|The way I see it, if you want the rainbow, you gotta put up with the rain. - Dolly Parton|
No. 186, 28 September 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA POLITICIANS PROPOSE COMPROMISE. Liberal politicians have proposed a compromise to end the constitutional impasse, Reuters reported on 26 and 27-September. The substance of their proposals is that simultaneous elections to the presidency and the parliament be held on 12 December and that, pending the new elections, the Supreme Soviet would reassemble, but not the Congress of People's Deputies. The politicians, who include presidential candidate Grigorii Yavlinsky and leading members of the Civic Union bloc, also propose that Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi be reinstated, and that the opposition be allowed access to the broadcast media. The group is supported by Valerii Zorkin, chairman of the Constitutional Court, who has backtracked on his previous uncompromising criticism of Yeltsin's actions. The proposal for simultaneous elections has also been made by regional leaders. -Wendy Slater YELTSIN REJECTS COMPROMISE. President Yeltsin, speaking on Russian TV on 27-September, categorically rejected proposals to hold simultaneous early elections because, he claimed, it would cause a power vacuum. "Dual power is very dangerous, but absence of all power is doubly so," he said. Yeltsin also refused to accept Zorkin's proposed "zero option" which would allow both president and parliament to cancel all decrees and laws passed since the crisis began on 21 September. Yeltsin has decreed that elections to the lower house of a new parliament will be held on 11 and 12 December, and that presidential elections will follow on 12 June 1994. -Wendy Slater FEDERATION COUNCIL TO MEET SOON? IT SEEMS LIKELY THAT THE FEDERATION COUNCIL THAT BRINGS TOGETHER THE HEADS OF LEGISLATIVE AND EXECUTIVE POWER IN THE REPUBLICS AND REGIONS WILL MEET THIS WEEK TO DISCUSS THE CRISIS, JUDGING FROM REPORTS IN THE RUSSIAN MEDIA OF 27-SEPTEMBER. According to Ramazan Abdulatipov, chairman of the parliament's Council of Nationalities, the Council will meet on 29 September. Spokesmen for Yeltsin said that Yeltsin was ready to convene the Federation Council, possibly this week. At the same time, however, an aide said that Yeltsin had other options for regulating the situation in the regions. It would be understandable if, at this juncture, Yeltsin had doubts that he could convene such a meeting. The chairman of the Constitutional Court, Valerii Zorkin, said that the council should meet urgently since the center of power had now moved to the regions. The group of political and public figures who came out with their own program for solving the crisis on 27-September called on the subjects of the federation and the Constitutional Court to meet not later than 1 October. It is clear that the regions are being regarded as very much a force in their own right. -Ann Sheehy DEPUTIES DEPART FROM WHITE HOUSE. The deputy chief of the presidential administration, Vyacheslav Volkov, said that of the 384 deputies who worked on a permanent basis in the parliament, 76 have expressed their wish to be transferred to the executive organs of power and 114 favor negotiations, ITAR-TASS reported on 27 September. According to Volkov only between 170 and 180 deputies want to continue to fight. He stated that the Russian parliament was "clearly destroyed." Volkov said that 15,000 rubles are being paid every day to those deputies and employees of the parliament who remain in the White House. Two days ago, he claimed, 150,000 rubles were paid to those deputies who did not depart. -Alexander Rahr PARLIAMENT TO MOVE OUT OF MOSCOW? DEPUTY EVGENII KOZHOKIN TOLD EKHO MOSKVY ON 25 SEPTEMBER THAT THERE IS A REAL DANGER THAT AN ALTERNATE POWER CENTER WILL BE SET UP OUTSIDE MOSCOW, BECAUSE MANY LEGISLATORS IN THE WHITE HOUSE ARE SERIOUSLY CONSIDERING A MOVE FROM MOSCOW TO NOVOSIBIRSK OR THE KUZBASS REGION, IN ORDER TO CONTINUE THEIR RESISTANCE TO PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN FROM THERE. Parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov has not ruled out the possibility of such a move. -Alexander Rahr BARANNIKOV DENIES HE SWITCHED SIDES. The heads of the three "power" ministries convened a press conference on 27 September in the White House to deny earlier rumors that the rival ministers for security and interior affairs, Viktor Barannikov and Andrei Dunaev, had defected to the presidential side, ITAR-TASS reported. Sources close to Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin claimed that during a meeting between Chernomyrdin and Barannikov on 26 September, the latter said that he remained loyal to President Boris Yeltsin and would soon leave the White House together with Dunaev. Barannikov told journalists that he met with Chernomyrdin only to ask him to restore water and electricity to the White House. Dunaev and rival defense minister Vladislav Achalov claimed that they have established firm contacts with the army and troops of the interior ministry which promised them to refrain from the use of force. -Alexander Rahr CALLS FOR CREATION OF SIBERIAN REPUBLIC REVIVE. The chairman of the Kemerovo Oblast Council, Aman Tuleev, told ITAR-TASS on 27 September that at the next session of the powerful "Siberian Agreement" economic association he intended to revive the discussion of the creation of a Siberian republic which would consist of Siberia's regions (oblasts and krais). Tuleev said the creation of a Siberian republic was the only way to defend Siberia's regions from the arbitrary rule of Moscow. Tuleev is a strong critic of President Yeltsin, and the Kemerovo Oblast Council has condemned the dissolution of the Russian parliament on 21-September. -Vera Tolz YELTSIN DISMISSES LOCAL LEADER. Kommersant on 25 September identified a small number of Russian oblasts where the Russian president could count on the support of neither the local soviet nor the head of administration (most of whom he himself appointed). The defiant oblasts were Amur, Novosibirsk (which also offered to provide the Supreme Soviet with a home), Belgorod and Bryansk. Retribution was swift in Bryansk. On 25 September, Yeltsin replaced the head of administration, Yurii Lodkin, with Vladimir Karpov. Lodkin, who was said to have barricaded himself in his office, complained that he had been forcibly evicted by interior ministry troops who came to clear the building. Karpov denied that force was used by either side, saying only that 12 drunk people left along with Lodkin. On 26-September, local inhabitants demonstrated against Lodkin's removal. -Elizabeth Teague SOBCHAK FIRES HIS DEPUTY. St. Petersburg mayor Anatolii Sobchak fired his deputy Vyacheslav Sherbakov on 24 September, ITAR-TASS reported. Sobchak, who had firmly supported the dissolution of parliament by President Yeltsin, said Sherbakov had defied Yeltsin's decree of 21 September by continuing to act as an adviser to parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov. Sobchak's move was condemned by the St. Petersburg City Soviet. -Vera Tolz OFFICIAL UNIONS BACK RUTSKOI; INDEPENDENTS PREFER YELTSIN. The Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Russia (the formerly communist-dominated trade unions) issued a statement on 22-September denouncing Yeltsin's decree dissolving parliament. The unions called on their 50 million members to hold strikes and protests, but no reports of strikes were received in the days immediately following the decree. Even in Vorkuta, where miners had been threatening to strike against threatened pit closures, miners issued a statement in support of Yeltsin, ITAR-TASS reported on 23 September. Russia's small but truly independent unions also spoke in Yeltsin's defense. -Elizabeth Teague LAND CHARGES TO BE INTRODUCED. "Significant" charges for land are to be introduced, Radio Mayak reported on 20 September. Owners of private plots will pay 130 rubles annually for each square meter of land. There will be 5 types of land charge: a tax; a rental charge; a payment for the temporary use of land; a payment for the right to lease land; and a payment for acquiring land as property. The rates of land tax would vary for each region, and would take into account the site, the quality of land, and its proximity to roads and reservoirs. -Keith Bush 1993 GRAIN HARVEST. According to ITAR-TASS of 24-September, the Ministry of Economics has forecast a gross grain harvest outturn of 110 million tons, while the Ministry of Agriculture puts the final total at 107 million tons. Both of these are below recent, fairly authoritative, prognoses which ranged as high as 125 million tons and which provided the basis for optimistic statements to the effect that grain imports would be sharply cut in the 1993/94 marketing year and eliminated thereafter. Losses between the field and the elevators are expected to be high this year as a consequence of the general disruption of the economy and owing to shortages of fuel and equipment. -Keith Bush TURKEY PROTESTS PLANNED RUSSIAN DEPLOYMENTS. Turkey has protested to its NATO allies over Russia's plans to increase its conventional forces in the North Caucasus, Reuters reported on 27 September. A day earlier a Turkish Foreign Ministry statement said that Turkish President Suleyman Demirel had received a message from Russian President Boris Yeltsin outlining Moscow's intentions. Yeltsin had apparently suggested that Russia would increase its forces in the North Caucasus beyond the ceilings established by the 1992 CFE Treaty. Among other things, that agreement limits the military forces that can be deployed in Russia's "flank" regions. As part of its military restructuring program, and in view of growing instability in the south, Russian military leaders have declared their intention to increase Russian forces deployed in the north Caucasus, and have on a number of occasions suggested that the CFE Treaty might be amended to accommodate their plans. Turkey, which has close ties to Azerbaijan, has expressed concern over Russia's military intentions in the region. -Stephen Foye RUSSIAN NAVY CLAIMS FOREIGN SUB INTRUSIONS INCREASING. ITAR-TASS reported on 20 September that the Russian Navy believes the activity of foreign submarines near Russian territorial waters is increasing rather than decreasing. It claims that up to eight submarines were detected in the Barents Sea near Russian territorial waters during one month in 1993. On 20 March 1993 a Russian and a US submarine collided, and in June US Secretary of Defense Les Aspin announced that the US Navy was changing its operations so as to reduce the chance of a collision. -John Lepingwell TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA SUKHUMI FALLS TO ABKHAZ. Abkhaz forces took Sukhumi early in the afternoon of 27-September and raised the national flag over Shevardnadze's former headquarters, Western agencies reported. In a statement carried by ITAR-TASS Shevardnadze, who fled with his personnel staff to Gulripsh, 12 km south of Sukhumi, claimed that hundreds of civilians had been killed in the fighting; he blamed the fall of Sukhumi partly on the failure of forces loyal to ousted president Zviad Gamsakhurdia to join the defending troops and partly on Russia's failure to intervene. Some 7,500 civilians were evacuated by sea; in Tbilisi, the parliament convened in emergency session and called on Shevardnadze to return, ITAR-TASS reported. -Liz Fuller ARMENIAN PARLIAMENT REJECTS CALL FOR EARLY ELECTIONS. On 27 September the Armenian parliament rejected a proposal for early parliamentary elections next year, ITAR-TASS reported. While support for the ruling Armenian Pan-National Movement has plummeted, none of the 30 rival parties can be considered a serious challenger, with the possible exception of the Dashnak Party and the Armenian CP, which is capitalizing on nostalgia for an era of stability and comparative economic wellbeing. -Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BIHAC POCKET "SECEDES" FROM BOSNIAN MUSLIM REPUBLIC. International media report on 28-September that a 400-member constituent assembly for this northwestern Bosnian enclave met in Velika Kladusa to proclaim the "autonomous province of western Bosnia." The colorful Fikret Abdic was elected president, and he made it clear that "this is an act of secession" from the Muslim republic under President Alija Izetbegovic, between whom and Abdic little love is lost. The Bihac Muslims have long feared that Izetbegovic might betray their interests in return for concessions in eastern Bosnia nearer to Sarajevo, since the Bihac pocket, or Cazin region, is cut off by Serb territories from the main Muslim area. Abdic has long combined skills at wheeling and dealing with a strong economic power base in the Agrokomerc company and with a regional tradition of good interethnic relations even during World War II to establish good working and trade relations with both Serbian- and Croatian-controlled territories nearby. Meanwhile, the Bosnian constitutional court responded to the developments in Bihac by calling the setting up of autonomous regions unconstitutional. Finally, about 350 leading Muslim figures met in Sarajevo under Izetbegovic's leadership to consider their attitude to the latest Geneva peace plan. The Guardian of 27 September says that they have really already accepted the plan, and that the real issue at the meeting is power relationships in the future Muslim republic. -Patrick Moore RUMP YUGOSLAV OFFICIALS RESPOND TO RUSSIAN DEVELOPMENTS. Despite the fact that the Belgrade government has yet to issue a definitive statement on developments in Russia, several ministers have made comments of their own. In Borba of 23-September, Foreign Minister Vladislav Jovanovic said that it was in rump Yugoslavia's interest to have Russia, which he described as a "friendly" nation, remain strong, stable, democratic, and prosperous. In the same issue of that daily, federal assembly Vice-President Radmilo Bogdanovic added that Russian developments could work against his country's interests. According to Bogdanovic, Belgrade sees Russia as the nation which could have been most effective in removing the UN sanctions imposed against rump Yugoslavia. Yet with current domestic confusion, he adds, Russia may be in no position to do so because of its consequent weakness in international relations: "Now Russia will be engaged . . . [with] . . . domestic problems. . . . [Rump Yugoslavia] is waiting for Russia to be involved with removing sanctions placed against our country, but now the big question is if it can do that." -Stan Markotich POLISH COALITION TALKS FALTER. Efforts to build a new government coalition in Poland appear to have reached an impasse. In a deliberately ambiguous statement, Polish Peasant Party (PSL) leader Waldemar Pawlak informed the Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) on 27-September that his party is prepared to enable the SLD to form a government but will not necessarily participate in a formal coalition, take seats in the cabinet, or support government measures with which it does not agree. This maneuver seemed designed to scuttle the SLD's efforts to form a government without openly appearing to do so. The PSL's reluctance to join forces leaves the SLD with the sole option of forming a minority government. SLD leaders said they were "astonished" by the PSL's stance and accused Pawlak of "playing for time," PAP reports. The SLD has indicated that it will give up the effort to form a government if it is unable to build a stable majority coalition. A formal announcement is expected on 28-September. Pawlak appears to be bargaining for the chance to build a government on his own, but it is not clear whether he will have allies in this effort. In an interview with Rzeczpospolita on 27 September, Democratic Union (UD) chairman Tadeusz Mazowiecki did not rule out a coalition with the PSL, but fellow party leader Jan Maria Rokita told Polish TV the same day that the UD's participation in a government headed by the SLD or the PSL is "out of the question." Leaders of the Nonparty Reform Bloc (BBWR) also ruled out any such alliance. -Louisa Vinton WALESA TO DEFEND REFORM. In an interview with Wprost that was summarized by PAP on 27 September, President Lech Walesa said he will not allow the reform process in Poland to be delayed or halted. "I came here not to pretend to be president, but to be president," Walesa said. With characteristic bravado, he threatened to apply the "Yeltsin variant," if necessary, to defend market reforms. Poland needs an equilibrium between the right and left wings, the president added. Whereas he had once buttressed the "left leg" in Polish politics, the right leg now needed his assistance. Some failed right-wing politicians would have to give up politics, however, he said. Meeting with representatives of the Ford Foundation the same day, Walesa placed some of the blame for the election outcome on "egotistical" behavior by the EC, which refused to open its markets to Polish products. -Louisa Vinton JESZENSZKY CRITICIZES SLOVAK-ROMANIAN AGREEMENT. Hungarian Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky said attempts by Romania and Slovakia to coordinate their minority policies, as outlined in the friendship treaty signed last week, seem directed toward Hungarian interests and represent a violation of the principles of European integration, Hungarian radio reported on 25 September. Comparing the treaty with inter-war informal political alliances in Central Europe, Jeszenszky said the agreement resembles the formation of an "entente" and stands in contrast to contemporary European perceptions. -Karoly Okolicsanyi SLOVAKIA'S ETHNIC HUNGARIAN PARTY COMPLAINS. The Coexistence movement, one of the ethnic Hungarian parties represented in the Slovak parliament, issued a declaration on 26-September complaining of "nationalist hatred in Slovakia," TASR reported on 27-September. Coexistence claims that the situation in Slovakia has been poisoned by hatred of Gypsies, Jews and Hungarians. According to the movement, this is the result of a nationalist mentality, evident since independence, which "has shown itself in hatred of all non-Slovaks." The declaration was issued following a two-day leadership conference in Patince, southern Slovakia. TASR says that the declaration blames the governing Movement for a Democratic Slovakia and parties that support it for deteriorating ethnic relations in the country. It quoted movement chairman Miklos Duray as saying that there can be no compromise between the government and minority advocates until the overall political atmosphere changes and the claims of "Slovak superiority are abandoned." -Jiri Pehe CZECH-SLOVENIAN AGREEMENT ON MILITARY COOPERATION. On 27 September, Czech Defense Minister Antonin Baudys and his Slovenian counterpart, Janez Jansa, signed an agreement in Prague on military cooperation. CTK reports that the agreement provides for cooperation between the two countries' armed forces in military training, logistics and armaments for the next five to eight years. Slovenia has signed similar agreements with Hungary and Austria and is preparing a military cooperation agreement with Croatia. -Jiri Pehe RUSSIA TO PAY DEBT INTEREST TO CZECHS. Czech Finance Minister Ivan Kocarnik said on 27 September that Russia has agreed to supply wheat to the Czech Republic to pay for all or part of the interest on its debt to that country. CTK reports that Kocarnik made this agreement public after his meeting with Russian Finance Minister Boris Fyodorov in Washington on 27-September. Kocarnik said that Russia's readiness to pay the interest sends an important signal, since it would be the first time Russia has repaid debt to the Czech Republic. According to Kocarnik, Fyodorov said this year's harvest will exceed Russia's needs. Russia owed some $5-billion to the former Czechoslovakia. Two thirds of the debt- $3.3 billion-is owed to the Czech Republic. -Jiri Pehe ROMANIAN DIPLOMATIC OFFENSIVE. Romania's Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu met on 27 September with UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali in New York. Melescanu, who is attending the current UN General Assembly session, is scheduled to address the meeting on 28 September. Meanwhile, Romania's delegation at the 44th ordinary session of the Council of Europe's Parliamentary Assembly held talks with leading figures in Strasbourg on the eve of the assembly's vote on Romania's application to be accepted as a full member to the Council. In another development, Romania's Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu arrived on 27-September in Moscow on a three-day official visit. Vacaroiu, who is seeking trade and energy deals with Russia, seems to have ignored critics who urged him to postpone the trip due to the current political turmoil in Moscow. Radio Bucharest said that Vacaroiu is expected to sign a number of bilateral agreements on cooperation in the areas of trade, culture, science, and tourism. -Dan Ionescu ROMANIAN STUDENTS STAGE PROTESTS. The Students' League of the Bucharest University staged on 27 September a protest over living conditions. About 500 students caused traffic chaos when they blocked a road bridge in downtown Bucharest. They protested a shortage of rooms on campus, shoddy accommodation, and the restricted way in which scholarships are awarded. According to Radio Bucharest, the students further demanded that they have a word to say on the new Education Bill which is being drafted by the Ministry of Education. -Dan Ionescu ROMANIAN LAND REFORM FALLING BEHIND. In an interview with the Bucharest daily Meridian, Gheorghe Antochi, Secretary of State at the Agriculture Ministry admitted that the implementation of a March 1991 land reform law is falling behind. Antochi said that only 420,000 land property certificates have been issued so far, and that a further five million Romanian citizens are still waiting to get their ownership titles. The process of issuing titles has been slowed down by disputes among farmers, which often can be settled only in court. Most of Romania's farmland had been taken away from peasants during the collectivization drive of the 1950s. -Dan Ionescu BULGARIAN TOURIST INDUSTRY ON THE WAY TO RECOVERY. Between January 1 and September 20 a total number of 700,000 tourists, 42% more than during the same period last year, visited Bulgaria's summer and winter resorts, the Committee on Tourism told journalists on 27 September. The committee characterized the figure as "more than promising." Most popular are the Black Sea resorts, which thus far in 1993 have received 582,000 vacationers and a 48% rise in visitors from Western countries as compared to 1992. Germans, Britons, Turks and Israelis top the list of foreign tourists to Bulgarians resorts. -Kjell Engelbrekt KRAVCHUK TAKES OVER GOVERNMENT. Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk issued a decree on 27-September naming himself head of government, Ukrinform-TASS reported. The step was taken five days after appointing Yefim Zvyagilsky acting prime minister in place of Leonid Kuchma, who stepped down with his cabinet. The decree stated that the move was taken in order to strengthen all structures of state executive power at the center and on the local level, as well as to deal urgently with the problems of economic reform. -Roman Solchanyk "DNIESTER" FIGHTERS DEFEND RUSSIAN SUPREME SOVIET. Russian Supreme Soviet First Vice-Chairman Yurii Voronin told the Congress of People's Deputies on 27 September that a detachment from the "Dniester republic" had arrived and joined the defenders of the Russian parliament building, ITAR-TASS reported. On the same day Andrei Fedorov, senior aide to Russian Vice-President Aleksandr Rutskoi, told journalists that the parliament building is being guarded by at least 400 fighters, including "professionals" from Abkhazia and the self-styled Dniester republic who are "very well armed," Radio Ekho Moskvy reported. Officials in Chisinau told AFP that 40 fighters headed by Dniester republic State Security Minister Vadim Shevtsov and transporting a truckload of arms had left Tiraspol for Moscow recently to join in the defense of the Supreme Soviet. Basapress also on 27 September reported from Tiraspol that a company of the special-force Dniester battalion, commanded by the First Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs Nikolai Matveev of the would-be republic, was among the defenders of the parliament building in Moscow. Shevtsov and Matveev were senior officers of the USSR MVD's OMON units in Latvia and Lithuania who transferred to the Dniester republic after the collapse of Soviet rule in the Baltics. -Vladimir Socor CLINTON MEETS BALTIC PRESIDENTS. On 27 September US President Bill Clinton met for an hour with Baltic Presidents Lennart Meri (Estonia), Guntis Ulmanis (Latvia), and Algirdas Brazauskas (Lithuania), the RFE/RL Lithuanian Service reports. Clinton expressed US support for the early, unconditional, and rapid withdrawal of Russian troops from Estonia and Latvia. While Meri demanded that Russian President Boris Yeltsin should speed up the withdrawal, Ulmanis raised concern about Russia's hopes to retain some military installations in Latvia. Brazauskas said that he was worried about the military build-up in Kaliningrad and supported its demilitarization. The three presidents also gave Clinton a letter stating that the termination of Radio Free Europe Baltic-language broadcasts is "premature and unsettling for the Baltic countries." -Saulius Girnius LITHUANIAN PARLIAMENT'S COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN RESIGNS. On 27 September Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party (LDLP) first deputy chairman Gediminas Kirkilas resigned as chairman of the parliament's National Security Committee, Radio Lithuania reports. He was replaced by Vytautas Petkevicius, a LDLP deputy who has recently expressed plans to form a second LDLP faction in the parliament. Kirkilas said that his resignation was prompted by the recent unrest in the Volunteer Home Guard Service in Kaunas for which he considers himself to be partly responsible. Former Lithuanian Social Democratic party chairman Kazimieras Antanavicius had resigned as chairman of the parliament's Economics Committee on 21 September asserting that the LDLP had been ignoring his recommendations. -Saulius Girnius CSCE COMMISSIONER INVITED TO ESTONIA. On 27-September the Representative Assembly of the Russian Speaking Population of Estonia and the city councils of Narva and Sillamae issued a letter sent to CSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities Max van der Stoel inviting him to urgently come to Estonia to continue his mediating efforts, Baltic media report. The letter asserts that while the city councils had fully complied with the agreement that van Stoel had arranged between them and the Estonian government, the latter had refused to have constructive talks with the councils, had delayed issuing auxiliary regulations for obtaining Estonian citizenship, residence permits, and aliens' passports while the situation in the northeast areas of the country continued to deteriorate. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Bess Brown and Kjell Engelbrekt THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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