|History is made out of the failures and heroism of each insignificant moment. - Franz Kafka|
No. 184, 24 September 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA TWO KILLED IN OVERNIGHT ATTACK ON MILITARY HQ. The first violence of the Moscow crisis occurred late in the evening of 23 September, when a group of about a dozen armed men attacked the military headquarters of the Commonwealth of Independent States. ITAR-TASS and Western agencies said two people were killed: one a police guard and the other a woman who lived nearby who was caught by a stray bullet. The raiders fled when interior ministry troops arrived on the scene. The CIS headquarters houses special military communications facilities. An attack on another communications center-that of the State Committee for Emergency Situations-was made on 22-September by a group of armed men led by the hard-line retired General Albert Makashov. -Alexander Rahr KOBETS ORDERS TROOPS TO SHOOT TO KILL. Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev and his deputy Konstantin Kobets laid the blame for the bloodshed on Makashov and on Vladislav Achalov, the man named by Vice-President Aleksandr Rutskoi as his defense minister, ITAR-TASS reported on 24 September. Kobets said he had ordered his troops "to open fire to kill in the event of similar sorties." Meanwhile, the Congress of People's Deputies, which Yeltsin says no longer exists, continued its emergency session in the Russian White House. Some deputies called for a statement dissociating the Congress from the raid on CIS headquarters. -Elizabeth Teague YELTSIN DISBANDS PARLIAMENTARY GUARD. President Boris Yeltsin has decreed the transfer of the troops of the parliamentary guard from the jurisdiction of parliament to that of the Interior Ministry, ITAR-TASS reported on 24 September. The parliamentary guard is a separate unit answerable only to the parliamentary leadership. Yeltsin also ordered the defense and interior ministries to disarm demonstrators outside the Russian White House. According to a Moscow police spokesman, the assault on the CIS military headquarters was ordered by the head of the hard-line "Union of Officers," Stanislav Terekhov, and the leader of the pro-communist "Working Russia" organization, Viktor Anpilov. -Alexander Rahr SIMULTANEOUS ELECTIONS TO ALL BRANCHES OF POWER PROPOSED. Countering Yeltsin's proposal that early presidential elections be held on 12-June 1994, several regional and republican leaders have proposed holding pre-term presidential and parliamentary elections simultaneously. They include the president of Kabardino-Balkaria, the chairman of the Karelian parliament, and the chairman of the Irkutsk oblast soviet, Nezavisimaya gazeta reported on 23-September. ITAR-TASS said economist Grigorii Yavlinky, who has said he intends to run as a candidate in the next presidential elections, Rutskoi, and Constitutional Court chairman Valerii Zorkin have also advocated simultaneous elections. Rutskoi issued a statement on 23 September saying he was not seeking political power and would not run in a pre-term presidential election. But Ekho Moskvy quoted the chief of the presidential apparatus, Sergei Filatov, as saying Yeltsin would not agree to such a proposal. -Alexander Rahr and Vera Tolz RESIGNATIONS FROM PARLIAMENTARY LEADERSHIP. Splits appeared in the parliamentary leadership on 23 September, according to reports from AFP and ITAR-TASS. Deputy parliamentary chairman Nikolai Ryabov has resigned, as have the Chairmen of the parliamentary Committees on Defense and Security and Budget and Finance, General Sergei Stepashin and Aleksandr Pochinok, respectively. All three have for some time been critical of the leadership of parliamentary chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov, and they appear now to have joined the presidential camp. Yeltsin has appointed Stepashin as Deputy Defense Minister, while Ryabov will be appointed to head the electoral commission which, according to Yeltsin's decree, will organize the December elections to a new parliament. -Wendy Slater RESOLUTIONS ON FUTURE CONSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE. Yeltsin has issued two resolutions detailing Russia's future constitutional structure, ITAR-TASS and Reuters reported on 23 September. The resolutions, based on the constitutional draft adopted in July by the Constitutional Assembly, will remain in force until the Federal Assembly (the new parliament) adopts a full constitution and a law on elections. In the interim, the Federal Assembly will consist of an upper house (Federation Council) comprising the head of administration and the chairman of the local soviet in each of the republics and regions of Russia until the soviets' current term of office expires; and a lower house (State Duma), to be elected in December. Of the Duma's 400-members, 270 will be elected in single-seat constituencies and 130 by proportional representation according to party lists. -Wendy Slater ERIN ON SECURITY SITUATION IN MOSCOW. Interior Minister Viktor Erin told journalists that spetsnaz troops (special commandos) had been deployed in Moscow, ITAR-TASS reported on 23 September. He said that interior ministry troops have been moved to the neighborhood of the parliamentary building, while the regular police had been strengthened by the addition of 3,000 to 5,000 additional officers. Erin warned of the possibility that provocations might be staged by the 1,500-strong parliamentary security troops who are not subordinate to the Interior Ministry and are armed with machine guns. The speaker of the dissolved parliament, Ruslan Khasbulatov, claimed on the same day that more than 7,000 troops were defending the parliament building. -Alexander Rahr JUDGES SUPPORT YELTSIN. Four members of the Constitutional Court, including its deputy chairman Nikolai Vitruk, have proposed that the court review its 21 September ruling on the illegality of Yeltsin's decree, ITAR-TASS and Mayak Radio reported on 23 September. The judges also suggested that the court retrospectively reverse its ruling on the April referendum to allow the question of early parliamentary elections to be decided on the basis of those who actually voted rather than all those who were eligible to vote. (On 25 April, 67.2% of the electorate voted in favor of early parliamentary elections, which translated into an insufficient 43.1% of the electorate.) Vitruk said that a retrospective ruling would make Yeltsin's proposed parliamentary elections "more legitimate." -Wendy Slater KHASBULATOV SAYS NO COMPROMISE WITH YELTSIN. Speaking at a news conference on 23 September, parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov said he planned no compromise with Yeltsin. Western agencies quoted Khasbulatov as calling the president and his supporters "the coup plotters" and saying the only compromise to be discussed was what punishment they should receive. He said that if any bloodshed took place, Yeltsin and his supporters would be responsible. He claimed the parliament had "considerable opportunities in the security and defense ministries," but was not using them in order not to provoke a civil war. Khasbulatov also said he believed he might end up in jail for his opposition to Yeltsin. -Vera Tolz MORE ON THE POSSIBILITY OF AN ARMED PROVOCATION. Defense Minister Pavel Grachev said that rival-defense minister Vladislav Achalov and other military officers loyal to the parliament had ordered Moscow-based military commanders to send troops to the Russian White House, ITAR-TASS reported on 23-September. According to the chief of the presidential apparatus, Sergei Filatov, Rutskoi and Khasbulatov had sent representatives to military academies to appeal for support, but the cadets refused to cooperate with the parliament in any way. Filatov said the communications system of the parliamentary building had been cut on order to prevent Rutskoi from contacting regional leaders. -Alexander Rahr REGIONAL SOVIETS CONDEMN YELTSIN'S DECREE OR REMAIN ON SIDELINES. The list of regional soviets that have condemned Yeltsin's decree as unconstitutional has grown. Sergei Yushenkov, deputy chairman of the Federal Information Center, told journalists on 23-September the decree had been condemned by the parliaments of Karelia, Khakassia, and Udmurtia, and by the krai and oblast soviets in Magadan, Barnaul, Kostroma, Nizhnii Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Chelyabinsk, Samara, Voronezh,and Orenburg, and by the small soviets of other republics and oblasts, ITAR-TASS reported. Bashkortostan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Mordovia, and Amur and Bryansk oblasts had also come out against the decree, and others were likely to do so. At the same time other regions have not made up their mind. Leonid Smirnyagin, a member of the Presidential Council, said at a press conference on 23-September, reported by ITAR-TASS, that many chairmen of krai and oblast soviets were waiting to see who would come out on top-the president or parliament. In Smirnyagin's view it was therefore necessary for Yeltsin to strengthen his position in the next two days. -Ann Sheehy US SENATE APPROVES AID PACKAGE FOR RUSSIA. On 23 September, the US Senate approved legislation appropriating $2.5 billion in economic assistance for Russia and other former Soviet republics in fiscal year 1994, an RFE/RL correspondent reported. Of the roughly $2.2 billion earmarked for Russia, the largest appropriation, $772 million, is set aside for private sector development. Among amendments attached to the legislation is one setting up a computer network to retrieve, store, and analyze historical data about the environment of the former Soviet Union. Another requires the US president to certify every 6 months that Russia is making progress towards completing the withdrawal of troops from Estonia and Latvia. -Keith Bush CIS TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA NINE CIS PRIME MINISTERS INITIAL AGREEMENT ON ECONOMIC UNION. At the meeting of the Council of CIS Heads of Government in Moscow on the morning of 24-September, the prime ministers of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan initialed the agreement on the creation of an economic union, ITAR-TASS reported. The idea of a purely Slav economic union therefore appears to be dead. The agreement is expected to be signed by the CIS heads of state at their summit in the afternoon Turkmenistan and Ukraine said before the meeting that they would probably take out associate membership only. After the meeting ended, Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin said that Ukraine had some observations on the agreement, that an effort would be made to take care of these in the next few hours, and that he hoped that Ukraine would, after all, become a full member of the union. The Georgian prime minister attended the meeting as an observer. -Ann Sheehy ABKHAZ UPDATE. In the third attack in three days, a Georgian passenger aircraft was hit by an artillery shell while preparing for takeoff from Sukhumi airport on 23-September; no one was killed but an unspecified number of people were injured, Western agencies reported. In continuing fighting, Georgian reinforcements advanced from Ochamchira and broke through to the encircled town of Sukhumi from the south, Georgian TV reported late on 23 September. Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze told ITAR-TASS that the situation in Sukhumi is improving. -Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CROATIA SETS TOUGH TERMS FOR UNPROFOR. Vjesnik on 24 September reports at length on a speech made by Foreign Minister Mate Granic to the lower house of parliament the previous day, in which he outlined the government's firm conditions for renewing the UN forces' mandate slated to expire on 30 September. UNPROFOR must carry out all existing UN resolutions and the terms of the January 1992 Vance Plan for Croatia to grant the six-months' extension that Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali has requested. Specifically, Granic continued, Croatia's sovereignty and frontiers must be respected and reaffirmed, Serb paramilitaries disarmed, and refugees allowed to go home in safety. The "pink zones" adjacent to UN administrative areas in the 30% of Croatia in the hands of Serb rebels must be cleared of Serb forces by 30 November, and the infrastructure and communications links in the Serb-held territories restored and reconnected with the rest of Croatia. Meanwhile, a Globus article on 24 September reflects a subject that many Croats fear, namely that the Serbs will relaunch their war in Croatia now that the Croat-Muslim alliance in Bosnia has been broken and that republic divided. Reuters reports that Serbs may be on the verge of "ethnically cleansing" 117 Croats from the village of Podlapaca in Serb-held Croatia as revenge for the brutal killing of 66 Serbs by Croat forces during the Croats' offensive near Gospic earlier this month. -Patrick Moore KIDNAPPED SERBIAN JOURNALIST RESURFACES. The foreign editor of the independent weekly Vreme, Dusan Reljic, has returned to his home, Borba reports on 23 September. Reljic had been abducted by three unidentified men, who later identified themselves as being with counterintelligence, on 21 September in front of his house. The men questioned Reljic and proved that "they knew everything about (Reljic's) conversations with colleagues, foreign diplomats in Belgrade, everybody," international media report. Reljic is the first journalist to be so abducted, at least recently, but there have been threats against oppositional journalists and attacks by nationalists before. Borba on 24 September, however, quoted military intelligence (KOS) spokesmen as denying that they would have had anything to do with "such an adventure." Vreme is well-known as the leading independent weekly in Serbia for its opposition to the nationalist government of President Slobodan Milosevic. -Fabian Schmidt ALBANIA, SERBIA ON RUSSIAN DEVELOPMENTS. Reuters reports that Albanian President Sali Berisha, the country's first non-communist head of state, has come out in strong support for his Russian counterpart Boris Yeltsin and the latter's measures to end the protracted power struggle in Russia. A presidential spokesman is quoted as saying that Berisha believes the actions taken by Yeltsin to be "necessary to overcome the difficulties created by anti-reformist forces." He also said the Albanian president hopes the showdown means the reform process in Russia can be speeded up, noting that it has considerable influence on developments elsewhere in Eastern Europe and beyond. Key government officials in rump Yugoslavia, in contrast, do not appear to have made any official comments or position statements on recent developments in Moscow. Major print media sources, notably Politika and Borba, have carried no mention of an official Belgrade line on the impending Russian elections. Although Belgrade politicians are understandably preoccupied with other problems, the silence seems to indicate that relations with Russia are a sensitive area where no mistakes can be afforded. -Kjell Engelbrekt and Stan Markotich FINAL RESULTS ANNOUNCED IN POLISH ELECTIONS. The Polish national election commission announced the official division of seats in the new Sejm late on 23 September, PAP reports. Of the total 460-seats, the Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) has 171 and the Polish Peasant Party (PSL), 132, giving the two "postcommunist" parties a commanding majority. The Democratic Union (UD) won 74 seats; the leftist Union of Labor (UP), 41; the Confederation for an Independent Poland, 22; and President Lech Walesa's Nonparty Reform Bloc, 16. The German ethnic minority won four seats, three in Opole and one in Katowice. The delay in reaching final totals was caused by the mixed election system, with 391 seats awarded in regions and another 69 "bonus" seats divided among the "national lists" of parties winning over 7% of the vote. Only four parties-the SLD, PSL, UD, and UP-cleared 7%. Turnout, at 52.08% of eligible voters, was far higher than in 1991. -Louisa Vinton POLISH COALITION TALKS INCONCLUSIVE. Economic experts from the Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) and the Polish Peasant Party (PSL) announced on 23-September that there are no irreconcilable differences between the two groups on economic policy, Polish TV reports. This concord did not seem to make a joint coalition any more certain, however. SLD officials told reporters they will respond to President Lech Walesa's request for three prime minister candidates only after the alliance meets on 26 September. They indicated that an SLD candidate will be proposed only if the alliance succeeds in building a majority coalition. Gazeta Wyborcza speculated that the SLD may prefer not to succeed in this attempt, in order to remain in the relatively comfortable role of opposition for another year or two. In his first political meeting since the elections, President Lech Walesa hosted leaders of the Democratic Union (UD) at Belweder on 23 September. UD Chairman Tadeusz Mazowiecki said afterward that "we cleared up a few matters and now understand each other better," Polish TV reports. Meanwhile, Cardinal Jozef Glemp strenuously avoided any assessment of the elections on his return from an ecumenical session in Italy, saying only that the "new situation" does not worry him. A PSL leader met with Bishop Alojzy Orszulik on 23 September but refused all comment on the meeting, Polish TV reports. -Louisa Vinton POLISH PRIVATIZATION PUSHES ON. The German electronics giant Siemens purchased 80% of the Polish telecommunications firms ZWUT in Warsaw and ELWRO in Wroclaw on 23-September, Zycie Warszawy reports. Siemens paid $38.5 million and pledged to invest an additional $57 million over the next six years. Polish government officials announced on 22-September that income from privatization for 1993 is running ahead of schedule for the first time since the program began, and that the revenue goal of 4 trillion zloty ($211 million) planned in the budget was met already in September. Since August 1992, privatization contracts have won guarantees of new investments worth 13 trillion zloty ($684 million) over the next five years and secured 110,000 jobs. So far this year, 37 major state firms have found new private owners through "capital privatization," officials said. The ministry plans to sell another 30 firms by the end of October. -Louisa Vinton VOLKSWAGEN APOLOGIZES FOR SKODA LOAN EMBARRASSMENT. Ferdinand Piech, chairman of the board of directors of the Volkswagen corporation, traveled to Prague on 23-September to apologize for embarrassment caused by Volkswagen's last-minute cancellation of an $870 million modernization loan for the Skoda Automobile Works in the Czech Republic. Czech and international media report that Piech assured the Czech government that Volkswagen would fulfill its original obligation to modernize and expand Skoda facilities even without the extra financing. Czech officials have criticized the cancellation of the modernization loan and expressed fears it would lead to less Volkswagen investment in Skoda. Volkswagen bought a 31% share in Skoda in 1991, pledging to invest up to $5.6 billion in capital expansion by the turn of the century. Explaining their move to cancel the modernization loan, Volkswagen officials said that Skoda has been making progress and no longer needed the money. -Jiri Pehe ILIESCU IN SLOVAKIA. On 23 September, Romanian President Ion Iliescu arrived in Slovakia for a two-day official visit, which is to culminate with the signing of a friendship and cooperation treaty between the two countries. He is accompanied by Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu. Slovak media report that Iliescu met with Slovak President Michal Kovac after his arrival, while Melescanu held a meeting with Slovak Foreign Minister Jozef Moravcik. Iliescu's visit comes in the wake of the signing on 20 September of a Slovak-Romanian treaty on repatriating illegal immigrants. In June Slovak Premier Vladimir Meciar signed a trade-payments agreement in Bucharest aimed at increasing commerce between the two countries. -Jiri Pehe HUNGARIAN INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION UP. Hungarian industrial production was up 2.5% in the first seven months of 1993 as compared to the same period last year, AFP reported on 22 September. This suggests that the industrial decline of the last four years has been halted. Industrial output is estimated to have declined by some 40% over the last four years. In comparison with January-July last year the average sales volume has grown by 1.2%; domestic sales are up by 2.2%; and exports down by 2.1% Production of manufacturing industries was up 20% during the first seven months, while machine industry production rose 12.9%, with domestic sales up 16.8%. The food, drink, and tobacco industries nevertheless report a 8.3% loss in domestic sales and a 31.7% drop in export sales in the same period of time. -Judith Pataki HUNGARIAN RECOMMENDATION FOR ROMANIAN ENTRY INTO THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE. On 23-September, the Foreign Affairs Committee of Hungarian Parliament headed by Laszlo Kovacs (of the Hungarian Socialist Party) recommended that the government supports Romanian membership in the European Community and the Council of Europe, MTI reported. The committee stated that it is in the interest of both Hungary and the Hungarian minority living in Romania that Romania be integrated into the EC as soon as possible, and that, as a first step, the country should be admitted into the Council of Europe. The committee nevertheless stressed that Romania needs to provide guarantees that minority rights henceforth will be observed. -Judith Pataki ROMANIAN CABINET ON RECENT ETHNIC VIOLENCE. In a statement broadcast by Radio Bucharest on 23 September, Romania's government expressed concern over recent clashes between Gypsies and non-Gypsies in the village of Hadareni, Mures County, in which four people died. The statement said that the killing of a young Romanian by a local Gypsy "triggered the spontaneous reaction of other villagers, both Romanians and Hungarians, which degenerated into acts of violence." The cabinet ordered an investigation into the case and pledged to bring all culprits, irrespective of their ethnic origin, to justice. It also announced a decision to provide funds for rebuilding Gypsy homes destroyed during the events. -Dan Ionescu TRIAL AGAINST ROMANIAN MINERS' UNION ENDED. Radio Bucharest reported on 23-September that a court in Petrosani, the center of Romania's Jiu Valley mining region, decided to end a trial against the coal miners' labor union. The trial had been ordered following a complaint of the state-owned coal mines administration in Petrosani, which wanted compensation for economic losses suffered during a pay strike by miners in August. The losses were put at 4.1 billion lei (some $5 million). The Petrosani court said that the mines' administration withdrew its complaint and asked that the trial be stopped. -Dan Ionescu BULGARIA HOSTS CONFERENCE ON DRUG TRAFFICKING AND ORGANIZED CRIME. On 23-September a two-day international conference devoted to drug trafficking and organized crime opened in Sofia, BTA reports. Representatives of law enforcement agencies and governments of 24 European nations are attending, as well as officials of the International Narcotics Control Board. In a welcoming address to the participants, Interior Minister Viktor Mihaylov said Bulgaria's efforts to stem illegal production of and trade with drugs are being stepped up and that new laws will soon bring domestic legislation up to international standards. Chief Secretary of the interior ministry Kosta Bogatsevski spoke of the need for more international cooperation to fight organized crime, offering an example when Bulgarian and German security agencies earlier this year jointly broke up a major drug-ring. The conference should be seen as another effort on the part of Bulgaria to shrug off its previously bad reputation as a channel for more than half of all drugs reaching Western Europe. So far in 1993 Bulgarian authorities have seized 270 kilograms of heroin and other narcotics at border crossings and elsewhere. -Kjell Engelbrekt PARLIAMENT TO VOTE ON EARLY ELECTIONS. The Ukrainian parliament is expected to vote shortly on whether to hold early presidential and parliamentary elections, an RFE/RL correspondent reported from Kiev on 23 September. President Leonid Kravchuk told the parliament that "only through the reelection of all branches of power can we consolidate society in a civilized fashion." He also warned that the proposed referendum on confidence in the president and parliament would be pointless. He suggested that a newly elected parliament should, as its first priority, set a date for the presidential elections. Kravchuk's term of office is due to end in 1996. During the session some 5,000 people demonstrated outside the building in favor of elections. -Wendy Slater MOLDOVA SUPPORTS GEORGIA, SEES SIMILARITY TO MOLDOVA. Moldova's Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued on 23 September a statement of "deep concern" over the situation in Abkhazia. It said that "the violation of the cease-fire agreement is yet another proof of the unwillingness of the secessionist forces and those who support them to accept a peaceful settlement." Moldova, the statement went on, "highly appreciates the efforts and political flexibility of the Georgian leadership . . . [and] considers it necessary that Russia should honor its commitments as a guarantor of the Sochi agreement." The statement stressed that "the conflict in Georgia, which has many similarities to the conflict in the eastern districts of Moldova, proves the need for a more active involvement by the international organizations, especially the UN, in efforts for a peaceful settlement." Meanwhile in Chisinau, President Mircea Snegur has made another strong statement in support for Boris Yeltsin. In an unexpected phone interview with Izvestiya, carried on 23 September, Snegur said that he "assesses the Russian president's actions positively and considers that [Yeltsin] proceeded wisely and correctly." -Vladimir Socor NO PARALLEL ELECTIONS IN ESTONIA'S RUSSIAN CITIES. On 23 September at a meeting of Estonia's Russian-Speaking Population's Representative Assembly in Tallinn representatives of the Narva and Sillamae city councils declared that they will not hold parallel local elections on 17 October, BNS reports. On 21-September Estonian Prime Minister Mart Laar told a press conference that the government would not grant citizenship to non-citizens that had been nominated as candidates for the Narva elections since the city had held an illegal referendum on 16-17 July. Non-citizens can vote, but not run for offices in the local elections. -Saulius Girnius CZECH FOREIGN MINISTER IN THE BALTICS. On 22-September Josef Zieleniec traveled to Riga where with his counterpart Georgs Andrejevs he signed two agreements. The first provides a most favored nation status for trade and encourages the formation of joint ventures while the second allows visa-free travel between the two countries. On 23 September in Vilnius Zieleniec signed an agreement on trade and scientific-technical cooperation with his Lithuanian counterpart Povilas Gylys, BNS reports. A visa-free agreement with Lithuania had been signed last year. On 24-25 September Zieleniec will be in Tallinn where he is expected to sign agreements similar to those with Latvia. In all three countries he also had talks with the presidents and other ministers. -Saulius Girnius EIGHT LITHUANIAN VOLUNTEERS RETURN TO FORESTS. On 23 September Lithuanian parliament deputy chairman Egidijus Bickauskas declared that with the return of previously seized weapons the insurrection by members of the Volunteer Home Guard Service (VHGS) had ended. The leader of the insurrection junior lieutenant Jonas Maksvytis with 7 other volunteers, however, did not surrender and withdrew to the forests with their personal weapons, the RFE/RL Lithuanian Service reports. President Algirdas Brazauskas discussed the situation with military leaders that day and said that he would ask the parliament to adopt some of the laws the insurrectionists had demanded. Lieut. Col. Arvydas Pocius was named to replace Jonas Gecas who resigned on 20 September as the head of VHGS. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Elizabeth Teague and Kjell Engelbrekt THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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