|If you wish to live wisely, ignore sayings--including this one. - Heywood Broun|
No. 180, 20 September 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA YELTSIN CONCEDES EARLY PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS. Russian President Boris Yeltsin has publicly conceded that there could be early elections to the presidency, Russian and Western agencies reported on 18 September. Yeltsin made this statement at a closed meeting of about 150 heads of legislative and executive power of the republics and regions convened to discuss the foundation of a Federation Council. Holding early presidential elections could be a way for Yeltsin to force the Congress of People's Deputies to allow early legislative elections. Yeltsin insisted, however, that a simultaneous vote would "have grave consequences," and suggested a delay of at least six months between elections to the parliament and the presidency. -Wendy Slater SIGNING OF AGREEMENT ON FEDERATION COUNCIL POSTPONED. Opinions differ as to whether or not the Federation Council was set up at Yeltsin's meeting with regional leaders on 18 September, Russian media reported. A presidential spokesman called the meeting the constituent session of the council and the statement issued by the participants afterwards claimed that the council had been created. But the heads of administrations, who are often appointees of Yeltsin, were better represented than the heads of the soviets and the signing of the agreement on the council's creation was postponed until the next meeting in October. Moreover, the head of administration of Nizhnyi Novgorod oblast, Boris Nemtsov, said flatly that the Federation Council had not been created and that the participants wasted their time. -Ann Sheehy GAIDAR'S REAPPOINTMENT CONFIRMED. On 18-September, Yeltsin signed a decree appointing Egor Gaidar to the post of First Deputy Prime Minister, ITAR-TASS reported. Despite Prime Minister Chernomyrdin's assertion that the appointment had been his idea all along, press and agency coverage suggests that the move may have been made by Yeltsin on the spur of the moment. Making what was apparently his last speech before his formal appointment, Gaidar on 17 September listed four preconditions for economic recovery: financial stability; lower interest rates for producers; lower taxes; and observance of property rights. Parliament reacted quickly to Gaidar's return by demanding a new economic program containing more social protection. Observers warned, too, of potential conflict between Gaidar and Finance Minister Boris Fedorov. -Keith Bush NEW ECONOMIC REFORM PACKAGE READIED. Deputy Prime Minister and Finance Minister Fedorov have drawn up a program of measures aimed at macroeconomic discipline that is expected to be implemented soon, The Financial Times reported on 18 September. The measures include: banning the use of foreign currency; raising the value-added tax by 7-percentage points; increasing the marginal rate of income tax on top salaries to 50%; higher import duties on cars and other goods; further restriction of credit to most sectors of industry; review of capital investment; postponing interest payments on government debt to the Russian Central Bank until 1997; and cutting imports of raw materials by 30%. -Keith Bush MORE PRESSURE FROM INTERNATIONAL CREDITORS. A senior International Monetary Fund official confirmed suspicions that the Fund may delay a $1.5-billion loan to Russia because of slow progress on reforms, The New York Times reported on 20 September. The official suggested, however, that the loan might be forthcoming by the end of the year if the Russian government gets reforms back on track soon. The official, who was unnamed, complained that "important measures in the budget field have not been taken and credit discipline has been relaxed." Russia may expect further pressure to restore the reform drive later this week, according to AFP, when representatives from the G-7 meet in Washington to discuss Russia's disappointing performance in paying the $2 billion it owes this year as part of an April agreement to reschedule the servicing of the debt of the former USSR. -Erik Whitlock LOBOV NEW SECRETARY OF SECURITY COUNCIL. Yeltsin has appointed Oleg Lobov, whose job as First Deputy Prime Minister has just gone to Gaidar, as the new Secretary of the Security Council, ITAR-TASS reported on 18 September. Lobov has been one of Yeltsin's most trusted allies ever since the two men worked in the Party apparatus in Sverdlovsk Oblast in the 1960s and 1970s. Lobov's recent attempts to alter the government's economic program had caused alarm in reformist circles. In the Security Council, Lobov will replace Marshal Evgenii Shaposhnikov who offered his resignation two months ago. The Security Council, once a powerful body, has lately lost influence. -Alexander Rahr GOLUSHKO APPOINTED MINISTRY OF SECURITY. President Yeltsin has named Nikolai Golushko to be Russia's new Minister of Security, Radio Rossiya reported on 20 September. A KGB veteran, Golushko is the first career "chekist" to head the ministry since its creation in 1992. His predecessor, MVD general Viktor Barannikov, who was dismissed by Yeltsin in July, was seen as an "outsider" by security ministry officials. Golushko began his career in the KGB Fifth Main Administration, headed the Secretariat of the USSR KGB, headed the Ukrainian KGB from 1986, and in 1991 worked as deputy to Vadim Bakatin, who presided over the disbanding of the KGB. He has been acting head of the security ministry since Barannikov's dismissal. His appointment suggests Yeltsin needs the ministry as an ally in the present power struggle. -Victor Yasmann CIS RUTSKOI WANTS TO RE-CREATE SOVIET EMPIRE . . . Aleksandr Rutskoi, temporarily suspended from his duties as Russian Vice-President, has repeated his earlier calls for the restoration of the Soviet empire, ITAR-TASS reported on 18 September. Rutskoi was speaking at a regional conference convened by the chairman of the Russian parliament, Ruslan Khasbulatov, as a counterweight to the first meeting of the Council of the Federation, convened by Yeltsin. Rutskoi denounced Yeltsin and his allies as "political adventurers," called for all-round resistance to Yeltsin's policies, and said that Russia's foreign policy was being "dictated by the United States." The same day, Yeltsin cut Rutskoi's powers still further by issuing a decree stipulating that Rutskoi may deputize for Yeltsin only if the president explicitly orders him to do so. -Alexander Rahr . . . WHILE KHASBULATOV PROPOSES CLOSER UNION. Meanwhile, Ruslan Khasbulatov has written to the parliaments of the CIS states proposing that they should delegate certain unspecified powers to a new parliament that would coordinate their political, economic and military activities, Reuters reported on 17-September. Khasbulatov intends to raise his proposal with the CIS interparliamentary assembly which he chairs and which is scheduled to meet on 25 September in St.-Petersburg. -Elizabeth Teague UKRAINE'S UNION OF NAVAL OFFICERS ON RUSSIA. On 15 September the Ukrainian Union of Officers asked the Ukrainian Defense Council not to accept Russia's proposal to buy out Ukraine's portion of the Black Sea Fleet, and called for placing the fleet's coastal infrastructure under Ukrainian jurisdiction, Radio Ukraine reported. The statement also criticized Ukrainian officials involved in the agreement. According to Rear-Admiral Mykola Kostrov, Russia's territorial claims on Ukraine make it impossible for a Russian fleet on the Black Sea to protect Ukraine's security and interests in the disputed regions. The Defense Ministry condemned the statement on 17 September, saying it violated a ban on political activities by military personnel, and threatened action against its initiators, the UNIAN news agency reported. -Ustina Markus and John Lepingwell TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA GRACHEV CALLS FOR GEORGIAN TROOP WITHDRAWAL. Ostankino TV and ITAR-TASS reported on 20 September that Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev stated that the only way out of the crisis in Georgia was the immediate withdrawal of Georgian troops from Abkhazian territory. Moreover, he was highly critical of the Georgian leadership's refusal to negotiate with Abkhaz leaders. -John Lepingwell ABKHAZIA: GRACHEV ACCUSES . . . The Abkhaz offensive against Sukhumi continued on 17 September as Russian Defense Minister Grachev met in Gudauta with Abkhaz leader Vladislav Ardzinba, who refused to withdraw his forces, and in Sochi with Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze, Western agencies reported. Both Shevardnadze and the mayor of Tbilisi appealed on 17 September for armed volunteers to defend Sukhumi. On 18 September, several hours after the expiry of an ultimatum to Abkhaz forces to withdraw, Russia cut electricity supplies to Abkhazia. Speaking at a news conference in Moscow on 18-September, Grachev called for tough political and economic sanctions against both Georgia and Abkhazia, adding that in his opinion neither side wanted peace. Grachev also stated that Shevardnadze had rejected as "intervention and occupation" an offer of Russian military assistance; meanwhile Abkhaz troops were reported to have reached the outskirts of Sukhumi.-Liz Fuller . . . SHEVARDNADZE RESPONDS. Shevardnadze for his part, speaking on Georgian television on 17 September, claimed that it was the Russian parliament that had rejected Grachev's initiative to send Russian troops to Sukhumi. On 18 September, Shevardnadze issued an appeal for help to the international community to oppose what he termed "a well-coordinated and highly synchronized" attempt by Abkhaz forces and unnamed circles in Moscow to dismember Georgia. On 19 September Abkhaz and Georgian representatives met in Sochi with Russian officials including Deputy Prime Minister Boris Pastukhov but failed to reach an agreement. -Liz Fuller ADZHAR LEADER BROKERS CEASEFIRE BETWEEN GAMSAKHURDIA, GOVERNMENT. On 19 September, following two rounds of talks brokered by Adzhar parliament chairman Aslan Abashidze, representatives of the Georgian government and of ousted Georgian president Zviad Gamsakhurdia signed an agreement in the Adzhar town of Kobuleti on a cessation of hostilities within 24 hours, the withdrawal of all armed units and equipment from the conflict zone, and the lifting of blockades, Radio Tbilisi reported. Gamsakhurdia's supporters had occupied several towns in western Georgia over recent weeks and taken advantage of the confusion resulting from Shevardnadze's 14 September threat to resign to attack the rail junction of Samtredia and the Black Sea port of Poti. In a telephone interview with Reuters on 19 September, Gamsakhurdia claimed that 90 per cent of the Georgian troops currently opposing the Abkhaz advance were loyal to him rather than to the Georgian government; two days earlier he had affirmed his readiness to return to Georgia, since "the people are demanding this." -Liz Fuller NORTH CAUCASIAN VOLUNTEERS TO RETURN TO ABKHAZIA. On 17 September the Confederation of the Peoples of the Caucasus, which had earlier withdrawn its forces from Abkhazia, told all units to be in a state of complete combat readiness to return to Abkhazia, ITAR-TASS reported. Radio Mayak reported on 19-September that in the Kabardino-Balkar capital, Nalchik, more than 1,000 volunteers had signed up to fight in Abkhazia and the first busload had already left. Reuters said there had been clashes in the Nadterechnyi raion of Chechnya when president Dzhokhar Dudaev's forces took action to stop volunteers from the region going to Abkhazia. -Ann Sheehy CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE POLAND GOES LEFT. The parliamentary elections in Poland on 19 September have produced a political earthquake, with power shifting from the broad Solidarity elite to parties with their roots in the communist system. According to partial and unofficial results, the Democratic Left Alliance (SLD)-a coalition dominated by the direct successor to the communist party-finished first, with over 20% of the popular vote. The former official Polish Peasant Party (PSL) came second with 15.3%. Because the election law rewards the biggest winners with bonus seats, the two postcommunist parties appear likely to control a full 65% of the seats in the Sejm. The only party in the current government coalition to reach the threshold was the Democratic Union (UD), but its 11% of the vote was less than in 1991. The Union of Labor, a social-democratic party with roots in Solidarity, won 7.3%, confirming the voters' general shift to the Left. The Confederation for an Independent Poland and President Lech Walesa's Nonparty Reform Bloc appear also to have squeaked in, with 5.7% and 5.3% of the vote, respectively. The list of losers is long: the Solidarity trade union, the Liberal Democratic Congress, and the Catholic and the anticommunist right-wing parties all failed to clear their thresholds and will not be represented in the Sejm. Before the elections, President Lech Walesa pledged to ask the largest party to make the first attempt to form a government. Since the initial results were announced, Walesa's office has had no comment. The SLD has delegated two representatives to begin coalition talks. -Louisa Vinton LAST RUSSIAN TROOPS LEAVE POLAND . . . The departure of the last Russian troops from Poland on 17-September, the 54th anniversary of the Soviet invasion, was not attended by the Russian Minister of Defense, Pavel Grachev. While reports had indicated that Grachev remained in Russia for treatment of a kidney ailment, Rossiiskaya gazeta on 17 September speculated, based on military sources, that Grachev opposed hastened withdrawal of the forces because of the housing shortage and that his absence might be deliberate. (Indeed, Grachev flew to the Caucasus on 16 September to meet Georgian leaders.) PAP reported that the absence of Russian government representatives from the ceremonies, as well as continuing differences between the two sides, were preventing the signing of Polish-Russian agreements formalizing the withdrawal and regulating the status of Russia's military mission in Poland. President Lech Walesa said the withdrawal's conclusion reflects "historical justice" and gives final confirmation to Poland's sovereignty. -John Lepingwell and Louisa Vinton . . . BUT DEBATE OVER POLISH INTEREST IN NATO CONTINUES. Russian commentaries on the possibility of Poland's entering NATO have become more critical with Sergei Karaganov of the Institute of Europe arguing (Moscow News, No. 38) that such a move would meet with opposition in both conservative and centrist circles, particularly among the Russian military elite. Segodnya on 14 September published an analysis by a representative of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs who pointed out that, while Poland is free to join NATO, Russia opposes a bloc-oriented approach to security and would prefer to see a stronger CSCE than either a larger NATO or the creation of a "buffer zone." While not an official statement, the article spells out Moscow's "reinterpretation" of Yeltsin's comments in Poland. -John Lepingwell HOPES DIM FOR BOSNIAN SETTLEMENT. Despite initial optimism by Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic that a peace settlement will be reached in time for the scheduled 21-September Sarajevo airport meeting of the Bosnian, Serbian, and Croatian presidents, Bosnia's Alija Izetbegovic said: "I personally don't see it, and I told [international mediator Lord] Owen that." International media also noted that the stumbling block continues to be Muslim demands for more territory from the Serbs and for access to the Adriatic from the Croats. A Muslim concession late last week that would enable the Serb and Croat republics to leave the Bosnian union after two years has apparently not brought the desired reciprocity from the other two sides. Meanwhile, a Croat-Muslim cease-fire slated to take effect on 18 September has proven still-born, as have so many other such agreements in the Yugoslav conflicts. Particularly intense fighting was reported from the Mostar, Vitez, and Gornji Vakuf areas. -Patrick Moore OTHER DEVELOPMENTS IN AND AROUND THE BOSNIAN CONFLICT. Vjesnik on 18-September reported on a press conference by the Croatian Social Liberal Party, which slightly leads President Franjo Tudjman's ruling party in the polls. The Liberals continued their opposition to Tudjman's support for Herzegovinian Croat leaders, arguing that this works against Croatia's strategic interests and sells out the Bosnian Croats, a view widely shared not only throughout the opposition but in Tudjman's party itself. Croatian TV on 19-September, however, showed Tudjman speaking in Varazdin and defending his policy in the embattled neighboring republic. Meanwhile in Banja Luka, rebel soldiers in the "September 93" movement ended their mutiny on 17 September after getting assurances from Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic that action would be taken against profiteers and that soldiers' living standards would be improved. The Financial Times on 18 September reported that some of the rebel leaders had been arrested, that the soldiers had dropped their political demands, and that confusion continues to surround the organization and motives of what seems to have been an attempted coup against Karadzic. The paper added that more such rebellions might be expected as Serbs' living conditions continue to deteriorate and as Milosevic and other Serb political leaders jockey for power. Finally, the BBC on 19 September quoted UNPROFOR spokesmen as saying that Croat troops had systematically killed at least 10 Serb civilians before withdrawing from three villages in the Gospic area. -Patrick Moore KOSOVO UPDATE. On 18 September the Serbian police raided several houses of members of the Democratic League of Kosovo (LDK) and arrested the whole local shadow government in Kacanik, Rilindja reports on 19 September. ATA reported already on 17 September raids and arrests of activists of the LDK, the largest Kosovo Albanian political organization, in Pristina. Allegedly police demolished furniture and beat people. Tensions have risen since the beginning of the new school year in Kosovo this month because the police hindered children from entering privately organized Albanian schools. Meanwhile, Borba reports on 17-September on reactions to the visit of Montenegrin President Momir Bulatovic to Tirana, quoting Mahmut Bakali, a former Kosovar politician as saying: "that is the beginning of a coming together of Serbians and Albanians, and of talks for the good of the people in the Balkans." The Kosovo Albanian independent trade union, meanwhile, announced that its representatives would go to Montenegro to hold talks, even though there are still doubts among the unionists and others as to whether Montenegro is a proper mediator for talks with the political authorities in Belgrade. -Fabian Schmidt ALBANIAN DEMOCRATIC PARTY CONCLUDES CONFERENCE. Albania's ruling Democratic Party (DP) concluded closed door meetings on 17 September. The mood of the conference was good and there was considerable self-congratulation on the party's achievements after one and a half years in office. The party has set an ambitious economic growth agenda for the coming years and called for a strengthening of the government coalition, although any cooperation with the opposition Socialists was ruled out. DP policy remains to isolate and eventually eliminate the Socialists as a viable force in Albanian politics. At a press conference on 18 September, Democratic Party leader Eduard Selami spoke out on a number of issues. He denied suggestions that corruption was evident in the government administration and took the opportunity to slam Socialist policy as "anti-national" and blamed that party for Albania's failure to gain admission into the Council of Europe. His attack on the Socialists was greeted with considerable applause from the press. An open national congress of the DP is scheduled for December. -Robert Austin PAPANDREOU: "THE NAME MACEDONIA IS OUR SOUL." Reuters reports that Andreas Papandreou, leader of the Panhellenic Socialist Movement [PASOK] and possibly Greece's next Prime Minister, on 18 September told a rally that, if elected, he would relentlessly oppose recognition of the former Yugoslav republic of Macedonia under any name including the word 'Macedonia.' Criticizing the current conservative government for its failure to muster international support for the Greek view that the name Macedonia implies territorial designs on parts of northern Greece, and specifically premier Constantine Mitsotakis for his apparent willingness to negotiate a compromise with Skopje, Papandreou said he would reject any settlement which may "undermine our national rights." According to Vecer of 20 September, he also threatened to close the border to Macedonia as a means of pressuring a name change. The conservative New Democracy party lost its parliamentary majority two weeks ago when deputies of the newly formed Political Spring faction, which also has accused Mitsotakis of being too lenient with Skopje, withdrew their support for the cabinet. The elections are due on 10 October and polls suggest that PASOK is clearly ahead. -Kjell Engelbrekt TENSIONS BETWEEN VW AND CZECH GOVERNMENT. Volkswagen's decision to cancel a major credit line with an international consortium of banks as part of the pledged investment to its Czech subsidiary Skoda led to tensions with the government of Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus, domestic and international media reported over the weekend. Individual government members said they were "disappointed" by the decision, others criticized the fact that they were informed only one day ahead of the planned signing ceremony. Finance Minister Ivan Kocarnik told Czech TV that it was "an unfavorable signal for the future," while Tomas Jezek, Chairman of the Czech National Property Fund that is currently holding 69% of Skoda's shares, said VW managers "had to admit that the financial plans for Skoda's development were ill conceived." Klaus agreed that VW should have informed Prague earlier but was quoted as saying that VW's move should not be "overdramatized" and that any company's decision to postpone a planned investment is "legitimate." In the meantime, Skoda managers pointed out that the plans to double Skoda's production by 1997 and introduce new models have not been changed. -Jan Obrman SLOVAK PRESIDENT ON NATO, DISMISSED AMBASSADOR. On 18 September Willy De Clercq, chairman of the European Federation of Liberal, Democratic and Reform Parties, visited Bratislava, where he met with President Michal Kovac. Kovac informed De Clercq about the political situation in Slovakia and expressed his concern that Slovakia's entrance into NATO is "increasingly in doubt from the standpoint of Western European nations," TASR reports. Kovac also said that in Slovakia, the political situation is "no worse" than in other postcommunist countries. On 17 September Kovac held a press conference aboard a ship carrying foreign diplomats to the Gabcikovo waterworks. When asked about the recent dismissal of Slovak Ambassador to Austria Rudolf Filkus, Kovac said his resignation was "the best solution." According to Kovac, if Filkus had stayed in office despite the Slovak Cabinet's resolution to dismiss him, Slovakia's relations with Austria "could have been impaired for a relatively long period," TASR reports. -Sharon Fisher SLOVAK PREMIER ON POLITICAL SITUATION. In a 17 September interview with Slovak Radio in Zilina, Vladimir Meciar complained about growing pressure from the opposition against himself and his party and claimed that the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia has "an acknowledged partner" in the US Democratic Party. On 18 September the MDS leadership held a special session, during which Meciar presented his evaluation of the current political and economic situation. Regarding the present political situation, which has left the MDS with a minority government, Deputy Premier Roman Kovac said the party "will initiate discussions with all parliamentary and selected extraparliamentary political parties," TASR reports. Meanwhile, the Slovak opposition parties met on 17-September to discuss "alternative solutions" to the present political situation in Slovakia. A definitive solution will be made at their next meeting, scheduled for early October, TASR reports. -Sharon Fisher JESZENSZKY ENDS ROMANIAN VISIT. On 19 September Hungary's Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky ended a five-day official visit to Romania. At a press conference broadcast by Radio Bucharest, Jeszenszky said that the visit had been auspicious for the future of bilateral relations and that steps had been taken to improve economic ties and human contacts between Romania and Hungary. On the visit's last leg, in the Western Romanian town of Timisoara, Jeszenszky laid a wreath at the monument of the victims of the December 1989 events and attended a service celebrated by the Reformed Church bishop Laszlo Tokes. In a commentary, Radio Budapest said there were also indications that Romania is unwilling to include the minority issue in of the bilateral treaty with Hungary currently under negotiation. -Dan Ionescu and Alfred Reisch ROMANIA RESUMES TALKS WITH THE IMF. A 14man Romanian delegation arrived on 18 September in Washington for a new round of negotiations with the International Monetary Fund. The delegation includes Minister of State Mircea Cosea, chairman of the government's Council for Economic Coordination, Strategy and Reform, Finance Minister Florin Georgescu and National Bank Governor Mugur Isarescu. Cosea told Radio Bucharest that the visit aimed at finding ways "to adapt the IMF claims to Romania's [economic] conditions." Romania, he added, was open to suggestions from the IMF on how to reform its fiscal and monetary system. The Romanian government and the IMF failed to agree on a new loan arrangement in July, mainly because of the IMF's dissatisfaction over Romania's exchange and interest rates. -Dan Ionescu MOLDOVA APPEALS FOR INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT IN CONFLICT WITH RUSSIA. Moldovan Foreign Minister Nicolae Tiu on 17 September cabled Catherine Lalumiere, General Secretary of the Council of Europe, complaining that "the Russian government has failed to even reply to our numerous requests that it halt the Russian military's permanent interference in Moldova's internal affairs." As cited by Moldovan media, Tiu wrote that the interference "is taking place with the Moscow authorities' tacit agreement and reflects the Russian pro-imperial forces' real intentions to tear away the eastern part of Moldova," and that "only concerted efforts by the Council of Europe and other European and world organizations may halt this brutal interference." Tiu's call for international support came in the wake of the election of Lt.-Gen. Aleksandr Lebed, commander of Russia's 14th Army in Moldova, as deputy to the Supreme Soviet of the secessionist "Dniester republic" on a platform envisaging the latter's accession to Russia. -Vladimir Socor COMMISSION TO LOOK INTO ARMENIAN WEAPONS CHARGES. A spokeswoman for the Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs told reporters that a commission has been created to investigate Armenia's allegations that Ukraine is supplying tanks and aircraft to Azerbaijan, an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 14-September. The matter is being investigated jointly by the Ministry of Defense and Ukraine's security services. Ukraine does have an agreement with Azerbaijan to repair tanks, but officials deny providing other military equipment to Baku. -Ustina Markus [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Elizabeth Teague and Kjell Engelbrekt THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.RFE/RL Daily Report
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