Понять жизнь и полюбить ее в другом существе - в этом задача человека и в этом его талант. - А. Барбюс
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 179, 17 September 1993


THE RETURN OF GAIDAR. During one of his now regular visits to
military formations, President Boris Yeltsin on 16 September
disclosed to journalists that Egor Gaidar will be returning to
the cabinet, ITAR-TASS and other agencies reported. The president
announced that he would sign an edict on 18 September appointing
Gaidar to the post of First Deputy Prime Minister, and indicated
that First Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Lobov would be shifted
to other duties. In this way, Yeltsin remarked, "the conflict
between Lobov and Fedorov will be settled." Yeltsin mentioned
that Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin was in favor of the shift.
Gaidar has agreed to accept the appointment which does not, it
is reported, have to be confirmed by parliament. Keith Bush,
RFE/RL, Inc.

CONGRESS OF PEOPLES OF THE USSR. On 20 September, a Congress
of Peoples of the USSR will open in Moscow, one of its organizers
announced at a news conference on 16 September. Yurii Izyumov,
editor of the pro-communist weekly Glasnost, said that the congress
"will not be extremist," and that it will produce "a manifesto
to the peoples of Russia which will lay out the tactics for resurrecting
the former Union." Izyumov claimed that groups ranging from communist
to religious organizations from all the former Soviet republics
will attend the conference. Among the participants, according
to Russian news sources, will be former chairman of the Security
Council Yurii Skokov, industrialists' leader Arkadii Volsky,
Gennadii Seleznev and Aleksandr Prokhanov, the editors respectively
of Pravda and Den, Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi, parliamentary
chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov, and Constitutional Court Chairman
Valerii Zorkin. Wendy Slater, RFE/RL, Inc.

is scheduled to meet the heads of the republics and regions in
the Kremlin on 18 September for the possible signing of the agreement
setting up the Federation Council, ITAR-TASS reported on 16 September.
The creation of the council is in doubt because, according to
a member of the presidential council, Leonid Smirnyagin, the
leaders of some republics and regions have advanced unacceptable
demands, whose essence is that the council can function without
the president and the prime minister. In Smirnyagin's view, this
would destroy the purpose of the council. Khasbulatov has also
planned a meeting of the heads of the soviets of all levels for
18 September, ITAR-TASS added, and the agency surmised that it
would attract some of the potential participants of the Kremlin
get-together. Khasbulatov has said that he sees no need for the
creation of the Federation Council. Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc.

YELTSIN STILL POPULAR IN RUSSIA. President Yeltsin remains the
most popular Russian politician with a 48% approval rating, according
to the latest opinion poll conducted by Mnenie, and independent
research organization, in Moscow and 24 regions, ITAR-TASS reported
on 15 September. Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin was backed
by 46% of the respondents--more than his government which received
only 42% of support. The popularity of Yeltsin's rivals has declined.
Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi received 39%, and parliamentary
speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov only 19% approval. In the summer of
1992, 31% of the respondents who took part in the opinion poll
organized by Mnenie had still favored Khasbulatov and 53% said
they trusted Rutskoi. Now 65% of those questioned said that they
wished Khasbulatov would resign. Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.

krai, like the authorities in Moscow, want to retain the propiska
(residence permit) system which is due to be abolished in October.
Krasnodar has been overwhelmed by refugees fleeing from conflicts
in the neighboring north Caucasus region, and propiska regulations
have been strictly imposed in an effort to discourage further
immigration. The head of administration, Nikolai Egorov, was
quoted by Ostankino TV on 16 September as saying that the abolition
of the propiska system would infringe the rights of local residents,
presumably by encouraging competition for scarce housing between
refugees and local residents. Another local leader, V. Savva,
warned of an "unpredictable" reaction on the part of the population
of Krasnodar Krai were the propiska to be abolished. Wendy Slater,
RFE/RL, Inc.

SOLZHENITSYN ON RUSSIA. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn plans to return
to Russia in May 1994, according to an official statement issued
by his wife and carried by ITAR-TASS on 16 September. On 14 September,
Solzhenitsyn received an honorary doctorate from the International
Academy for Philosophy in the Principality of Liechtenstein,
where he said that Russia has not yet rid itself of communism.
He criticized Russia's transition to "wild capitalism," and called
for economic, political, and individual self-restraint. Solzhenitsyn
told journalists that Russia's political institution are still
weak. He described the huge bureaucracy of the executive as being
"worse than under communism," attacked the parliament for not
being a true legislative body and stated that the Constitutional
Court has made itself ridiculous by re-legalizing the Communist
Party. Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.

Sergei Aleksashenko told The Financial Times of 15 September
that the government plans to sell gold to the value of $1 billion
to Russian commercial banks in order to help cover the gaping
budget deficit. It would issue certificates, at prices based
on the international gold futures market, guaranteeing to deliver
up to 100 tons of gold in a year's time. Keith Bush, RFE/RL,

FOURTH TV CHANNEL. The board of directors of the Ostankino TV
company has sent a letter to President Yeltsin urging him to
prevent the transfer of the fourth channel of the state-run Russian
television to the "Most" (Bridge) commercial firm. The directors
were quoted by ITAR-TASS on 16 September as saying they supported
the reduction of state financing of Russian television as well
as the creation of independent TV channels. But they claimed
that, in view of recent developments, the danger existed that
state control over television would be replaced by that of a
few big commercial associations--a situation which would yield
even less freedom of broadcast journalism than existed today.
Vera Tolz, RFE/RL, Inc.

up a secret intelligence service in the GDR to support perestroika
there. These and other revelations on KGB activities in Germany
are reported in the book "Gruppe Ljutsch ["The Beam of Light'
Group"]" written by two German authors, Andreas Boente and Ralf
Georg Reuth. A book review appeared in the Frankfurter Allgemeine
Zeitung on 16 September. The revelations indicate that the KGB
had initiated political changes in the GDR and had worked against
the leadership of GDR leader Erich Honecker. The book says that
this secret structure continues to function in today's Germany
and was taken over by the Russian foreign intelligence service
led by Evgenii Primakov. Alexander Rahr, RFE/RL, Inc.


RUMYANTSEV ON SEVASTOPOL. Oleg Rumyantsev, one of the leading
parliamentarians involved in the constitutional process, has
stated that the new Russian constitution must recognize Sevastopol
as a Russian city with special federal status. Segodnya on 16
September reported Rumyantsev's recent visit to the Crimea, noting
that he formed a poor impression of the head of the Crimean Supreme
Soviet and was told by representatives of pro-Russian movements
that 90% of Crimeans regret their "separation" from Russia. Rumyantsev
reportedly stated that he would do "all possible" to recognize
Crimea as a part of the Russian Federation. He suggested that
Russia take over full financing of the Black Sea Fleet and denounced
the Massandra agreement on the fleet, noting that Ukraine had
no right to any part of the fleet and therefore could not sell
part of it to Russia. Speaking on the Russian parliament's TV
program on 15 September, Rumyantsev warned of a "Croatian scenario"
in the Crimea and claimed that Ukraine was building up military
forces in the region. John Lepingwell, RFE/RL, Inc.

Ukrainian officials are still negotiating the fate of the aircraft
carrier "Varyag" in Mykolaiiv, Ukrinform reported on 15 September.
The carrier was three-quarters complete when the Soviet Union
broke up. Since then its construction has been halted while Russia
and Ukraine dispute its ownership. The "Varyag" was being built
in the Ukrainian shipyard, but its electronics came from Russia.
The latest proposals give Russia ownership of the carrier in
exchange for reducing Ukraine's energy debt to Russia, and contracting
Ukraine to complete its construction. The "Varyag" is only the
second aircraft carrier of its class in the former Soviet navy
and may be sold once it is completed, possibly to China. Ustina
Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.


RENEWED FIGHTING IN ABKHAZIA. In the early morning of 16 September
Abkhaz forces broke the 7-week-old ceasefire, claiming that they
had acted after Georgia had failed to withdraw its heavy armor
and troops from the region and lift the blockade of Tkvarcheli,
as required by the ceasefire agreement, Russian and Western media
reported. The Abkhaz forces broke through the blockade of Tkvarcheli,
and attacked both Sukhumi and Ochamchira. Shevardnadze flew to
Sukhumi, telling Yeltsin that he would fight off rebel forces
with his "bare hands." Shevardnadze accused the Abkhaz of using
the ceasefire to trick his forces into surrendering their arms.
Reports differ as to whether the Abkhaz have entered Sukhumi.
ITAR-TASS reported on 17 September that, according to the Russian
section of the joint commission for regulating the situation
in Abkhazia, the Abkhaz were shelling the outskirts of the town,
but a spokesman of the Abkhaz Supreme Soviet claimed that Sukhumi
was under Abkhaz control. Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc.

REACTION TO ABKHAZ DEVELOPMENTS. Russia called on Abkhaz separatists
to halt all military activities or face unspecified consequences,
ITAR-TASS reported on 16 September. Reports say that Russian
defense minister Pavel Grachev plans to travel to Sukhumi on
17 September after meeting Abkhaz separatist leaders in Gudauta
on 16 September. The United National Security Council has also
called for a halt to the fighting and condemned the separatists
for violating the ceasefire. UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali,
who personally condemned the Abkhaz action, discussed the situation
with Russian ambassador to the UN Yulii Vorontsov. Ann Sheehy,
RFE/RL, Inc.

MITTERAND IN KAZAKHSTAN. French president Francois Mitterand
announced at a dinner in his honor in Alma-Ata on 16 September
that France was extending a term credit of 300 million francs
to Kazakhstan to finance French investments in the republic,
AFP reported. A spokesman for Mitterand, Jean Musitelli, said
French companies were competing for projects in oil, air-traffic
control construction, telecommunications, and food-processing.
Mitterand also promised to help Kazakhstan save the Aral Sea.
In a brief interview on local television, Mitterand, who is on
a 24-hour visit to Kazakhstan, praised Kazakh President Nursultan
Nazarbaev's domestic and foreign policy and his efforts to restore
ties between the CIS states. Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc.

                    CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

on 16 September that UN civilian affairs chief Cedric Thornberry
demanded an investigation of the killing of at least 34 Croats,
mostly civilians, in the hamlet of Kriz in the village of Uzdol
near Prozor the previous day. An UNPROFOR statement said that
Muslims killed the Croats "with firearms, knives, and axes, and
set fire to some houses." Croatian military spokesmen said that
they had found papers on the bodies of Muslim fighters killed
in the area identifying them as members of the Bosnian police.
The BBC also quoted Thornberry as saying that there continued
to be "quite heavy fighting going on" between Croats and Muslims
in that republic. Meanwhile, Borba on 17 September continues
its reporting on the "September 93" movement, as the Banja Luka
mutineers call themselves. Finally, international media in recent
days have noted that the embattled Sarajevo daily Oslobodjenje
celebrates its 50th anniversary of uninterrupted publishing this
week. Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc.

TUDJMAN. The upshot is that "the heart does not determine state
policy," and that Croats will have to accept that they will not
be able to recapture the Serb-held territory of their republic
as soon as they might wish, although he ruled out "letting the
problem solve itself . . . like Germany that waited 40 years
for reunification." He was relatively conciliatory in his remarks
regarding UNPROFOR, while repeating that Croatia needs guarantees
that the UN forces will truly execute their mandate if Croatia
is to extend it. Tudjman indicated that Croatia's 12 September
offensive near Gospic was an exception to a very patient policy,
and that his government would not allow "Serb extremists to drag
Croatia into a total war," because, among other reasons, it cannot
afford to bring sanctions down upon itself. Meanwhile, Globus
on 17 September runs a poll showing that 55% of the respondents
feel that Croatia must act now militarily to free the Serb-held
lands, while only 43% feel that a war will break out or that
the Croatian army is strong enough to do the job. Patrick Moore,
RFE/RL, Inc.

head of the Serbian Radical Party, announced on 16 September
that his party would call for a vote of no confidence in the
Socialist-dominated Serbian government. Seselj explained the
government of Prime Minister Nikola Sainovic was incompetent
and did nothing to improve the republic's economic situation.
Seselj, whose party is the second largest party in parliament,
said his motion will receive enough votes in parliament to place
it on the agenda when the parliament reconvenes in early October.
He also expressed confidence that several other opposition parties
would support the his initiative: 126 votes are needed to pass
the measure and the Radicals have 73 deputies. Seselj added that
his party's initiative would not raise any questions regarding
President Slobodan Milosevic. After the December 1992 elections,
Seselj had pledged that his party would never raise the issue
of a vote of no confidence in Milosevic. Radio and Television
Serbia carried the report. Milan Andrejevich, RFE/RL, Inc.

three warring parties are preparing to sign an agreement on 21
September to end all hostilities, ensure the unimpeded delivery
of humanitarian aid supplies throughout the country, and open
all prison camps, international media report on 17 September.
After the conclusion of a secret meeting between Bosnian President
Alija Izetbegovic and the head of the self-proclaimed Bosnian
Serb parliament Momcilo Krajisnik on 16 September, mediator Lord
Owen said: "we have made progress." He also noted that Bosnia
is "closer to a settlement than it has ever been," the BBC said.
The new dimension is that two years after agreement is reached,
a referendum would be held in each of the autonomous republics
as to whether they wish to remain in the Union of Bosnia-Herzegovina.
This would allow the Serb republic to join Serbia and the Croats
to join Croatia. The remaining Muslim republic would retain the
Union's seat at the UN in this case. The New York Times on 17
September quotes experts as saying that this concession might
be the price that Izetbegovic, who long opposed a partition of
Bosnia-Herzegovina, must pay to obtain more Serbian-controlled
land in eastern and northwestern Bosnia and an access to the
sea from the Croats. Returning back to Sarajevo Izetbegovic said:
"I want to state once more that we will not give up our demands"
and expressed doubt that the mediators' work would be completed
by Tuesday. Fabian Schmidt, RFE/RL, Inc.

BULGARIAN LABOR CAMP TRIAL RESUMES. Reuters reports that a trial
against three Bulgarians involved in running the notorious Lovech
and Skravena labor camps between 1959 and 1962 was resumed on
16 September. A few weeks after the trial had opened in June
the death of a defendant--former Deputy Minister of Internal
Affairs Mircho Spasov--forced a postponement. The other three
defendants are accused of being directly responsible for the
deaths of at least 14 of the 1,501 inmates of the camps. Investigations
show that more than 100 prisoners died while in the camps and
several hundred due to the after-effects of brutal treatment.
In June the court declared it will rule on the question of guilt
before it decides on whether the statute of limitations--which
in Bulgaria normally expires after 20 years--precludes punishment
or if the actions qualify as "crimes against humanity." Kjell
Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc.

AG, Germany's largest automaker, announced that it will scale
down its commitments in the Czech Republic, the International
Herald Tribune reports on 17 September. The announcement came
one day before Volkswagen was to sign a $880 million credit line
for Skoda with an international consortium of banks. The German
company initially planned to invest 7 billion DM in the Czech
Republic over a decade, but observers believe that the amount
will now be closer to 4 or 5 billion DM. While Volkswagen and
its subsidiaries Audi and Seat (Spain) suffered heavy losses
in the first half of 1993, Skoda, the Czech automaker, has produced
a moderate profit; its sales were up 15% in the first eight months
of 1993. More than 60% of Skoda's shares are still owned by the
Czech government, but Volkswagen will become majority owner by
1996. Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc.

Ivan Kocarnik informed the parliament on 16 September that the
impact of Czechoslovakia's disintegration on the Czech economy
was greater than initially anticipated. He said that the recession
in Western countries and the beginning of the "massive" privatization
that is now in full swing also influenced the Czech economy.
The GNP dropped by 0.5%; unemployment decreased to 2.6%; prices
increased by 12% (which is mainly due to the introduction of
the VAT); the Czech currency was further stabilized in comparison
to major Western currencies and its exchange rate remains almost
unchanged; the foreign currency reserves have increased sharply
this year; and the state budget is balanced. Kocarnik warned,
however, that the considerable increase of incomes does not correspond
to the increase of productivity. The Czech parliament increased
pensions for the second time in 1993. Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc.

of Romania and Hungary, Teodor Melescanu and Geza Jeszenszky,
signed on 16 September two agreements on investment protection
and the prevention of double taxation; they also agreed to open
two new border crossing points this year. Statements by both
sides reported on Radio Bucharest, reflected continuing disagreements,
however, with Romania insisting on recognition of existing borders
and Hungary emphasizing the need for a commitment to observe
the rights of ethnic minorities. According to Melescanu, both
countries agreed to hold seminars on the subject of ethnic minorities,
while Hungarians said that the talks were "useful." Jeszenszky
is visiting Transylvania today and tomorrow and returns to Bucharest
on Sunday. Vladimir Socor and Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL, Inc.

and Hungary signed on 16 September an agreement providing Budapest
with a $340 million ready credit, $56.7 million of which will
become available this month and the rest in five successive quarterly
installments. According to Finance Minister Ivan Szabo, the accord
will considerably improve Hungary's position on the international
money markets and help obtain additional loans worth $200 million
from the World Bank and Japan's Eximbank to help reduce Hungary's
$23 billion foreign debt. To obtain the loan, Hungary agreed
to keep its 1994 budget deficit under 250 billion forint or 5.3%
of the country's Gross Domestic Product, compared to 7% last
year, MTI reports. Alfred Reisch, RFE/RL, Inc.

a legal ban, the daily Super Express published the results of
a final public opinion poll on voter preferences on 17 September.
The election law forbids the publication of polling results fewer
than twelve days before the elections. Grzegorz Lindenberg, the
paper's editor-in-chief, told reporters that the poll, conducted
by Demoskop, suggests that six parties will clear the threshold
and win seats in the Sejm: the Polish Peasant Party, the Democratic
Left Alliance, the Democratic Union (UD), the Union of Labor,
Solidarity, and the Confederation for an Independent Poland.
If accurate, this would mean that only one party--the UD--would
stand for continuity in economic policy. Lindenberg argued that
the publication ban is a violation of freedom of speech and the
public's right to full information. All election campaigning
and advertising is to end by law at midnight on 17 September.
Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.

troops from Polish soil will conclude officially on 18 September,
PAP reports. Ceremonies to mark the occasion are scheduled for
17 September--the 54th anniversary of the Soviet invasion of
Poland in 1939. Russian President Boris Yeltsin had pledged during
his recent visit to Poland to complete the withdrawal by 1 October,
but the scheduling appears to have been revised with the parliamentary
elections in mind. In fact, Gazeta Wyborcza reported on 15 September
that President Lech Walesa had arranged with Russian officials
to receive notice of the withdrawal's completion personally from
Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev during a ceremony at Belweder.
Grachev called off the visit, however, citing a kidney ailment.
Polish and Russian military negotiators signed two pacts on 16
September signaling the conclusion of the Russian military presence.
No agreement was reached, however, on the status of the Russian
military mission that is to oversee the troop withdrawal from
Germany. Russian forces chief General Leonid Kovalev told reporters
his troops are leaving with the sense of a mission fulfilled,
having "liberated" Poland and guarded its security for fifty
years. Also scheduled for 17 September is the state funeral of
General Wladyslaw Sikorski, Poland's wartime commander in chief,
who died in a mysterious plane crash at Gibraltar in 1943. Sikorski
will be buried at Cracow's Wawel castle; his body was returned
from England earlier in the week. Some politicians have turned
down invitations to take part in the funeral, on the grounds
that Walesa has politicized it. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.

SUCHOCKA SUMS UP GOVERNMENT'S WORK. At a final preelection press
conference on 16 September, Polish Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka
presented an initial balance of her fourteen months in office
but steered away from questions related to the upcoming elections.
Poland is the first country in the region to emerge from recession,
she noted, and is likely to post the highest rate of economic
growth in all of Europe this year. On the other hand, unemployment
is high, some industrial branches are in crisis, and many people
yearn for the security of the old system. She suggested, however,
that there is no turning back. Suchocka praised the six-party
coalition for loyalty and said the cabinet had been able to reach
collective decisions to the end. She nonetheless had words of
criticism for both the internal affairs and justice ministers.
The "timing and manner" of the firing of Gdansk security chief
Adam Hodysz were improper, she said, admitting that they appeared
to reflect "political infighting." Hodysz, an undercover ally
of Solidarity in the communist secret police, was dismissed on
3 September at the instigation of President Lech Walesa. Suchocka
also indicated disapproval at Justice Minister Jan Piatkowski's
announcement that Poland was opening its own "sovereign" investigation
into the Katyn massacre. Piatkowski did not inform the rest of
the government before taking this step. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL,

POLISH GROWTH TO REACH 4.5% IN 1993? Central planning chief Jerzy
Kropiwnicki told a press conference on 16 September that Poland's
GDP could grow by as much as 4.5% in 1993, PAP reports. Industrial
production was 7.8% higher than in the analogous eight-month
period of 1992; labor productivity was up by 11%; the financial
health of enterprises continued to improve; and the situation
in agriculture was less gloomy than earlier thought, despite
the effects of the 1992 drought. Kropiwnicki's major worry was
Poland's negative trade balance, which grew to over $1.4 billion
in August. Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL, Inc.

Minister Adolfas Slezevicius told a news conference that about
140 members of the Volunteer Home Guard Service in Kaunas had
withdrawn to the forests with their weapons, Radio Lithuania
reports. The action appears to have been prompted by fears that
the government was planning to dissolve the service. The parliament
formed a special commission to deal with the situation. Leaders
of the major 8 political parties issued a statement expressing
their disapproval of the action and calling on the insurrectionists
and the authorities to settle the matter peacefully. Saulius
Girnius, RFE/RL, Inc.

SHUSHKEVICH ON ECONOMIC CRISIS. At the 15 September session of
the Supreme Soviet, the chairman, Stanislau Shushkevich, stated
that Belarus was in such a deep economic crisis that nothing
could help the country, Belarusian television reported. The main
problems were the republic's finances. Production has fallen
by 15% from last year, and the country's finances are completely
dependent on the price of Russian energy. Shushkevich also admitted
that the Supreme Soviet had no control over government agencies.
Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc.

KUCHMA ON ECONOMIC UNION. Ukrainian Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma
is quoted as telling Ukrainian television viewers that Ukrainian-Russian
ties are so interwoven that an economic union between the two
countries is the only way out of the economic crisis, ITAR-TASS
reported on 16 September. How to prevent such a union from impinging
negatively on Ukrainian independence, he argued, is a task for
the politicians. Every treaty and every union, said Kuchma, to
some degree restricts one's rights, and the Ukrainian parliament
must find an "optimal solution," that is, one that does not infringe
upon Ukraine's state interests. Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL, Inc.

[As of 1200 CET]

Compiled by Keith Bush and Jan B. de Weydenthal RFE/RL Daily Report

[English] [Russian TRANS | KOI8 | ALT | WIN | MAC | ISO5]

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