|If you wish to make an apple pie truly from scratch, you must first invent the universe. - Carl Sagan|
No. 178, 16 September 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA ELECTIONS UNLIKELY BEFORE THE SPRING. Russian press reports from 15 September of the previous day's presidential council meeting gave more details of what was discussed in the closed session. Yeltsin's advisors apparently told him that it was "technically impossible" to hold elections in the autumn. Nezavisimaya gazeta wrote that parliamentary, and probably presidential, elections would be called next spring, depending on whether the current parliament could be made to adopt an election law. Kommersant-Daily claimed that Boris Yeltsin had said "he would consider his mission accomplished" once "democratic reelections" were held. Yeltsin's advisors encouraged him to continue with his plan to convene the Federation Council for 18 September, but warned that the necessary two-thirds of the delegates might not attend. -Wendy Slater RUMYANTSEV SUSPENDS MEMBERSHIP IN CONSTITUTIONAL WORKING GROUP. The executive secretary of the parliament's constitutional commission, Oleg Rumyantsev, told ITAR-TASS on 15 September that he had suspended his activities in the working group set up last week by President Yeltsin to finalize the new draft constitution. Rumyantsev complained that the majority of the working group's members supported the draft constitution worked out by the Constitutional Assembly, and failed to give enough consideration to the draft of the parliament's constitutional commission. Rumyantsev is one of the principal authors of the latter. -Vera Tolz MORE ON LOBOV'S PRIVATIZATION PLANS. First Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Lobov's proposals for modifying the current Russian privatization program include raising the nominal value privatization vouchers by a factor of 25, revaluating Russia's state capital stock by a factor of 100-200, therewith lowering the share of state property targeted for voucher sales from 80% to 30%, according to Ekho Moskvy on 14 September. Kommersant-Daily reported that Lobov prepared a draft decree containing these provisions pursuant to a presidential directive dated 30 August entitled "On the Simultaneous Indexation of Privatization Checks and Capital Stock." Yeltsin rescinded this directive on 11-September and asked Lobov, Deputy Prime Minister Anatolii Chubais and Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin to formulate a compromise plan. -Erik Whitlock NEW BATTLE LOOMS IN TAX WAR. The Ministry of Finance is planning to introduce a uniform tax system from January 1994, The Financial Times reported on 15-September. The aim is to do away with the present system, under which over 30 of Russia's 89 republics and regions are withholding taxes from the center and bargaining over how much tax revenue they can keep for themselves. The ministry's plan seems certain to be resisted by Tatarstan and Bashkortostan, which have already declared "fiscal sovereignty," and by Sakha (Yakutia), which has negotiated a special tax deal with the center. -Elizabeth Teague GOVERNMENT INSPECTORATE FOR PROTECTION OF MASS MEDIA. The government has issued a resolution setting up the Inspectorate for the Protection of the Freedom of the Mass Media. ITAR-TASS reported on 15 September that the inspectorate will be subordinate to the Ministry of Information and that its main goal will be to make sure that the legislation on mass media is observed by both journalists and government and state officials. Parliament recently voted to create supervisory bodies to control the activities of the broadcasting media-a move that provoked an outcry on the part of many journalists. At the same time, Mikhail Fedotov, who recently resigned from the post of minister of information, has complained that another body-the Federal Information Center (FIC) under the chairmanship of Yeltsin's closest ally Poltoranin-exercises excessive control over television. (The parliament, in turn, demands the abolition of the FIC.) It is very probable that the new inspectorate will take over the FIC's functions. -Vera Tolz YELTSIN MEETS PRO-REFORM WRITERS. On 15-September, Russian TV broadcast the footage of Yeltsin's meeting with a large group of writers who, on 5 August, had signed an appeal calling for parliamentary elections not later than the fall of 1993. Those present included prominent poets and novelists, but there also appeared to be many political journalists. Among the suggestions aired was the convocation of a congress that would examine the plight of Russian cultural institutions at risk under market conditions. This meeting may have been intended to counter earlier gatherings of nationalist cultural figures with Khasbulatov and Rutskoi. -Julia Wishnevsky INDIAN OFFICIAL ASSERTS ROCKET DEAL STILL ON. AFP reported on 15 September that the chief of the Indian Space Research Organization asserted that he has "no reason to believe" that the 1991 contract under which Russia agreed to provide rocket engine technology to India will be broken. He noted that India had received plans from Russia and that 15 Indian scientists were still being trained in Russia. The Russian government had agreed to terminate the deal, in part in order to win contracts from the US space agency, but Glavkosmos, the organization responsible for the contract, appears determined to continue with it. -John Lepingwell RUSSIAN SPACE PROGRAM HOPES FOR US CONTRACTS. Yurii Koptev, the head of the Russian space agency, told Russian TV on 15 September that the Russian space program had only received half the funds it had been budgeted. He noted, however, that in 1994 Russian aerospace firms would receive $100 million in contracts from the US. As The Washington Post reported on 9 September, however, extensive US-Russian cooperation on the space station Freedom is being slowed by congressional opposition to extensive use of Russian equipment and technology. Koptev also announced, according to Radio Moscow, an agreement with an Australian organization to build a spaceport "in the equatorial part of the Pacific" at a cost of some $900-million. The launch site would allow Russian boosters to place payloads in orbits that are not readily accessible from the higher-latitude launch sites of Baikonur and Plesetsk. -John Lepingwell GRACHEV ILL, CANCELS TRIP. Defense Minister Pavel Grachev requires treatment for a kidney ailment and has cancelled a trip to Poland and Kaliningrad, which had been scheduled to begin on 16 September, ITAR-Tass reported on 15 September. -John Lepingwell HIJACK ENDED. An Aeroflot TU-134, with about 50-passengers and crew on board, was hijacked on 15 September during a scheduled flight from Baku to Perm, Russian and Western agencies reported. The hijackers-reportedly 4 in number-were said to be members or supporters of the pro-Iranian Hezbollah, and were armed with grenades and other devices. After a refueling stop in Kiev, the plane landed at an airport near Oslo. All passengers were released unharmed, and the hijackers gave themselves up. -Keith Bush YELTSIN'S DECREE ON COSSACKS RULED CONSTITUTIONAL. The Constitutional Court ruled on 15-September that Yeltsin's decree of 15 March 1993 on reforming military structures in the North Caucasus and state support of the Cossacks was in accord with the constitution, ITAR-TASS reported. The Russian parliament had protested the decree, saying that it established a special form of military service for the Cossacks, thus violating the division of powers between the legislative and executive. The court ruled that it does not establish a special form of military service for the Cossacks and does not set up any new kinds of military units. At the same time the court stated that any broad interpretation of the president's decree in the sense of granting the Cossacks any kind of privileges was impermissible. -Ann Sheehy SECURITY COUNCIL DISCUSSES NORTH OSSETIA, INGUSHETIA. Yeltsin chaired a meeting of the security council on 15 September to review the North Ossetian-Ingush conflict, ITAR-TASS reported. The meeting was addressed by Deputy Premier Sergei Shakhrai, the head of the North Ossetian parliament Akhsarbek Galazov, and Ingush President Ruslan Aushev. A political analysis of the armed clashes in October-November 1992, which ascribed them to the attempts of nationalist and extremist forces to solve long-standing territorial and interethnic problems by force, was approved and will be sent to the Russian parliament and issued to the mass media for publication. The session paid particular attention to the problem of the refugees, the disarming of illegal armed units, and the restoration of law and order. Ministries and departments were instructed to take urgent measures in the area , and a list of bills to regulate interethnic conflicts was approved. -Ann Sheehy CIS NUCLEAR WEAPONS COOLING OFF. Izvestiya on 15-September reported that conditions in the nuclear warheads storage facility at Pervomaysk were being corrected. According to the paper, the temperature within the storage facility had risen by 1.2 degrees Celsius. Krasnaya zvezda on the same day, however, published a more alarmist report. According to the military newspaper, Russian specialists had been urgently called to the depot on 12 September because the temperature rise had been accompanied by radiation levels that were several times higher than normal background levels. The article went on to assert that the fault was clearly that of the Ukrainian government which, it claimed , has failed to fulfill its responsibility to return the warheads to Russia.-John Lepingwell RUSSIA ACCUSES UKRAINE OF STOPPING FUNDING BLACK SEA FLEET. The Russian navy has accused Ukraine of suddenly cutting its share of the funding for the Black Sea Fleet without consultation , ITAR-TASS reported on 15 September. A spokesman for the Ukrainian Ministry of Defense, Anatolii Murakovsky, denied the charges, Reuters reported. Murakovsky said that Russia was hindering the fleet's financing by channelling the funds through Russian banks in Crimea instead of going through the Ukrainian navy as had been agreed. Both Russia and Ukraine have frequently claimed that they alone are financing the fleet. -Ustina Markus GAZPROM'S BELARUSIAN ACQUISITION. A recent equity-for-debt swap between Belarus and Russia was hailed as a model for resolving financial problems between Russia and her other CIS trading partners by Segodnya on 11 September. Belarusian Prime Minister Vyacheslav Kebich signed over the assets of Beltransgaz, his nation's gas distributor, to Gazprom on 8 September, reportedly in exchange for wiping out the debt owed by Belarusian enterprises to the Russian gas giant. The debt had risen to 100 billion rubles by mid-August. The deal raised none of the public outcry like that aroused by the recent ships-for-debt proposal between Ukraine and Russia . -Erik Whitlock TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA STROBE TALBOTT IN UZBEKISTAN, TURKMENISTAN. Uzbek president Islam Karimov told Strobe Talbott, the US envoy for the CIS who was visiting Tashkent, that Uzbekistan would not accept US interference in its internal affairs, Reuters reported on 15-September citing the Uzbek media. Karimov said that Washington should mind its own business and let Uzbekistan do the same. Two Uzbek newspapers quoted top Uzbek officials saying that Karimov refused to discuss alleged human rights abuses by his government and Talbott's requests for the release of political detainees and the liberalization of laws regarding opposition political parties. Talbott also cut short a visit to Turkmenistan and refused to sign an aid agreement in protest at the detention of four opposition leaders he had been scheduled to meet, The Washington Post reported on 16 September. -Ann Sheehy HEAVY FIGHTING IN WESTERN GEORGIA. Russian media said on 15 September that forces loyal to ousted president Zviad Gamsakhurdia were fighting in western Georgia for the control of the main rail line. If it was cut, Georgia's rail network would be paralyzed. Moscow radio said road connections between western and eastern Georgia had already been cut. Shevardnadze arrived in nearby Kutaisi on the evening of 15 September, and Georgian defense minister Georgi Karakashvili, recalled from Moscow talks with Russian defense minister Pavel Grachev was expected to join him there. Shevardnadze resumed his duties as parliament chairman on 15 September. Parliament met his demand for the declaration of a state of emergency for two months, and then suspended itself temporarily. -Ann Sheehy CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE RUSSIA BACK-PEDALS ON POLISH NATO MEMBERSHIP. Russia's ambassador to Poland, Yuri Kashlev, told reporters on 15 September in Warsaw that Russia's stance on possible Polish membership in NATO has been "oversimplified and misunderstood," PAP reports. During his recent visit to Poland, Russian President Boris Yeltsin signed a joint declaration saying that joining NATO was a decision for a "sovereign Poland" and did not conflict with Russian interests. The Polish government seized this opportunity to press Western leaders for a commitment to expand NATO. Kashlev disputed reports that Yeltsin had "agreed" to Polish membership in NATO, however. Echoing the more circumspect tone of Russian commentary on the Yeltsin visit, he stressed that the joint Russian-Polish declaration refers to "eventual" NATO membership "in the larger process of European integration" and suggested that the alliance would first evolve into the CSCE's military arm. Other Russian officials have made similar statements. A foreign ministry analyst said on 14 September that Russia does not like the concept of expanding existing "security blocs" and sees no reason for haste in East European efforts to join NATO. Similarly, the chairman of the Russian parliament's committee on foreign affairs, Evgenii Ambartsumov, said on an Austrian TV talk show ("Europa," 12 September) that Yeltsin's comments on Polish membership in NATO were an improvisation and would probably be "reinterpreted" by Yeltsin himself at a later date.-Louisa Vinton and Suzanne Crow US CAUTIOUS ON EXPANDING NATO. Meanwhile, a high-ranking US State Department official told a congressional subcommittee on 15 September that the US is seriously considering supporting the admission of new members, but that "any expansion of NATO must contribute to and be seen to contribute to the overall security and stability of the new democracies to NATO's east, while preserving the security and stability of NATO's current members." Assistant Secretary of State for European and Canadian Affairs Stephen Oxman said that no "final decision" had been made on the question, but that it would be a focus for discussion at NATO's January summit in Brussels. He acknowledged that Russian President Boris Yeltsin's recent statements in Warsaw and Prague to the effect that Polish and Czech membership would not threaten Russia had "aroused new interest in expanding NATO." -Louisa Vinton MASSACRE OF CROAT CIVILIANS. The BBC's Croatian and Serbian Services reported on 15 September that over 35 Croats, most of them civilians and including women, children, and elderly people, were killed in or near their village of Uzdol near Prozor in central Bosnia, presumably by Muslim forces operating in the area. Croatian troops then staged a counterattack, but the outcome of the action remains unclear. Fighting also continued in Mostar less than 24 hours after the Croatian and Bosnian presidents signed a cease-fire agreement. Meanwhile in Banja Luka, Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic finally met with the rebel soldiers who now demand the resignation of the Bosnian government as well as the arrest of war profiteers. The outcome of the talks remains unclear, but the men seem unlikely to be moved by his call to "defeat the main enemy" and only then worry about "thieves, our secondary enemy," AFP reported. Finally, Hina quotes health officials in Bosnia as saying that hepatitis is spreading among children in particular in Sarajevo and Tuzla. -Patrick Moore UNEASY TRUCE BEGINS IN KRAJINA. Hina reports on 16 September that Croat and rebel Serb commanders the previous day agreed to a UN-brokered agreement to defuse hostilities in the Gospic area. The Croats will withdraw from the three villages they occupied the previous Sunday, and UNPROFOR troops will form a buffer between the two lines, occupying the villages in the process. It is not clear whether the Croats will achieve their main aim, namely a total cease-fire throughout the republic. As President Franjo Tudjman told Nedjeljna Dalmacija on 15 September, the purpose of the 12-September offensive was to end months of Serb shelling of nearby Croat towns. Hina notes that Serb forces fired some shells on 15 September in the Gospic area, but that Karlovac was now quiet. Meanwhile, Vjesnik of 16 September quotes the visiting Chinese foreign minister as calling for respect for all the prewar internal Yugoslav boundaries, including the territorial integrity of Croatia and of Bosnia-Herzegovina. -Patrick Moore BULATOVIC VISITS ALBANIA. Montenegrin President Momir Bulatovic and his Albanian counterpart Sali Berisha met in Tirana on 15 September for the highest level talks in 50 years between the neighboring countries. They agreed on some issues but not on two of the most contentious: the fate of Bosnian Muslims and of the Albanian majority in the Serbian province of Kosovo, Reuters reports. Rilindja Demokratike on 16 September quoted Bulatovic as saying that "there are problems and questions for which we have not found a common language yet, these are a reason to continue the talks. Bulatovic noted that the talks were an important step toward regional stabilty. Berisha said the two sides were considering ways of increasing cooperation and exchanges so long as these would not violate the UN embargo against rump Yugoslavia. According to Rilindja Demokratike he stated: "we said publicly that we will respect the embargo. Nevertheless," he continued, "Albania regrets that its actions harm the Republic of Montenegro," which he said was not responsible for events in Bosnia. Elsewhere Reuters reports that mediators Lord Owen and Thorvald Stoltenberg left Geneva for Macedonia and Turkey on 15 September. -Fabian Schmidt TEACHERS STRIKE IN ALBANIA. Zeri i Popullit on 16-September runs a report about a one-day strike by teachers. At the start of the new school year on 15-September in Tirana, about two third of the schools remained closed. The teachers demand a wage rise, the preparation of a working contract, and better working conditions. According to Zeri i Popullit the government has not yet responded to the demands. -Fabian Schmidt KOOIJMANS IN SLOVAKIA. Dutch Foreign Minister Peter Kooijmans met with various Slovak leaders on 15-September to discuss European unification, national minorities and bilateral cooperation, TASR reports. President Michal Kovac stressed Slovakia's interest in joining the EC, NATO and the WEU, while Kooijmans said "NATO is interested in widening its activities to Central and Eastern Europe" and that membership of the four Visegrad nations will be discussed at NATO's January 1994 summit. Concerning national minorities, Kovac said Slovakia "is ready to fulfill all demands of national minorities...if these demands will not be controversial to the security of the Slovak Republic;" all moves which signal a border change are "dangerous" for the country's sovereignty. In a joint press conference with his Slovak counterpart Jozef Moravcik, Kooijmans said his country "had doubted [Slovakia's] abilities to guarantee rights of national minorities," but talks with Slovak representatives showed the doubts might have been unfounded. -Sharon Fisher FILKUS QUITS SLOVAK RULING PARTY. In a 15 September interview with Slovak Radio, former ambassador to Austria Rudolf Filkus announced that he would quit the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia. Filkus resigned the diplomatic post two days earlier to prevent a dispute between President Michal Kovac and Premier Vladimir Meciar. He said "Meciar is not the MDS, and the MDS is not Meciar. But as long as Meciar is a member of the MDS, I do not want to be a member of the movement." Filkus also said "Slovak politics need peace, not political intrigues." Recent speculation suggests that Filkus will join the Social Democratic Party, but Filkus did not confirm his intentions. -Sharon Fisher SLOVAK UNEMPLOYMENT RISES. The Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs announced on 15 September that unemployment reached 13.53% by the end of August. The highest unemployment rate was in the district of Rimavska Sobota (23.4%) and the lowest was in Bratislava (4.62%). -Sharon Fisher CHINESE DEPUTY PREMIER VISITS HUNGARY. A Chinese economic delegation led by Deputy Premier Zou Jiahua ended on 15 September a three-day visit to Hungary, during which it held talks with Interior Minister Peter Boros, President Arpad Goncz, and Industry and Trade Minister Janos Latorcai. According to MTI, the visit was designed to expand trade and economic cooperation: bilateral trade exchanges, which had declined in recent years, have increased and are expected to reach $100 million this year, compared to between $55 and $60 million in 1992. In the past three years, Chinese firms have invested some $30 million in the Hungarian economy.--Alfred Reisch HUNGARIAN ECONOMIC BRIEFS. According to the Chairman of the National Statistical Office, Gyorgy Vukovits, Hungary's consumer's price index rose by 1.8% in August, bringing the annual inflation rate for 1993 to 22.3%. The rise was primarily due to an increase of the value-added tax, which resulted in foodstuff prices climbing 3.3% during the month of August and 30.6% in the past 12 months. A four-member household now needs 45,000 forint (about $500) a month to meet the minimum standard of living, compared to 17,000 forint in 1989. Hungary's National Labor Center announced on 15 September that the number of unemployed in August stood at 675,000,which is 30,000 less than in February and 2,000 less than in July; young people starting a career make up over 11% of the jobless and numbered 74,600, 6,100 more than in July. -Alfred Reisch HUNGARIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IN BUCHAREST. On 15 September Geza Jeszenszky, who began a five-day official visit to Romania, held two rounds of talks with his Romanian counterpart Teodor Melescanu. Radio Bucharest said that the two placed "special emphasis" on ways to boost bilateral economic relations-one of the few non-controversial topics on the visit's agenda. On the other hand, no progress was reported on such issues as collective rights for the Hungarian minority in Romania and the principle of inviolability of frontiers between the twor countries. According to Budapest, Melescanu handed over to the Hungarian side a collection of documents dealing with the 1956 Hungarian Revolution and the fate of Hungarian Premier Imre Nagy, who was kidnapped by Soviet forces and held captive in Romania until 1957. -Dan Ionescu and Alfred Reisch RALLY AGAINST CORRUPTION IN BUCHAREST. Radio Bucharest reported on 14 September that a rally was held in downtown Bucharest against alleged government tolerance of corrupt politicians. The rally, which was attended by 3,000 to 5,000 people, was staged by the Civic Alliance, a group belonging to the Democratic Convention of Romania. Civic Alliance Chairman Gabriel Andreescu accused the government of tolerating corrupt persons within its ranks. Romania's Parliament convened on 30 and 31 August in a special session to debate corruption at the top. But Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu rejected calls for the dismissal of ministers accused of abusing their powers. -Dan Ionescu LATEST ROUND OF RUSSIAN-ESTONIAN TALKS. On 14 and 15 September the 14th round of talks between Russian and Estonian delegations, headed by Vasillii Svirin and Estonian Defense Minister Juri Luik, were held in Moscow, BNS reports. No agreements were signed or initialed at the talks. Svirin said that Russia would not agree to pay compensations for damages since 1940, but only from 1992 when the Soviet army passed to Russian jurisdiction. He also said that Estonia had agreed not to apply to military pensioners and their families the articles of the aliens law depriving non-citizens of retirement pensions. Western agencies report that Luik said that the talks reached an impasse on Russian demands for aid in building housing for withdrawing officers. -Saulius Girnius ESTONIA PASSES AMENDED EDUCATION LAW. On 15 September the Estonian parliament adopted by a vote of 51 to 3 with 7 abstentions an amended law on education, BNS reports. It had been passed on 16 June, but President Lennar Meri sent it back for revisions, noting that there were inconsistencies in the text. The law stipulates that Estonian is the language of instruction in schools although some other language can be used in elementary schools. The article of the law that had created the greatest controversy was the phasing out from all state and municipal high schcols by the year 2000 of education in languages other than Estonian. -Saulius Girnius COUNCIL OF EUROPE DELEGATION IN LATVIA. On 15 September a delegation of experts from the Council of Europe, headed by its Secretariat's Director Hans Peter Furrer, held a press conference in Riga at which they discussed their 3-day visit that focused on the future Latvian citizenship law, the RFE/RL Latvian Service reports. On 13 September they met with some of the coalitions in the parliament and leaders of ethnic minority groups. On 14 and 15 they held consultations with three parliament commissions in which they stressed that the principles of human rights should be taken into account in drafting the citizenship law. Several of the smaller parliament parties have presented their drafts of the law, but the ruling coalition is expected to present its proposals only in October. -Saulius Girnius MOLDOVA CHALLENGES RUSSIA TO DISCIPLINE LEBED. In a note handed over and made public on 15-September, Moldova's Foreign Ministry protested to Russia over the election of Lt.-Gen. Aleksandr Lebed, commander of Russia's 14th Army in Moldova, to the "Dniester republic"'s Supreme Soviet. The note terms this action "an attempt by certain forces in Russia to recognize that pseudo-republic de facto... and a signal from the Russian side that it does not wish to withdraw its forces from Moldova." Recalling that Russia has thus far "offered no reply, taken no position" regarding Moldova's repeated protests over Lebed's "reckless actions," the Moldovan note asked the Russian side "to take all necessary measures to stop such destabilizing activities." -Vladimir Socor MOLDOVA HOSTS INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CONFLICT RESOLUTION. The Council of Europe, CSCE, Helsinki Citizens' Assembly, Soros Foundation, International Human Rights Law Group, and Gorbachev Foundation cosponsored and participated in a four-day conference on "Conflict resolution and civic consensus in multiethnic societies," dealing specifically with Moldova's problems. Held in the right-bank city of Bendery, controlled by the left-bank "Dniester republic," the conference gathered Western scholars, lawyers, human rights monitors, parliamentarians, and diplomats, as well as a large number of representatives of most of Moldova's political, civic, and ethnic organizations. Most participants subscribed to a joint document endorsing Moldova's territorial integrity, unconditional observance of human and ethnic rights according to international norms, nonuse of force to settle civic disputes, and other general principles. Left-bank Russians did not join the basic consensus on most issues while right-bank Russians did. The participants met with President Mircea Snegur on 13 September, Basapress reported. -Vladimir Socor [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Keith Bush and Jan B. de Weydenthal THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.RFE/RL Daily Report
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