|History is made out of the failures and heroism of each insignificant moment. - Franz Kafka|
No. 185, 27 September 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA REGIONAL LEADERS PROPOSE ELECTION COMPROMISE . After meeting in St.-Petersburg, representatives of 40 soviets of the subjects of the federation and nine representatives of heads of administrations issued a declaration calling for simultaneous elections of both the legislature and president before the end of 1993, ITAR-TASS and Western media reported. The declaration also stated that the Federation Council should meet not later than 1 October to discuss the elections, and that-in order to give constitutional legitimacy to the elections and the new parliament-the Congress of People's Deputies should transfer the powers to adopt acts on the federal organs of state power in the transitional period and the manner of their election, and on the organization of elections "to a body formed by the subjects of the federation" in a manner provided for by the federal treaty. The declaration also called for the suspension of all acts adopted by the federal authorities after 2000 hours on 21 September. -Ann Sheehy SHAKHRAI, ABDULATIPOV PRESENT AT MEETING. Deputy Premier Sergei Shakhrai, who attended the meeting on behalf of the government, Chairman of the Council of Nationalities Ramazan Abdulatipov, deputies of the Supreme Soviet and members of the Constitutional Court, who were present as observers, did not sign the declaration, according to ITAR-TASS. While the call for simultaneous elections enjoys considerable support in other quarters, the call for the transfer of legislative powers to a body created by the subjects of the federation, which would presumably not be subordinate to the president or the parliament could be much more controversial. -Ann Sheehy RYABOV DISCUSSES NEW ELECTIONS. The chairman of Russia's central electoral commission, Nikolai Ryabov, told the Russian media on 25 September that simultaneous presidential and parliamentary elections as advocated by the majority of Russia's republics and regions may be possible. He said the timing of the elections would depend on the political situation in Russia. Ryabov also added that the parliamentary elections decreed by Yeltsin for December would be difficult to arrange for technical reasons. Yeltsin so far has strongly opposed simultaneous presidential and parliamentary elections, saying that this would create a power vacuum in the country. -Vera Tolz SITUATION CALM, BUT SOME WEAPONS STILL FEARED IN CIVILIAN HANDS. The situation in Moscow was reported calm on 27 September. The chief of Russian President Boris Yeltsin's apparatus Sergei Filatov told Ostankino TV on 26 September that only about 180-people's deputies still remained in the Russian parliament building, where they had been holed up since the night of 21 September, but they were without electricity, water or telephones and the crowd of supporters outside the Russian White House had also dwindled. On 26 September, Khasbulatov said that he believed an attack was imminent and that the White House would be defended by force of arms, but volunteer units were already reported to have begun handing over their weapons to government authorities. Moscow magistrates were still expressing concern on 27 September, however, that some weapons, said to have been distributed by parliament-appointed rival Defense Minister Vladislav Achalov, were in the hands of civilians. -Elizabeth Teague RUTSKOI CALLS FOR DEFIANCE. Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi, Yeltsin's rival for the presidential post, left the parliament building on 25 September to appeal for support and call for public disobedience to the Yeltsin government. Reuters said he reviewed "a rag-tag group" of about 200 men parading outside the White House, describing them as "parliament's own regiment." Rutskoi remained with Khasbulatov in the White House for the rest of the weekend, apparently determined to fight to the end, but on 26 September he was reported by ITAR-TASS to be helping arrange for the turnover to the government authorities of some of the weapons handed out to civilians, said to include Kalashnikov rifles and submachine guns. -Elizabeth Teague KHASBULATOV RESISTS. According to ITAR-TASS on 26 September Parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov announced that if parliament is dissolved by force and the chairman of the Supreme Soviet detained, several deputies have the authority to convene a parliamentary session in any of five or six other cities. He said that he expects the present conflict to last another two-three weeks. Meanwhile, the head of the Council of Nationalities of the dissolved Supreme Soviet, Ramazan Abdulatipov, claimed at a meeting of regional representatives in St.-Petersburg that many deputies are prepared to turn against Khasbulatov and open negotiations with the executive power. President Boris Yeltsin is quoted by ITAR-TASS on 25-September as saying that soon only Khasbulatov and Aleksandr Rutskoi would remain in the parliament building. -Alexander Rahr CALLS FOR KHASBULATOV'S RESIGNATION. As the remaining participants of the Congress of People's Deputies continued their session, their chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov came under criticism, ITAR-TASS reported on 24 September. His proposal to end the session and continue its work in the parliament was defeated. Veniamin Sokolov, chairman of the Council of the Republic, one of the parliament chambers, said that Khasbulatov deserved the deputies' gratitude, but had "exhausted his potential." Sergei Baburin, a nationalist deputy, supported Sokolov in calling for the "renewal of the parliamentary leadership." Russian Vice-President Aleksandr Rutskoi, whom parliament elected "acting president" on 21 September, defended Khasbulatov. -Wendy Slater DEMOCRATS DEMONSTRATE FOR YELTSIN. Over 10,000 demonstrators assembled in front of the Moscow City Council on 26 September to voice their full support for the actions of President Boris Yeltsin, ITAR-TASS reported. Speakers from the Movement for a Democratic Russia said that the campaign for elections to the State Duma had begun that day. Leaders of the Movement for a Democratic Russia have called on Yeltsin to dissolve the reform-resistant parliament and introduce presidential rule in the country since October of last year. -Alexander Rahr SOME REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVES FAIL TO ATTEND CONSTITUTIONAL ASSEMBLY. The Constitutional Assembly convened in Moscow on 25 September to continue work on a new draft constitution, but representatives from key regions and republics failed to attend. ITAR-TASS did not name these regions. Addressing the assembly, chief of the presidential apparatus Sergei Filatov accused leaders of regional councils of attempting to prevent the adoption of a new constitution. Filatov recalled that a number of regional leaders blocked the formal approval of the draft constitution worked out by the assembly in July. Filatov stated that the failure of the assembly's delegates to approve formally the draft constitution in July "was one of the reasons which forced the president to sign his 21-September decree" dissolving the parliament. Filatov said that to carry out provisions of the decree, the assembly must finalize the draft constitution by December. -Vera Tolz CONSTITUTIONAL ASSEMBLY TO RECOMMEND CHANGES TO ELECTION DECREE. The Constitutional Assembly will propose to President Yeltsin on 27-September that he change some of the provisions for elections to the new parliament, ITAR-TASS reported on 25-September. According to Viktor Sheinis, who chaired the meeting and who was responsible for drafting an earlier law on elections, the main recommendations include increasing the number of seats in the State Duma (the elected lower house) from 400 to 450; allowing half the deputies (rather than one third) to be elected by proportional representation; and halving the number of signatures needed to nominate a candidate -Wendy Slater POLITICAL PARTIES ON EVENTS IN MOSCOW. Opinions of leaders of Russia's political parties on the latest events in Moscow range from unequivocal support to condemnation of Yeltsin's actions, ITAR-TASS reported on 23 September. The Democratic Russia movement supported the president and called on Russian citizens to actively participate in the upcoming elections. Some businessmen's organizations, such as the Moscow Association of Entrepreneurs, sided with the president but others, such as the influential "Entrepreneurs for New Russia," called for simultaneous parliamentary and presidential elections. The dissolution of the Russian parliament was condemned by the centrist groups, including the Civic Union, as well as by communist and nationalist organizations. -Vera Tolz OSTANKINO TV CENSORSHIP. VID, the Ostankino TV news show, has tried to be fair in their coverage of the dispute among the various branches of Russian government , but has been censored. On 24 September, anchor Aleksandr Politkovsky complained that he had had problems when he invited liberal economist Grigorii Yavlinsky, front-runner in the campaign for the Russian presidency, to appear on the show. The Ostankino management also forbade Politkovsky to interview Sergei Glazev, former minister of foreign trade who had resigned his post in protest against Yeltsin's 21 September decree. On 25 September the TV management banned a segment of VID because it contained an interview with Constitutional Court Chairman Valerii Zorkin. Later on 25 September the anchors of VID told Ekho Moskvy that VID intends to sue the Ostankino management for violation of the Russian Press Law. -Julia Wishnevsky YELTSIN TRIP TO JAPAN SCHEDULED. Following meetings at the United Nations, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev and his Japanese counterpart Tsutomu Hata announced on 26 September that Boris Yeltsin will travel to Japan on 12 October for an official visit, Kyodo and ITAR-TASS reported. This is the third scheduled visit to Japan since September 1992; previous visits have not taken place owing to domestic pressure in Russia against making concessions to Japan on the Kuril Islands dispute. The outcome of the current political struggle in Russia will affect Yeltsin's room for maneuver on this question. -Suzanne Crow CIS TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA ECONOMIC UNION TREATY SIGNED. The leaders of 9 former Soviet republics signed a treaty in Moscow on 24 September creating an economic union, ITAR-TASS and other agencies reported. The treaty was signed by Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. Ukraine signed as an associate member; Georgia signed some of the provisions, as an observer; and Turkmenistan said it might join later if amendments were made in the provisions on taxes, company law, and finance. In the view of the Financial Times of 25 September, the document provides a framework for the gradual construction of a common economic space on the basis of market relations. It envisages the gradual reduction and eventual abolition of all customs tariffs and other internal trade barriers; equal legal status for companies of all member states to encourage the creation of jointly-owned enterprises; and a payments union, or multi-currency clearing system, to be run though an Inter-State Bank and which could eventually become a currency union. -Keith Bush FALL OF SUKHUMI IMMINENT? DURING INTENSE STREET FIGHTING OVER THE PAST THREE DAYS ABKHAZ FORCES HAVE EXTENDED THEIR CONTROL OVER MOST OF SUKHUMI, WESTERN JOURNALISTS REPORT. Some 4,000 civilians were evacuated by sea on 25 September, according to ITAR-TASS. Contradicting earlier claims that reinforcements had arrived, Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze said in a television address on 26 September that only 300 men had reached the town, and the main force was pinned down 15 km to the south. Georgian officials in Tbilisi told Reuters on 27 September that the fall of Sukhumi was virtually inevitable, but that Shevardnadze had refused an offer to be evacuated by the Russian military. -Liz Fuller GAMSAKHURDIA RETURNS. Ousted Georgian President Zviad Gamsakhurdia flew from Grozny to Senaki in western Georgia on 24 September and proceeded to the Mingrelian capital of Zugdidi, where he told supporters that Shevardnadze should resign; his return was not reported by Georgian TV, according to Western agencies. On 25 September Gamsakhurdia told AFP he would return to Tbilisi within a few days; on 26-September he told Reuters that in the interests of "saving Georgia and his people" he had ordered his troops to proceed to Sukhumi to assist in the town's defense. -Liz Fuller ALIEV, TER-PETROSSYAN OPTIMISTIC OVER KARABAKH SETTLEMENT. Following a meeting at the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs on 26 September, Azerbaijani parliament chairman Geidar Aliev and Armenian president Levon Ter-Petrossyan expressed cautious optimism at the enhanced prospects for a peaceful settlement of the Karabakh conflict, ITAR-TASS reported. -Liz Fuller AZERBAIJANIS DEMONSTRATE TO PROTEST CIS MEMBERSHIP. Thousands of Azerbaijan Popular Front members staged a demonstration on 24 September in Nakhichevan's Ordubad Raion, where ousted President Abulfaz Elchibey has taken refuge, to protest the signing by parliament chairman Geidar Aliev of documentation committing Azerbaijan to membership of the CIS, Turan News Agency reported on 24 September. -Liz Fuller KAZAKHSTAN, RUSSIA MERGE MONETARY SYSTEMS. On 23 September Kazakhstan's Prime Minister Sergei Tereshchenko and his Russian counterpart Viktor Chernomyrdin joined the heads of the two countries' national banks in signing an accord unifying the monetary systems of Kazakhstan and Russia, Russian and Western news agencies reported. Tereshchenko later told journalists that the unification is important for economic stability in Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev, arriving in Moscow for the CIS summit, was quoted by ITAR-TASS the same day as telling journalists that the economic union to be created at the summit is not a resurrection of the USSR but an aid in coordinating the internal economic ties of the CIS and the foreign policies of the participating states. -Bess Brown UZBEK OPPOSITIONISTS SENTENCED. Uzbek oppositionists reported to RL on 23-September that Uzbekistan's Supreme Court had sentenced five persons associated with the Islamic opposition group Adolat to labor camp terms of between ten and fifteen years. The five had been charged with attempting to overthrow the government; they were arrested trying to slip across the Tajik border into Afghanistan. The chairman of Adolat, a group that enjoyed considerable influence and a degree of official tolerance in Namangan in early 1992, said that the five were not Adolat members; the state prosecutor, in an apparent attempt to discredit Adolat, said that they were. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CROAT-MUSLIM COMBAT CONTINUES. Fighting continued over the weekend in the Mostar area and in central Bosnia between the two former allies. Vjesnik reported on 25 September on moves to implement the latest Croat-Muslim cease-fire, with an emphasis on freeing prisoners, but it appears that a separate supplemental agreement for Mostar may have to be hammered out by those directly involved. The New York Times writes on 26 September about tensions between Muslim and Croat troops still nominally allied for the defense of Sarajevo, while Reuters the previous day reported on Croat threats to blow up an explosives factory near Vitez rather than give it up to attacking Muslims. -Patrick Moore TUDJMAN STRESSES UNITY OF CROATIAN STATE. President Franjo Tudjman addressed a special session of parliament on 24 September to mark the 50th anniversary of the union of Istria with Croatia, Vjesnik reported the following day. He used the opportunity to blame communists and foreigners for regionalism and to reaffirm his well-known opposition to regional autonomy. Istria is home to the country's strongest regional movement, with other such parties existing in Rijeka, Dalmatia, and eastern Slavonia. Tudjman also has worries, however, about possible Serb-sponsored moves to partition Croatia on the Bosnian model, and is placing great weight on the ongoing discussions to renew UNPROFOR's mandate on the 30th as a chance to reaffirm international support for Croatia's territorial integrity. This probably accounts for Hina's report on 26-September that Tudjman is taking a high-powered delegation with him to New York and the UN General Assembly meeting. Critics charge that Tudjman has gotten himself-and Croatia-into a mess partly of his own making as a result of the ending of the Croat-Muslim alliance this spring and of Tudjman's willingness to join the Serbs in partitioning the neighboring republic. Vecernji list of 25 September reported on the debate in parliament that led to a tough, four-point resolution urging Tudjman to stand firm on all Croatia's demands, although views ranged from speakers wanting to throw UNPROFOR out immediately to those suggesting that Croatia might get precious little of what it wants and should already "be thinking four moves ahead." Finally, Croatian Radio on 26-September said there were anti-UNPROFOR demonstrations across the country. -Patrick Moore COALITION TALKS STALL IN POLAND? LEADERS OF THE VICTORIOUS DEMOCRATIC LEFT ALLIANCE (SLD) ANNOUNCED ON 26 SEPTEMBER THAT THEY MAY GIVE UP THE ATTEMPT TO FORM A GOVERNMENT IF THE POLISH PEASANT PARTY (PSL) FAILS TO RESPOND FAVORABLY TO ITS OFFER OF A JOINT COALITION, POLISH TV REPORTS. The PSL issued an enigmatic statement on 25 September, expressing distress at remarks by some SLD officials on its proper role in a coalition government. The PSL has meanwhile forged an informal alliance with the leftist Union of Labor; together, the two parties control more seats than the SLD. They appear to hope to convince the Democratic Union to form a coalition that would exclude the SLD. SLD leaders met with the diplomatic corps in Warsaw on 24-September in a further attempt to reassure the West that Poland will remain on its course of market reform. SLD leader Aleksander Kwasniewski said the SLD is prepared to consider "continuity" in the strategic foreign, defense, and internal affairs ministries and will not conduct "purges" in the state administration. Wlodzimierz Cimoszewicz stressed that the "SLD has the same goal as previous governments" but simply wishes to achieve it through different means. -Louisa Vinton ILIESCU ENDS VISIT TO SLOVAKIA. On 24 September, Romanian President Ion Iliescu ended a two-day official visit to Slovakia. Before his departure, Iliescu and his Slovak counterpart, Michal Kovac, signed a friendship and cooperation treaty between the two countries. At a press conference after signing the treaty, Iliescu said that his country and Slovakia want to "start building a zone of stability in this part of Europe." Earlier in the day, deputies from parties representing ethnic Hungarians in Slovakia walked out of the parliament when Iliescu spoke about minority issues. Reuter quoted Iliescu as telling deputies that "the demagogy that is spread in connection with the position of minorities in Romania and Slovakia has to be unmasked." Iliescu also said that the protection of ethnic rights must be given appropriate attention, but there was no need to emphasize it too much, "as some European countries do." -Jiri Pehe SLOVAKIA TO ALLOW SPELLING NAMES IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES. Slovak media report that the Slovak parliament passed a law on 24 September that makes it possible to use foreign names as they are spelled in the particular foreign language. The law will affect above all the large Hungarian minority in Slovakia. A similar law was approved by the parliament earlier this year but was returned to the parliament by the country's president, who objected to some of the law's provisions and asked for changes. Not all of the changes demanded by the President were adopted by the parliament. In another development, a special mission from the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) has been investigating Slovak-Hungarian ethnic tensions. On 24 September, the CSCE team heard Hungarian complaints about a ban on bilingual road signs. After their Slovak visit the CSCE investigators are scheduled to spend five days in Hungary. -Jiri Pehe 1994 ELECTION DATES FOR HUNGARY PROPOSED. Hungarian radio reported on 24-September that the government favors the 1994 general election to be scheduled in two rounds sometime between 3 May and 2 August 1994. The proposal was made in a letter written by Prime Minister Jozsef Antall to Hungarian President Arpad Goncz. The Hungarian Socialist Party, which advocates new elections as early as possible, said in a comment that both rounds of elections ought to be organized in May 1994. -Karoly Okolicsanyi HUNGARIAN SOCIALIST PARTY VIEWS FORMER COMMUNIST UNION AS "NATURAL ALLY." At a public meeting organized jointly with the MSZOSZ on 23 September in Debrecen, the Hungarian Socialist Party (HSP) leader Gyula Horn said that, although there is no political pact, he regards the former communist trade union as a "natural ally" in domestic politics, MTI reports. Together with MSZOSZ Chairman Sandor Nagy, Horn was criticizing several aspects of government policy. While Horn sharply attacked the government's agricultural policy, Nagy said the transition could have been accomplished with less sacrifices and less unemployment. The HSP also revealed that it will nominate union leaders, who scored a major victory in the May 1993 union elections, in the next parliamentary elections. The MSZOSZ has over one million registered members and has been able to preserve its considerable wealth despite attempts by parliamentarians to legislate a splitting up of assets. -Karoly Okolicsanyi HEAD OF COUNCIL OF EUROPE BACKS ROMANIA'S ENTRY. Catherine Lalumiere, Secretary-General of the Council of Europe, told journalists in Paris on 24-September that she was optimistic about Romania's admission to the organization in the next few days. Lalumiere was quoted as saying that to further delay Romania's application "would risk discouraging not only Romanian authorities but also all Romanian democrats." In a related development, Radio Bucharest reported that the Romanian delegation to the 44th session of the Council's Parliamentary Assembly arrived in Strasbourg on 25-September. The delegation is headed by Senator Florin Radulescu Botica from the ruling Party of Social Democracy of Romania. The Council has repeatedly postponed accepting Romania as a full member over the past four years, mainly because of Strasbourg's dismay over the country's human rights record and slow pace of reforms. The Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania asked the Council last month to review Romania's treatment of ethnic minorities before admitting Bucharest into the group of parliamentary democracies. -Dan Ionescu RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTER POSTPONES ROMANIAN VISIT. The Romanian Defense Minister announced on 24 September that Gen. Pavel Grachev, defense minister of the Russian Federation, has called off a three-day visit to Romania as a result of the political turmoil in Moscow. The visit was scheduled to begin on 27 September. In Bucharest, Grachev was expected to sign a new military cooperation agreement with Romania. Radio Bucharest said the two sides are to fix a new date for the visit. -Dan Ionescu BULGARIA ASKS UN TO COMPENSATE FOR SANCTIONS. In a declaration adopted on 24-September, the Bulgarian parliament has asked the United Nations to establish a mechanism to compensate countries which suffer from side-effects of international embargoes. As quoted by BTA, the declaration addressed to the 48th session of the General Assembly says Bulgaria has due to the UN sanctions against rump Yugoslavia, and earlier, against Iraq and Libya, lost revenues commensurable with its $13 billion foreign debt. The document suggests that Bulgaria be awarded economic support in an indirect form, such as preferential trade access to Western markets, financial support for infrastructure projects, or reduction of its foreign debt. Although acknowledging that all estimates are based on shaky ground since Bulgarian trade and payments balance statistics are being reorganized, a commission of the Bulgarian government last week endorsed a report putting the total costs of upholding the UN embargo against Serbia and Montenegro between July 1992 and June 1993 at $2.71 billion. -Kjell Engelbrekt MOLDOVAN OFFICIALS ON DRAWBACKS OF CIS MEMBERSHIP. Although Moldova joined the Economic Union and signed 13 out of 17 agreements at the CIS summit in Moscow on 24 September, at a news conference back in Chisinau officials who had accompanied President Mircea Snegur to Moscow expressed reservations, Radio Bucharest and Basapress reported on the 25th. President Mircea Snegur's chief economic adviser, Ceslav Ciobanu, said Moldova's participation in the Economic Union will make Moldova's economic reforms hostage to the fate of Russian reforms and will maximize the impact on Moldova of any political crisis or civil conflict in Russia. Ciobanu and Foreign Trade Minister Andrei Cheptine explained that Moldova's decision to join the Economic Union was dictated by the need to lift the prohibitive customs duties and excise taxes recently imposed by Russia on goods imported from Moldova as a non-member of the CIS. The officials also said they worried that participation in economic institutions will eventually compel Moldova to take part in the political undertakings of the CIS. -Vladimir Socor LATVIA'S WAY BECOMES POLITICAL PARTY. On 25-September in Riga more than one hundred members of Latvijas Cels (Latvia's Way), the largest faction in the Latvian parliament, held a meeting at which it was decided to transform the election coalition into a formal political party, Diena reports. Latvia's Way describes itself as a "liberal, conservative party" that stands for a free-market economy with private property as its corner stone, committed to a parliamentary democracy protecting individual freedoms. Prime Minister Valdis Birkavs was elected the party's chairman and Andrejs Pantelejevs will continue to be the party's faction leader in parliament. -Saulius Girnius BALTIC ASSEMBLY PRESIDIUM MEETING IN TALLINN. On 25-26 September the presidium of the Baltic Assembly met in Tallinn and discussed ways of restructuring the organization, Baltic media report. The presidium recommended that documents adopted by the Baltic Assembly be submitted to the parliaments of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania for ratification. Earlier the documents had been purely of an advisory nature and had little chance of implementation. The meeting was attended by the president of the Nordic Council, Jens Syse, who showed a particular interest in developments around the planned withdrawal of Russian troops from the Baltic States, an issue that will be discussed at the Nordic Council meeting on 10-12 November. -Saulius Girnius PETITION FOR INDEXING LITHUANIAN SAVINGS. On 23 September a petition with 274,000 signatures calling for a retroactive indexation of bank savings was presented to Lithuanian parliament chairman Ceslovas Jursenas, BNS reported on 25 September. The petition initiated by the Homeland Union (Conservatives of Lithuania) demands that savings held in Lithuanian banks on 26 February 1991 should be indexed 100 times to compensate for the decline in the value of the ruble. The parliament on 1 July decided to index the savings only 10 times but is expected to consider the proposal this week. If 300,000 signatures are gathered, a referendum on the proposal may be held. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Bess Brown and Kjell Engelbrekt THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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