsidy lowered accordingly. As of 1 October, the retail prices of various types of bread will be decontrolled. Although the government has come under pressure to reduce agricultural subsidies-estimated to constitute 12-13% of GDP-Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin pledged on 6 August to retain subsidies on grain for bread baking through the end of 1993. -Keith Bush SALVAGING THE RUBLE EXCHANGE RATE. After a plunge precipitated by Yeltsin's suspension of parliament, the ruble seems to be recovering its value vis--vis the dollar, according to various Russian and Western news agencies. On 21 September the ruble-dollar exchange rate on the Moscow Interbank Currency Exchange stood at 1,036. Two days later, the dollar was traded for 1,299, a 25% rise. On 28 September the rate was back down to 1,201 rubles to the dollar. The Russian Central Bank has been intervening heavily to push the rate down. -Erik Whitlock MILITARY CORRUPTION INCREASING? ACCORDING TO AN ARTICLE PUBLISHED IN IZVESTIYA ON 17 SEPTEMBER, MILITARY OFFICERS ARE INCREASINGLY TURNING TO CRIME. The article notes that in late August and early September a group of 4 officers ranging from major to colonel were arrested in Moscow in connection with the theft and sale of arms. Three of the officers were associated with the Humanitarian Academy of the Armed Forces (formerly the Lenin Military-Political Academy). It was also claimed that several recent "contract killings" in the Moscow area were carried out by former officers. -John Lepingwell TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA SHEVARDNADZE RETURNS TO TBILISI. Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze flew back to Tbilisi from Abkhazia on 28 September, Western agencies reported. Speaking at a press conference, he characterized the fall of Sukhumi as "a great moral and political blow" and again accused Russia of complicity. Shevardnadze categorically ruled out Georgian membership of the CIS; he said that he was prepared to resign and hand over power to former president Zviad Gamsakhurdia if the Georgian people so wished, but would prefer to hold new elections, according to Reuters. Shevardnadze accused the Abkhaz of executing scores of Georgian prisoners, including Zhiuli Shartava, who had been appointed Abkhaz Prime Minister last month, despite an undertaking by Abkhaz parliament chairman Vladislav Ardzinba to Russian deputy foreign minister Boris Pastukhov that Shartava would be given safe conduct to Russia. -Liz Fuller GAMSAKHURDIA CALLS ON SHEVARDNADZE TO RESIGN. In an interview published in Der Standard on 28 September, Gamsakhurdia called on Shevardnadze resign and the West to acknowledge him as the rightful head of state. According to unconfirmed reports from the Iberia news agency, Gamsakhurdia was leading his troops on Sukhumi in order to try to retake the town. Meanwhile ITAR-TASS reported that Abkhaz troops were advancing southwards towards Ochamchira. -Liz Fuller DIPLOMATIC REACTION. Speaking at a news briefing on 28 September, Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman Georgi Karasin stated that Russia views "with bitterness and incomprehension" the Abkhaz violation of the 27-July ceasefire and the "dramatic events" surrounding the fall of Sukhumi, according to ITAR-TASS. The US State Department and French President Franois Mitterand issued statements in support of Shevardnadze; the State Department said the US does not recognize the Abkhaz territorial gains. The Abkhaz parliament issued a statement on 28 September asserting its readiness to cease hostilities and resume implementation of the 27 July ceasefire agreement, according to ITAR-TASS. In Geneva, a UN spokeswoman said that the UN-sponsored negotiations on a political settlement of the conflict, postponed once at the Abkhaz request on 12 September and rescheduled for 30-September, have now been postponed indefinitely. -Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CROATIA DEMANDS UNPROFOR CARRY OUT MANDATE OR LEAVE. Croatian and international media reported on 28 September that President Franjo Tudjman addressed the UN General Assembly in New York and held informal talks with members of the Security Council. He stressed that UNPROFOR must carry out the tasks assigned it by the January 1992 Vance plan and by subsequent UN resolutions or leave by the end of November. Its current mandate is slated to end on 30 September, and the Security Council votes on the 29th as to whether to endorse the secretary general's call for a six-month extension. The Croatian government, other leading policy-making bodies, and the legislature demand that UNPROFOR carry out its mandate to restore Croatian authority to Serb-held territories, enable refugees to go home in safety, and disarm Serb insurgents. The Serbs, however, hold to an interpretation of the Vance plan that the UN is there as a shield for them, and, in any event, UNPROFOR has shown no willingness to take the tough action against the rebels that the Croats demand. UNPROFOR is consequently highly unpopular in Croatia, where opinion polls show that the recovery of the Serb-held lands is the top domestic political priority. It now remains to be seen whether the Security Council can pass a resolution that will somehow satisfy the Croats, who would probably be faced with a virtually automatic return to full-scale war with the Serbs if UNPROFOR leaves. -Patrick Moore BOSNIAN MUSLIMS EFFECTIVELY VOTE TO REJECT GENEVA PEACE PLAN. On 28-September an assembly of prominent Muslims voted in Sarajevo to recommend that parliament accept the proposed plan only if the Serbs cede more territories to the proposed Muslim republic. The Serbs are on record as calling that a non-starter, saying that they would agree to limited territorial exchanges at most. The Muslims, however, argue that the maps in their present form simply legalize the results of ethnic cleansing. Speakers at the two-day Muslim assembly were quoted by international media as expressing bitterness toward Western countries, saying that the Muslims had been "marginalized and demonized by Christian Europe," and warning that "this evil we will never forget." Hard-line Vice President Ejup Ganic said that "if it's 'take it or leave it,' our position would be to reject the plan, of course." On 29 September, the mainly Muslim parliament is expected to vote on accepting the project and may well choose to follow the assembly's recommendation, but Reuters quotes Serb member of the republican Presidency Mirko Pejanovic as saying that he expects the legislature will opt for peace rather than face additional casualties. He added that international guarantees must, however, be sufficient, but rebel Serb military commander Ratko Mladic said that "NATO forces should stick to their founding act and are not wanted outside the territory of the countries which founded it." -Patrick Moore IZETBEGOVIC IMPOSES MILITARY RULE IN BIHAC. Croatian and international media reported on 28 September that Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic ordered the loyal Fifth Army Corps in the Bihac pocket of northwestern Bosnia to take control of local radio and impose a 24-hour curfew. He called the previous day's declaration of autonomy by local political boss Fikret Abdic "a stab in the back," while Abdic said that Izetbegovic was trying to impose a "holy war" on a relatively peaceful region that has no intention of sacrificing its "lives for the mad idea of creating an 'Alija state' in the heart of Europe," AFP reported. Croatian radio said that people in the Bihac pocket, or Cazin region, were following Abdic's call not to observe the curfew. -Patrick Moore SERBIAN SOCIALISTS AND RADICALS COLLIDE. A war of words has publicly erupted between Serbia's ruling Socialist Party and the Serbian Radical Party, the republic's second largest political party. A statement released by the SPS's Executive Committee on 28-September harshly attacked Vojislav Seselj, leader of the SRS, saying his policy "personifies violence and primitivism" and warned that such policy must be countered. The statement went on to say that Serbia's future is not dictatorship and fascism, but democracy and prosperity, and urged all citizens in Serbia to "join in the struggle against the evil which is personified by Seselj." The SPS attack came less than 24 hours after Seselj's SRS introduced a proposal in the Serbian parliament to pass a vote of no confidence in Serbia's government headed by Prime Minister Nikola Sainovic. Seselj accused the government of corruption and incompetence. The motion is expected to be debated next week and Seselj is counting on support from other opposition parties. The SRS which has 73 seats need 126 votes to pass the motion. Seselj responded to the SPS statement saying the Socialists have "lost their heads and will soon lose political power." Television and Radio Serbia carried the reports on 28 September. -Milan Andrejevich POSTCOMMUNIST COALITION FORMED IN POLAND . . . The two largest parties in the parliament, the Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) and the Polish Peasant Party (PSL), reached initial agreement on a joint government coalition on 28 September, PAP reports. The agreement was announced after a meeting between SLD leader Aleksander Kwasniewski and PSL chairman Waldemar Pawlak. The SLD and PSL together control 303 of 460 seats in the Sejm and 73 of 100 seats in the Senate, and thus could change the constitution at will. According to unofficial but widespread reports, Pawlak is the coalition's candidate for prime minister. Pawlak held the prime minister's post briefly in 1992 but failed to form a government. The SLD informed President Lech Walesa of the "serious likelihood" of new majority coalition in a letter and requested a meeting with the president. Walesa responded with a statement that, as he has repeatedly requested, three candidates for prime minister must be submitted before any meeting can be held. -Louisa Vinton . . . BUT ECONOMIC DIFFERENCES REMAIN. A third party, the leftist Union of Labor (UP), which unlike the postcommunist SLD and PSL has its roots in the Solidarity tradition, announced it will also join the coalition if the PSL gets control of the prime minister's post and follows through with pledges of major changes in economic policy. The UP has 41 seats in the Sejm. The coalition is not yet firm, however, as serious conflicts on economic policy have emerged between the SLD and the PSL. According to reports on Polish TV, PSL activists accused the SLD of wishing to pursue "too liberal" an economic policy and expressed suspicions that the SLD will want to change too little on taking power. The SLD's chief spokesman on economic questions, Jozef Oleksy, likewise confirmed that the PSL is more eager than the SLD to raise the budget deficit. For its part, the UP expressed concern at the SLD's postelection statements that basic "continuity" will be maintained in economic policy and questioned the SLD's credentials as a "leftist" force. -Louisa Vinton "INDIAGATE" SCANDAL IN SLOVAKIA. On 28 September Slovak daily Sme released information implicating several top government officials in a fraud involving $22 million dollars. Sme reports that the $22 million was supposed to come to Slovakia from India as part of a transaction involving sugar. The article says that Finance Minister Julius Toth "robbed the Slovak economy of the $22 million," with the help of Czech secret service agent Imre Farnbauer, who was allegedly in charge of collecting information on the ruling Movement for a Democratic Slovakia via Toth. The newspaper claims that the stolen money was deposited in foreign bank accounts of Toth, National Bank Governor Vladimir Masar, Economy Minister Kubecka, and Slovak emigrant living in Vienna Milan Adamek. In response to the allegations, cabinet spokesman Ondrej Hanko said "the Slovak cabinet has no information about any illegal activity of any of its members . . . the article is therefore considered to be a repeated campaign aimed to discredit particular members of the cabinet. . . . " TASR reports. Hanko said the government will not release details of the affair, since an investigation is currently underway. The Slovak cabinet also announced it will sue Sme. Meanwhile, spokesman for the Czech Interior Ministry Pavel Subert said the Czech secret service does not have any foreign agents. -Sharon Fisher CSCE MINORITY EXPERT DELEGATION IN BUDAPEST. Wrapping up a five-day visit, a CSCE delegation of legal experts designated to review the situation of the Hungarian minority in Slovakia and that of the Slovak minority in Hungary, held discussions with two parliamentary committees, MTI reported. During the talks, Hungarian lawmakers expressed disappointment about Slovakia's record on fulfilling promises regarding minorities made at the country's admission into the Council of Europe and particularly criticized a new Slovak law requiring Hungarian women to use non-Hungarian name forms. -Karoly Okolicsanyi ROMANIA ADVANCES TO COUNCIL OF EUROPE ENTRY. The Council of Europe's Parliamentary Assembly approved on 28 September Romania's application for full membership. The final approval, however, must be granted by the Council's Committee of Ministers, which has put off a vote on Romania's admission this week. The Committee could still grant Romania membership before the Council's summit, scheduled for 8-October in Vienna. The parliamentary assembly's vote was taken by a show of hands, and, despite a large majority, some twenty parliamentarians abstained, which is unprecedented in the Assembly's history. Among these were all Hungarian parliamentarians. An RFE/RL correspondent in Strasbourg said the assembly clearly qualified its support for the admission in the text of the resolution adopted and in a number of amendments that spelled out doubts about democratic reform and human rights implementation in Romania. The doubts centered on the treatment of minorities, racism and anti-Semitism, as well as on Romania's legal ban on homosexual conduct. -Michael Shafir VACAROIU IN MOSCOW. Romanian Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu signed in Moscow five documents; agreements on double taxation, trade, cooperation in tourism, the establishment of a Russian-Romanian intergovernmental commission on economic, scientific and technical cooperation, as well as a separate accord dealing with cooperation in the fields of culture, science and education. Radio Bucharest reported on 28 September that Vacaroiu raised with his Russian host the issue of the Romanian national treasure, which the Bolshevik regime failed to return after the First World War. Viktor Chernomyrdin replied that the issue was a "philosophical one," since Russia itself cannot trace part of the treasure lost in the course of that war. -Michael Shafir MELESCANU SEEKS UN SUPPORT FOR MOLDOVA. Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu told the UN General Assembly on 28 September that Romania wants the assembly to voice its "resolute reaffirmation" of Moldova's independence and territorial integrity, an RFE/RL correspondent reports. Melescanu said the withdrawal of Russian troops from Moldova was the key to the solution of the conflict there and that the foreign ministers of Moldova, Russia and Ukraine should resume talks with him on finding a solution to the conflict. He also told the assembly that a Romanian battalion of "professional military" is being prepared for service in UN peace-keeping operations. The unit should be operational next spring. -Michael Shafir BULGARIAN MACEDONIANS FORM NEW LOBBY. BTA on 28 September is quoting Struma dnes as reporting that a group of Bulgarian citizens identifying themselves as Macedonians are setting up a new lobby organization. The Union for the Prosperity of Pirin Macedonia-referring to the eastern part of the historic region which today makes up southwestern Bulgaria-in its statutes pledges that it will operate within the framework of national legislation. The organization says it will work for the official recognition of a Macedonian, as well as a Pomak [Bulgarian Muslim], minority in Bulgaria. Meanwhile in Sofia, representatives of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Union of Macedonian Associations (IMRO-UMA), which rejects the existence of a Macedonian nationality, were received by President Zhelyu Zhelev. The IMRO-UMA told Zhelev about the economic situation in southwestern Bulgaria and delivered a protest against the activity of the illegal United Macedonian Organization "Ilinden." The UMO "Ilinden" group has because of its explicit pan-Macedonian ambitions been declared illegal by a Bulgarian court and some observers believe the new lobby organization may have better chances to be recognized by the authorities. -Kjell Engelbrekt NO RESOLUTION BETWEEN GREECE AND MACEDONIA. Meetings between Greece and the Republic of Macedonia opened on 28 September at the United Nations in New York concerning the dispute over what to call the newest Balkan republic. UN mediator Cyrus Vance is to be present during these talks. AFP reports that Athens has said no resolution can be achieved until after the 10 October national elections in Greece. Meantime, Athens continues to oppose the use of the word "Macedonia" in the Republic of Macedonia's official name. While Greek officials have informed UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali that the balloting will have no direct relationship to the negotiations, in fact, the fall of the Mitsotakis government was in part a result of pressure from hard-line nationalists concerning the naming issue. Thus, it is likely that the Macedonian question will figure in the late stages of the electioneering of all parties. -Duncan Perry DEVELOPMENTS IN ALBANIA. According to Rilindja Demokratike on 28 September, Albania's Democratic Party continues to doubt the validity of the petition to free Socialist Party leader Fatos Nano. The Socialists claimed that 700,000 people signed the petition, while the Democrats alleged fraudulent results. Rilindja Demokratike also notes that Muharrem Sako, a former official in Albania's Interior Ministry, has been arrested on charges of the abuse of office. Meantime, the political battle between the Democrats and the Socialists continues to gain momentum with no end in sight. The Socialists are hopeful that Greece's Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK) will score an election victory on 10-October, while Democrats, no doubt concerned about the return of Andreas Papandreou, openly expressed support for Prime Minister Constantine Mitsotakis and the New Democracy Party. The Socialist press also devoted considerable attention to the election in Poland, while the Democrats almost completely ignored developments there. -Robert Austin KRAVCHUK FORMS ECONOMIC REFORM COMMITTEE. Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk issued a decree on 28 September forming a Coordinating Committee on Bringing About Market Reforms and Surmounting the Economic Crisis, Radio Ukraine reported. The committee has been charged with coordinating the efforts of central and local organs of state and executive power, banks, enterprises, and organs of local self-government. Also on 28 September, Kravchuk began the process of forming the new cabinet of ministers by appointing five deputy prime ministers and three ministers. -Roman Solchanyk LITHUANIAN PRESIDENT SPEAKS AT UN. On 28-September Algirdas Brazauskas told the UN General Assembly that without effective assistance former communist states might succumb to nostalgia for a "pseudo-socialist past" that would be unacceptable to all of us, Reuters reports. Brazauskas noted that this could be countered by a new "Marshall Plan," especially since occasionally these countries perceive isolationist tendencies from the most industrialized nations. On 27 September he discussed cooperation with leaders of the World Lithuanian Community and the US Lithuanian Community and met with local Lithuanian emigres. On 29 September he will fly to Los Angeles to participate in its "Lithuanian Days" from where he will return to Lithuania. During his visit in New York he had numerous meetings with leaders of many countries and UN General Secretary Boutros Boutros-Ghali. -Saulius Girnius BOMB EXPLODES BY US EMBASSY IN TALLINN. Early in the morning of 28 September a bomb exploded outside the US embassy in Tallinn breaking a satellite dish, a cable box, and many windows in the neighborhood, but there were no injuries, BNS reports. There was no warning and no one has assumed responsibility. The press service of the Estonian Interior Ministry speculated that the explosion was politically motivated since it occurred shortly after a meeting of US President Bill Clinton with the Baltic presidents. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Bess Brown and Kjell Engelbrekt THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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