|If you wish to make an apple pie truly from scratch, you must first invent the universe. - Carl Sagan|
No. 181, 21 September 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA CONGRESS OF PEOPLES OF THE USSR. About 1,300-people attended a Congress of Peoples of the USSR in Moscow on 20 September, AFP reported. Participants included conservative parliamentary deputies from Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan, as well as Russian pro-communist and pro-nationalist groups. Among the speakers was Oleg Shenin, who announced that he, together with Russian deputy parliamentary chairman Yurii Voronin and chairman of the Union of Officers Stanislav Terekhov, was forming a coordination committee of communist parties in the former Soviet republics. Shenin is currently on trial for his part in the failed coup of August 1991. Recently, top Russian officials have called for a closer union of former Soviet republics or the resurrection of the union [see RFE/RL Daily Report no. 180]. -Wendy Slater CHERNOMYRDIN: NO DEAL ON KURILS. Responding to recent statements by former presidential advisor Gennadii Burbulis to Japanese news agencies to the effect that Russia would be flexible on the Kurils issue, Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin reiterated his position that the Kurils will not be ceded to Japan. He claimed that this position was shared by the entire Russian cabinet, according to Kuranty of 17 September. -John Lepingwell PROCURACY EXONERATES RUTSKOI. Moscow Procurator Gennadii Ponomarev has announced that the available evidence does not bear out the charges made in August by a special commission set up by President Boris Yeltsin that Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi had engaged in corrupt dealings with the Swiss firm, Tradelink, Radio Rossii reported on 19-September. The allegations were investigated by the Moscow procurator's office rather than by the Russian procuracy because the special commission accused the Russian procurator general of bias and of taking sides in the power struggle between top Russian state and government officials. -Vera Tolz CLAIM THAT YELTSIN PLANNED TO STORM PARLIAMENT DENIED. Parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov told a meeting of the parliamentary presidium that deputies had spent the night of 19-20 September in the parliament building because they feared rumored troop movements in Moscow meant that Yeltsin intended to dissolve the Supreme Soviet by force, ITAR-TASS reported on 20 September. Khasbulatov called on internal affairs minister Viktor Erin to resign. The Ministry of Internal Affairs subsequently issued a statement saying that its special troops had taken part in raids against criminal gangs in Moscow but that otherwise there were no unusual troop movements that night. -Alexander Rahr AMBASSADORS TO US, UN, BRITAIN, TO BE CHANGED? WESTERN AND RUSSIAN PRESS AGENCIES REPORTED ON 17-19 SEPTEMBER THAT THE RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTRY WAS PREPARING TO REMOVE VLADIMIR LUKIN FROM HIS POSITION AS AMBASSADOR TO THE US. Lukin has long been at odds with Foreign Minister Kozyrev. Yulii Vorontsov, the Russian ambassador to the UN, is reportedly the leading candidate to replace Lukin. However, the official decree on Lukin's removal has apparently not yet been signed. Boris Pankin, the ambassador to the United Kingdom, was removed from his post on 18 September, according to Radio Rossii, and a decree to that effect appears in Rossiiskaya gazeta of 21 September. -John Lepingwell INGUSH LEADER SATISFIED WITH SECURITY COUNCIL SESSION. Ingush president Ruslan Aushev said in an interview in Nezavisimaya gazeta of 17-September that at the 15-September session of Russia's security council devoted to North Ossetia and Ingushetia he had been encouraged to find that Chernomyrdin, Yeltsin, and Grachev were inclined to take his side against the North Ossetians. Aushev said he had been entrusted by the Congress of Peoples of Ingushetia to determine not only the question for, but the date of, the referendum on secession from Russia, and he said he would exercise all caution in doing so. Aushev added that if things did not work out with Russia, Ingushetia had the choice of forming a Vainakh state with Chechnya or of reaching an unspecified arrangement with Georgia. -Ann Sheehy IS THE DEFENSE MINISTRY BANKRUPT? IZVESTIYA ON 16 SEPTEMBER REPORTED THAT THE MINISTRY OF DEFENSE CLAIMS THAT OVER 1.7 trillion rubles are owed to the defense industry for arms procurement. The reason for this immense shortfall is apparently the failure to index Defense Ministry funds so as to keep pace with inflation. The ministry claims that the cost of weapons has increased by a factor of 12 to 22 in the last year, while its funds have been allocated according to old prices. It also argues that average wages in the defense industry are half those of other sectors. The Ministry of Finance has refuted the Defense Ministry's complaints, claiming, among other things, that the shortfall is calculated based on the increased budget passed by parliament and vetoed by Yeltsin, thus inflating the estimated shortfall. -John Lepingwell RUSSIA'S FIRST BANKRUPTCIES. Russia's bankruptcy law, which came into force in April 1993, is gradually beginning to be applied, The Financial Times reported on 17 September. Bankruptcy proceedings have been initiated against more than a dozen loss-making Russian enterprises and some have already been put out of business by the courts. The paper said the main obstacle to the widespread application of the law is the shortage of qualified judges and auditors to handle the paperwork. -Elizabeth Teague COMMUNIST PARTY PLENUM. The Central Executive Committee (CEC) of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CP-RF), which claims to be the largest of Russia's political parties with 600,000 members, held a plenary session on 18 September. The only item on the agenda, according to ITAR-TASS of 19 September, was "the tasks of the CP-RF in strengthening the foundations of Russian statehood." The CPRF backed the Russian parliamentary leadership in resisting calls for early elections, called for the creation of "a renewed union state," and criticized current Russian foreign policy. CEC Chairman Gennadii Zyuganov told ITAR-TASS that possible election partners for the CP-RF were pro-communist and socialist organizations and the nationalist Russian All-People's Union and Union of Officers. -Wendy Slater MURASHOV OPTIMISTIC ON DEMOCRATS' PROSPECTS. Arkadii Murashov, who is the chief coordinator of the democratic pre-electoral bloc "Russia's Choice" and head of the Center for Liberal-Conservative Policy, told Ostankino TV on 18 September that Russia had changed more in the past four years than at any other time. He claimed the economic crisis was over and that Russia is already experiencing an economic boom. In support of his argument, Murashov said that anyone who wants to engage in entrepreneurial activity is now free to do so unimpeded. But he said the hour of true liberal democracy has yet to come because Yeltsin has not formed a government in which reformers are properly represented. -Alexander Rahr KARELIANS APPEAL FOR HELP PRESERVING NATIONAL IDENTITY. Representatives of Karelians from Russia's Karelian republic appealed on 9 September for help in preserving their national identity, Reuters reported. They told a press conference in Helsinki that Karelians were worse off than the Russians in the Baltic states and that the hoped-for improvement in their situation after the collapse of the Soviet Union had not taken place. Their share of the population of Karelia had dropped from 60 percent in the 1920s to less than 10 percent today and few native children could speak Karelian, they said. They charged that the Russian parliament had so far ignored their plight, favoring the majority Russian population instead. -Ann Sheehy RUSSIA'S FIRST WOMEN'S PARTY REGISTERED. A political party billing itself as the first designed to cater for women's special needs has been registered by Russia's Justice Ministry, ITAR-TASS reported on 17 September. It does not sound as if the new party, called the "Party of Political Equality," will favor a radical feminist agenda. Its spokesperson, Elena Lukashenko, told ITAR-TASS the party would not turn away male members; she herself has until now been associated with the party headed by Vice-President Aleksandr Rutskoi, the "Free Russia" People's Party. -Elizabeth Teague CIS AZERBAIJAN TO REJOIN CIS. After several postponements, the Azerbaijan National Assembly (the rump parliament) voted on 20 September by 31 votes in favor to 13 against for the renewal of Azerbaijan's membership of the CIS, Western agencies reported. ITAR-TASS quoted Parliament chairman Geidar Aliev as assuring deputies that the vote would not compromise Azerbaijan's independence. (In October 1992 the Azerbaijan National Assembly had unanimously voted not to ratify former President Ayaz Mutalibov's decision of December 1991 to commit Azerbaijan to membership of the CIS.) -Liz Fuller TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA ABKHAZ FORCES SURROUND SUKHUMI. Abkhaz spokesmen claimed on 20 September to have completely surrounded Sukhumi; their offer to open a corridor to allow defending Georgian troops to withdraw was refused and Georgian defenders later repulsed an attack on the outskirts, Western agencies reported. Artillery bombardment continued during the night of 20-21 September. On 20 September Georgia's Ambassador to the European Community, Zurab Abashidze, termed "unacceptable" Russian Defense Minister Grachev's call for a Georgian withdrawal from Abkhazia, according to Reuters. Abashidze suggested NATO and the EC should pressure Russia to take steps to end the conflict. US President Bill Clinton sent a message to Shevardnadze urging him to agree to peace talks with the Abkhaz leadership. -Liz Fuller UZBEKISTAN AND RUSSIA SIGN RUBLE ACCORD. Uzbek deputy prime minister Bakhtiar Khamidov and Russian deputy prime minister Aleksandr Shokhin signed a bilateral agreement outlining measures to unify their monetary systems, according to various Russian news agencies on 17 September. The agreement follows from a multilateral pact approved in early September by Russia, Belarus, Armenia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan that establishes a new ruble zone. Reportedly only Kazakhstan has yet to sign a bilateral agreement specifying terms for joining this monetary union with Moscow. -Erik Whitlock CASPIAN SHELF OIL DEAL DEFERRED. Final agreement to begin exploration of the northern shelf of the Caspian Sea, due to be signed between a consortium of Western oil firms and a Kazakhstani state oil firm, will probably occur in late October or early November, Kazakhstani energy officials told Reuters. In a report issued on 20 September, Deputy Minister of Energy Baltabek Kuandykov, who also heads the state concern that is one of the signatories of the deal, was quoted as saying that legal issues remain to be ironed out with representatives of the Western firms which signed the initial agreement in June. A major hindrance to the deal is the fact that Kazakhstan's legislature has not yet adopted a law on petroleum development. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIAN TALKS HIT STALEMATE. International media on 20 September report that a discussion held on a British aircraft carrier in the Adriatic between UN negotiators and the Bosnian, Serbian, and Croatian presidents failed to reach an agreement on a peace settlement, forcing the calling off of a planned meeting in Sarajevo slated for the 21st. The Muslims want more land and access to the sea, but Serbian spokesmen have made it clear that they would consider swapping land with the Muslims but not any additional concessions. President Franjo Tudjman and the Croatian media, for their part, have stressed that Croatia might make port facilities available to the Muslims but will not give up Neum to them. Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic has promised to submit a peace proposal to parliament on 27-September, but it is not clear what, if anything, this gesture might mean. Elsewhere, fierce fighting was reported between Croats and Muslims in Mostar and in central Bosnia near Vitez, while the BBC's Serbian Service added that Croats have been shelling Serb positions around Trebinje in eastern Herzegovina for some days. -Patrick Moore POSTCOMMUNISTS SET TO DOMINATE POLISH SENATE. According to Rzeczpospolita on 21 September, the SLD seems likely to win 35 seats in the 100-seat Senate. The PSL will be the other major winner, garnering as many as an additional 35 seats. The UD, which had the largest share in the old Senate, looks likely to preserve only a handful of seats. PAP reports that the Senator representing the German minority in Opole, Gerhard Bartodziej, was reelected. The Senate can veto or amend legislation passed by the Sejm and can propose draft legislation. -Louisa Vinton POLISH COALITION MANEUVERING BEGINS. President Lech Walesa continues to withhold any comment on the election outcome, save his assurance that he "will manage." When the final results are known, the president will ask the winning party to name prime minister candidates, a spokesman said. The Democratic Left Alliance (SLD), which looks set to control 38% of the Sejm, is taking pains to suggest that the reform course will go on, with minor revisions. Coalition leader Aleksander Kwasniewski told Western reporters on 19-September, "Don't worry. We're not communists; we will continue the reforms." At a press conference on 20 September, SLD leaders said that they support privatization but without "ideologically inspired acceleration" and are "open to the West and the world but without illusions." The SLD also said it favors adopting a constitution centered on a parliamentary system of government, with a role of "active mediation" for the president. It ruled out early presidential elections but stressed the government's right to work without presidential interference. Kwasniewski earlier said the SLD's favored coalition partner is the Democratic Union (UD), "which has experience and good contacts with the West." But UD leader Tadeusz Mazowiecki ruled out any coalition with the SLD on 20 September, PAP reports. A party statement said the UD refuses to take responsibility for the unreal expectations aroused by the PSL and the SLD in their election campaigns. A coalition of the PSL, UD, and Union of Labor is being discussed as a possible alternative to an SLD-dominated government. -Louisa Vinton WHAT NEXT IN POLAND? FOR THE FIRST TIME, THE TERMS OF THE "LITTLE CONSTITUTION" ADOPTED IN 1992 WILL REGULATE THE FORMATION OF A NEW GOVERNMENT. President Lech Walesa has a month to convene the first session of the new parliament. The constitution grants the president the first move in forming a government. Within fourteen days of the first Sejm session, Walesa can name a new prime minister and, on his recommendation, call the government into being. In the past, the Sejm voted to approve a prime minister nominated by the president. Now, the new government takes power when named by Walesa, but is required to secure a vote of confidence from the Sejm within fourteen days. The confidence vote requires a majority (more than half of those present vote "yes"). If the president's first attempt fails, the initiative then passes to the Sejm, which has twenty-one days to approve its own cabinet by an absolute majority. Should it fail in turn, the initiative returns to the president, who can try again, this time with a simple majority (the "yes" votes must exceed the "no" votes). -Louisa Vinton KLAUS ON POLISH ELECTION RESULTS. Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus said it was not the ex-communist parties' strength, but rather the weakness of right-wing parties, which was responsible for the political shift in Poland, Czech TV reports on 20-September. Klaus said the political right had been "missing chances" and eventually proved to be too weak to carry the day. The prime minister made it clear, however, that he expects no "major changes" in Poland's economic or foreign policies. He predicted that the pro-reform course will not be changed as the new government's room for maneuver will be very limited both domestically and internationally. -Jan Obrman CZECH PROSECUTOR RESIGNS. The Prosecutor General of the Czech Republic, Jiri Setina, has announced his resignation without giving any reasons, CTK reported on 16 September. Setina has been criticized both by the opposition and, more recently, by coalition parties for alleged tax evasion and dubious real estate transactions. According to CTK, Setina's tax records are the subject of a Prague police investigation, although no charges have been filed to date. -Jan Obrman SLOVAKIA, ROMANIA SIGN READMISSION TREATY. Romanian Interior Minister George Ioan Danescu visited Bratislava on 20 September, where he and his Slovak counterpart Jozef Tuchyna signed an agreement which allows either country to return illegal aliens and asylum seekers entering from the other. In addition to the readmission treaty, the two ministers signed a cooperation agreement, which is mainly concerned with international organized crime prevention, TASR reports. Danescu also discussed cooperation in fighting crime with Premier Vladimir Meciar. Slovakia expects to sign a readmission treaty with Hungary shortly. -Sharon Fisher HUNGARIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IN MOSCOW. After a five-day visit to Romania, Hungarian Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky left for a one-day visit to Moscow. Hungarian media report that Jeszenszky on 20 September held talks with his Russian counterpart Andrei Kozyrev and with Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai, who is also State Secretary for Nationality Affairs. Discussions centered on Russian views toward NATO, the creation of a stable European security system including Russia, cultural and economic cooperation including Russia's foreign debt to Hungary, as well as nationality conflicts. Kozyrev said that although the Russian parliament has not yet ratified the Russian-Hungarian friendship treaty, relations have already improved significantly. After the talks concluded, Jeszenszky addressed the Moscow Institute of International Relations. -Judith Pataki HUNGARIAN FOREIGN DEBT INCREASES. In the first four months of 1993, Hungarian foreign debt has increased by $2.2 billion, reported the economic daily Napi Gazdasag on 15-September. Hungary's gross foreign debt was $21.4 billion at the end of December 1992 and shot up to $23.6 billion by the end of April. This is the first significant increase in foreign debt since the political changes in 1990. Hungarian economists regard this as troublesome because it is coupled with a reduction both in GDP and export performance. -Judith Pataki ROMANIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IN BRUSSELS. A Romanian delegation headed by Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu began a visit to Brussels on 20 September. Radio Bucharest reported that Melescanu was received by NATO Secretary General Manfred Woerner on that day. The two discussed prospects for the admission of new members to the organization. Melescanu stressed that in the long term Romania is striving for full integration into NATO's structures. He handed over a message on behalf of Romania's President Ion Iliescu expressing the desire of closer cooperation between Romania and NATO. Melescanu also met European Parliament Chairman Egon Klepsch, with whom he discussed ways to step up the political dialogue between the European Economic Community and the associate member states. -Dan Ionescu ROMANIAN CABINET WANTS BILINGUAL SIGNS LEGALIZED. Reuters reported on 20-September that Romania's cabinet is making preparations to legalize the use of bilingual signs in areas with significant ethnic minorities. The agency quoted a government spokesman as saying that the justice and finance ministers at a cabinet meeting on 17 September had been ordered to determine a government policy regarding signs. The government's Council for Minorities has recommended the use of multi-lingual road and commercial signs in communities with ethnic minorities. In August, the extreme nationalist Greater Romania Party accused the government's general secretary Viorel Hrebenciuc of high treason after the minority council, which he heads, had advocated the use of bilingual signs. -Dan Ionescu BULGARIA, GERMANY TO EXPAND MILITARY TIES. During a visit to Bonn by Bulgarian Defense Minister Valentin Aleksandrov, German dailies on 21 September report that the two countries have agreed to forge a closer relationship on military matters, primarily in the field of education. Aleksandrov's counterpart Volker Ruehe told journalists that an accord to that effect will be signed in Sofia next year. Answering questions about Bulgaria's relationship to NATO, Aleksandrov said his country will ask to join when it has developed into a stable democracy. Meanwhile in Bulgaria, BTA says a delegation of the North Atlantic Assembly is having talks with government and military officials. -Kjell Engelbrekt ATHENS PROTESTS CLOSURE OF GREEK SCHOOLS IN ALBANIA. On 20 September Mihalis Papacon-stantinou, Greek Minister of Foreign Affairs, stated that Athens is strongly protesting against the closure of schools mainly serving the Greek minority in three Albanian cities. Papaconstantinou, who said he had already notified the high commissioner on ethnic minorities of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, was quoted by AFP that Tirana "cannot ignore the general rules on minorities agreed under international law." The protest comes as Greece is wrapped up in an intensive pre-election campaign in which relations with Albania will presumably play a major role. Tension between the two countries began to grow in several months ago, as Tirana expelled a Greek cleric and Athens responded by returning an estimated 20,000 illegal Albanian immigrants. -Kjell Engelbrekt SOCIALISTS CHARGE FRAUD IN LOCAL ALBANIAN ELECTIONS. The ex-communist Socialist Party charged fraud was involved in the 12 September local elections in two communities of the eastern district of Dibra, an RFE/RL correspondent reports on 20-September. The Socialists lost many votes, compared with the nationwide local elections of July 1992, when they took just 2% less than the ruling Democrats. They now say that the governing Democratic Party bribed voters with money, food and medicine, and they demand new elections. Meanwhile, a conference of Democratic Party leaders praised the victories as a sign of declining support for the Socialists at the local level. -Fabian Schmidt FALL SESSION OF PARLIAMENT OPENS IN KIEV. The eighth session of parliament opens in Kiev on 21-September with the economic crisis in the country the top item on the agenda. Deputy Minister of Economics Volodymyr Naumenko was quoted as saying that the government has introduced changes into its economic reform plan moving away from the original idea of a "liberal conception of state regulation" to "tough state regulation of state property." The move toward more state control was announced by Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma last week. The parliament is also set to consider the referendum on confidence in the president and parliament, originally scheduled for 26 September, the Massandra agreements between Kiev and Moscow, and the draft of a new constitution. -Roman Solchanyk CRIMEAN PRESIDENCY LAW. The Crimean parliament has passed legislation providing for the election of a president of the Crimean Republic, Ukrinform-TASS reported on 17-September. According to the law, the Crimean president will be chosen by direct popular vote for a four-year term of office and must know one of the three state languages of Crimea (Russian, Ukrainian, or Crimean Tatar). -Roman Solchanyk MOLDOVA ANNOUNCES INCENTIVES FOR FOREIGN INVESTORS. The Moldovan government on 18-September made public a decree on "Tax Concessions for Joint Ventures with Foreign Capital." According to the decree, joint ventures manufacturing the following products are exempted from all taxes on profit for 6 years: medicine and medical supplies, nonconventional energy equipment, and seed selection. Manufacturers of agricultural machinery and equipment for food storage, as well as processing and packaging, are exempted for 4 years. Producers of instruments and electronics are exempted for 2-years. The concessions apply to joint ventures whose foreign capital amounts to at least $ 250,000 or at least 30% of the capital. The incentives are intended to capitalize on Moldova's vast agricultural resources and relatively modern industrial base in certain sectors. -Vladimir Socor BALTIC PRESIDENTS TO MEET CLINTON. On 20-September Latvian President Guntis Ulmanis told a press conference in Riga that, along with his Estonian and Lithuanian counterparts Lennart Meri and Algirdas Brazauskas, he would meet with US President Bill Clinton for a half hour on 27 September, Diena reports. The meeting was arranged to take advantage of the Baltic presidents' concurrent visits to New York where they will speak at the United Nations General Assembly on 28-30 September. -Saulius Girnius AMENDMENTS TO ESTONIAN EDUCATION LAW? ESTONIAN MINISTER OF CULTURE AND EDUCATION PAUL-EERIK RUMMO PROMISED HIS MINISTRY WILL LATER THIS YEAR SUBMIT TO PARLIAMENT AMENDMENTS TO THE EDUCATION LAW, BNS REPORTED ON 20 SEPTEMBER. Rummo said that the law's requirement to end instruction in all languages other than Estonian in state high schools by the year 2000 should be extended to 2005. He also said he thought that local authorities should be given the right to determine the language of instruction in municipal and private schools and that the latter could even be financed by ethnic groups, international organizations or other countries. -Saulius Girnius IMPASSE ON LITHUANIAN INSURRECTION CONTINUES. The members of the Volunteer Home Guard Service (VHGS) in Kaunas, who on 16 September withdrew to the forests with their weapons, did not comply with the deadline of noon 20 September set by National Defense Minister Audrius Butkevicius to return to their posts, Radio Lithuania reports. The defense ministry thus no longer considers the defectors members of the VHGS but merely an armed band of civilians. In his weekly radio interview that day President Algirdas Brazauskas said that the matter was a "misunderstanding" which he hoped would be resolved peacefully this week. While condemning the method of the VHGS protest, Brazauskas expressed support for some of the demands, such as offering the soldiers social guarantees. -Saulius Girnius SOME PROGRESS IN LITHUANIAN-RUSSIAN TALKS. On 16 and 17 September Russian and Lithuanian delegations, headed by Viktor Isakov and Virgilijus Bulovas, held talks in Vilnius in which two draft agreements and a protocol on the transit of Russian troops withdrawing from Germany were initialed, BNS reported on 18 September. While calculated in Swiss francs, payments for the transit will be made in Russian rubles. The delegations discussed social security guarantees for retired military officers, pensions for Russian citizens, and a trade and economic treaty, but not compensations for military damage. It is expected that 6 to 8 agreements may be initialed at the next meeting to be held in Moscow on 10 October. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Elizabeth Teague and Kjell Engelbrekt THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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