|When in doubt, tell the truth. - Mark Twain|
No. 177, 15 September 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA PRESIDENTIAL COUNCIL CRITICIZES YELTSIN, GOVERNMENT. The Presidential Council meeting on 14 September agreed that the priority for President Boris Yeltsin was early parliamentary elections, Russian TV reported that evening. Some members of the council criticized Yeltsin for losing momentum and urged him to take resolute action to bring an end to the crisis of dual power which, Yeltsin said, was deepening. The council also offered criticism of the government for no longer acting in a concerted fashion but rather as a coalition government in which all the ministers were in dispute with each other. The council called on the parliament and the Congress of People's Deputies to adopt laws on the division of powers and on elections, thus echoing advice given to Yeltsin on 13 September by the Democratic Choice bloc. -Wendy Slater THE SECURITY COUNCIL SET TO EXPAND. An article in the 11 September edition of Segodnya says that the Security Council, a body whose status is described as "less than indeterminate," is in the process of overcoming its current crisis. The article says the council will create eight additional interdepartmental commissions to deal with military policy, economics, Russian federal relations, state secrets, strategic questions related to the defense industry, and other issues. These additional commissions would mean, according to the article, the considerable broadening of the understanding of the term "state security." It might be more accurate to say that the addition of these commissions would mean that the council's already broad understanding of state security (and its broad constitutional mandate) would be increasingly utilized in practice. -Suzanne Crow RYABOV SAYS RECONCILED CONSTITUTION POSSIBLE. Deputy Parliamentary Chairman Nikolai Ryabov, who heads the working group set up by President Yeltsin to finalize the draft constitution, told Russian journalists on 14 September that it should now be possible to reconcile the two main existing draft constitutions. One draft was worked out in July by the Constitutional Assembly and the other by the parliament's constitutional commission. On 14 September, the working group met to discuss problems related to the adoption of the constitution. On 15 September, the group is scheduled to send its recommendations to Yeltsin on the procedure and timetable for adopting the document On 14-September, a member of the group, Ivan Fedoseev, told ITAR-TASS that the final reconciled text of the constitution should be worked out by yet another working committee that would include representatives of the president, the parliament and Russia's republics and regions. -Vera Tolz FILATOV SAYS FIRST SESSION OF FEDERATION COUNCIL SET FOR 18 SEPTEMBER. Sergei Filatov, head of Yeltsin's administration, said on 13 September that the first session of the Federation Council was now set for 18 September, Russian TV reported. Filatov said that many local leaders had changed their minds about the council's formation after deputy chairman of the parliament Yurii Voronin had sent round a letter saying a federation council had already been set up in 1990. But, said Filatov, Russia was then part of the USSR and the federal treaty, for the implementation of which the new council will be meeting, did not exist. (The original council was set up to draw up the federal treaty.) Filatov said there was no question at present of the council becoming the upper chamber of the parliament. -Ann Sheehy SHAKHRAI ON A '"SMALL CONSTITUTION." Deputy Premier Sergei Shakhrai has put forward the idea of the adoption of a "small constitution," ITAR-TASS reported on 14-September. Shakhrai, who was addressing a meeting in Krasnoyarsk, the last stop on his tour of Siberian cities, said that the main topic of discussion had been relations between the center and the regions. Signs of separatism, as well as the desire of krais and oblasts to raise their status to that of republics, were causing concern to politicians who see their task as preserving the integrity of Russia. Shakhrai noted that in a small constitution the disputed sections on the national-state structure of Russia could be left out and the status quo preserved. -Ann Sheehy COMPROMISING MATERIAL ON POLITICAL FIGURES. On 13 September, General Prosecutor Valentin Stepankov was quoted by the "Parliamentary Hour" program on Russian TV as saying that the state security service had collected a great deal of compromising material on many of the present Russian leaders before they came to power. Stepankov said that "we have been keeping all of this information since [the putsch of] August 1991 but we will not make use of it, no matter how tense the political struggle becomes." Tons of compromising material stemmed from telephone taps. Stepankov also volunteered the opinion that a "third force," consisting of representatives of the industrial complex, would soon come to power. -Alexander Rahr WAS RUTSKOI'S SIGNATURE FORGED? IZVESTIYA'S OBSERVER ALEKSANDR SHALNEV ON 8-SEPTEMBER EXPRESSED DOUBTS CONCERNING THE TRUTH OF ALLEGATIONS THAT VICE-PRESIDENT ALEKSANDR RUTSKOI CORRUPTLY TRANSFERRED STATE FUNDS TO A PRIVATE SWISS BANK ACCOUNT. On 3-September journalist Viktor Yugin demonstrated on Russian TV how documents may be fabricated by means of computerized equipment and also suggested that Rutskoi's signature might have been forged. -Victor Yasmann WARNING OF STRIKE WAVE. The chairman of the Federation of Independent Trade Unions, Igor Klochkov, told a news conference on 10 September that millions of workers will go on strike during the coming weeks, an RFE/RL correspondent and ITAR-TASS reported. He said that defense industry workers plan to strike on 17-September; light industry and agricultural workers on 27 September; and teachers and workers in the machine-building industry will stop work on 15 October. Klochkov did not specify the grounds for strike action, other than the general economic situation, nor did he spell out the length of work stoppages anticipated. -Keith Bush CIS RUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN NUCLEAR DISPUTE HEATING UP AGAIN . . . An article in the 15-September issue of The Boston Globe cites an interview given to the Interfax news agency by Colonel General Evgenii Maslin, head of the Main Directorate for Nuclear Munitions. Maslin reportedly said that Ukraine now has "full control" over nuclear weapons, although he noted that Ukraine cannot launch them. According to Maslin strategic bomber and warhead maintenance crews have taken the Ukrainian oath of allegiance and Ukraine could create systems that would allow it to attain launch capability "within the next year or two." Maslin also claimed that Russia and Ukraine had agreed at the Massandra summit for the return of warheads to Russia, although he noted that no deadlines for implementation of the accord were set. However, the Globe does not note that the protocol signed at Massandra includes only warheads from those launchers covered under the START-1 treaty. Under Ukraine's interpretation of the treaty this would include only some of the SS-19 ICBMs in Ukraine, and none of the 46 SS-24 missiles. -John Lepingwell .-.-. AND SO ARE THE WARHEADS? Izvestiya and ITAR-TASS reported on 14 September that temperature and radiation levels were rising in a nuclear weapons storage site at the Pervomaisk ICBM base in Ukraine. According to the reports the temperature increase is slight, and may be caused by placing too many warheads in the shelter. (Some SS-19 ICBMs at the base are being dismantled, and the warheads stored.) A group of experts from the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy was flying to the site to survey the situation, although a Russian military spokesman noted that there was no danger of an accident. While the Russian side has been blaming Ukraine for not maintaining (or returning) the warheads, Ukrainian Deputy Defense Minister Ivan Bizhan told Ukrainian TV on 14 September that the problem was caused by Russian refusal to assist with maintenance. Bizhan noted that the Massandra agreements provided for Russian assistance in warhead maintenance and safety. -John Lepingwell KHASBULATOV PROPOSES ELECTED CIS PARLIAMENTARY ASSEMBLY. Speaking at the Pushchino scientific center of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow oblast on 14-September, the chairman of the Russian parliament Ruslan Khasbulatov proposed joint elections by CIS member-states to the CIS Interparliamentary Assembly, ITAR-TASS reported. Khasbulatov added that the joint parliament could form a common CIS government. At present the CIS Interparliamentary Assembly is made up of delegations from the parliaments of CIS member-states. The assembly, whose Council Khasbulatov chairs, has been one of the more effective CIS institutions to date and could have an important role to play in harmonizing the legislation of CIS member-states if a CIS economic union gets off the ground. -Ann Sheehy TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA SHEVARDNADZE RESIGNS . . . AND RECONSIDERS. In what appears to have been an exercise in brinkmanship, Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze tendered his resignation on 14 September after deputies argued that his proposal to impose a nation-wide state of emergency was tantamount to dictatorship, Western agencies reported. Shevardnadze rejected a unanimous vote by 149 deputies not to accept his resignation. After thousands of people rallied in Tbilisi to beg him to reconsider his decision, however, he stated that he would remain in office on condition that the parliament endorsed a two-month state of emergency and then suspended its legislative activities for three months, which it duly did. -Liz Fuller GEORGIAN-ABKHAZ PEACE TALKS POSTPONED. The Abkhaz peace talks scheduled to begin on 13-September under UN auspices have been postponed for at least two weeks because the Abkhaz delegation is not ready, a UN spokesman told RFE/RL on 10 September. On 12-September the Abkhaz Supreme Soviet informed the tripartite Russian-Georgian-Abkhaz commission monitoring compliance with the 27 July ceasefire agreement that Abkhazia would suspend its participation in the work of the commission unless the Georgian side stopped violating the agreement by supplying military hardware to local armed formations, ITAR-TASS reported. -Liz Fuller KAZAKHSTAN, KYRGYZSTAN FIGHT CHOLERA OUTBREAK. Officials in Kazakhstan are continuing to take drastic measures to contain an outbreak of cholera, although Almaty's chief medical officer told AFP that there are only eight registered cases of the disease in the capital and 16 in the entire country, the French news agency reported on 14 September. The official admitted that there might be many more cases in southern Kazakhstan; RL has learned from contacts in Kazakhstan that a major outbreak of the disease seems to be centered in Chimkent Oblast. Schools and farmers' markets remain closed, and street vendors are forbidden to sell produce. Kyrgyzstan, according to ITAR-TASS, is also taking strict measures against the disease although there have been no cases reported. -Bess Brown KYRGYZSTAN RAISES CUSTOMS DUTIES. Customs duties have been increased on almost all products imported into Kyrgyzstan or exported from the country, ITAR-TASS reported on 14 September. Duties on imported petroleum products have been set at 20% of their value, and those on exports of rare metals and animal skins at 70%. Technical equipment is free of customs duties, under the new government regulation. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE TUDJMAN AND IZETBEGOVIC SIGN CEASE-FIRE. Vjesnik and international media on 15-September report on the agreement reached in Geneva the previous day by the Croatian and Bosnian presidents. It calls for a temporary ceasefire immediately, a full-fledged truce on 18-September, an exchange of prisoners, the closing of camps, free passage for aid convoys, and setting up working groups to discuss possible Muslim access to the sea and other differences over the future map of Bosnia's three ethnically-based republics. The track record of such agreements in the Yugoslav conflict is not good, but Tudjman may be under pressure to make peace with the Muslims as he faces renewed war with Croatia's own Serb rebels. Meanwhile in Banja Luka, Politika reports on 15 September that mutineers are demanding to meet with Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic, who has so far refused to do so. The Guardian writes that Bosnian Serb military commander Ratko Mladic had no effect on the men, who are now openly challenging the authority of the Bosnian Serb government. Politika also runs an article in which Serbian ultranationalist Vojislav Seselj blames communists for the soldiers' revolt against profiteers and poor living conditions. -Patrick Moore SERBS DOWN CROATIAN MIG. The BBC's Croatian Service on 14 September reported that Croatian Serb rebels shot down one of four MiG-21s that took off from Zagreb to knock out Serb missile-launching sites. The four planes belonged to the former Yugoslav air force and were taken over by Croatia in 1991. Meanwhile, the Croatian authorities accepted a UN-brokered cease-fire for the entire republic, but the Serbs are unlikely to accept unless the Croats evacuate the villages near Gospic that they occupied on 12 September. Zagreb, in fact, has become a beehive of diplomatic activity, and Vjesnik of 15 September reports on President Franjo Tudjman's meetings with the foreign ministers of both Russia and China, as well as Croatian Foreign Minister Mate Granic's discussions with foreign diplomats. -Patrick Moore SANCTIONS BLAMED FOR HEALTH CRISIS IN YUGOSLAVIA. Over the past week, Radio and TV Serbia have extensively reported on the current health situation in Serbia and Montenegro. The director of Serbia's state-run petroleum industry said on 11 January that the country does not have enough oil to heat homes sufficiently in the winter months and predicted that apartments will not be heated above 5¡ C. Other officials predict the closing of many factories, and health officials fear epidemics. Officials point out that the country's dependence on medicine and diagnostic equipment from abroad, now impeded by international sanctions, is largely to blame for the alarming situation. State-owned pharmacies are empty and citizens are complaining that private pharmacies sell items at inflated prices. The World Health Organization recently warned the UN Sanctions Committee about the disastrous health situation and urged them to take immediate measures such as lifting the freeze of Yugoslav assets in foreign banks in order that Yugoslav pharmaceutical firms can purchase raw materials for medicine and equipment. WHO has asked donor countries to allocate $43 million for relief, but only about 11% of the money has actually been collected. Nearly 50% of Belgrade's school-aged children are anemic and some 26% of children in Nis are undernourished, while 17% of army recruits in Vojvodina have been rejected for service because of undernourishment. -Milan Andrejevich FOOD RATIONING INTRODUCED IN SERBIA. On 13-14 September Belgrade media also gave extensive coverage to the government's distribution of food and household rationing coupons in an effort to counter the effects of 16 months of international sanctions. Most reports underscore that the measures were last introduced during World War II and lasted until the mid-1950's. The measure will affect Serbia's population of 10-million and about 600,000 refugees from Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. According to Serbia's Red Cross about 90% of the population are not able to meet their basic needs. Under the Serbian government's program, every household will be entitled to 6 kilograms of flour, 500 grams of sugar, 250-grams of salt, three-fourths liter of cooking oil, and 500 grams of laundry detergent per month. The government issued a statement on 13-September that said that nearly all coupons have been distributed and that rationing might be extended to cover other basic food and household items in the near future. -Milan Andrejevich BULATOVIC VISITS ALBANIA. Montenegrin President Momir Bulatovic is slated to visit his Albanian counterpart, Sali Berisha, on 15 September, Borba reports. The talks will also involve a number of other top officials and are expected to cover cooperation and solving political differences and problems. The president of the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo, Ibrahim Rugova, said for his part that he does not "expect anything spectacular." Rilindja called the invitation a "sign of Albania's good will," while Aleanca quotes Montenegrin papers as saying that it shows "the beginning of a new climate between what is left from the old Yugoslavia and Albania." The tensions between rump Yugoslavia and Albania remain high. In the last border incident on 7 September, Yugoslav soldiers killed an Albanian peasant and wounded another, Rilindja reported the next day. Elsewhere, the UN Security Council agreed on 12 September on relief for Albania, which lost $300-400 million by enforcing the sanctions against rump Yugoslavia. -Fabian Schmidt DEMOCRATS WIN IN LOCAL ALBANIAN ELECTIONS. The 12 September results from the eastern district of Dibra stand in sharp contrast to the nationwide local elections of July 1992, when the Socialists made impressive gains in the country's first democratic local elections and took just 2% of the votes less than the ruling Democrats. In the current vote in two communes, the Democratic candidates gained the absolute majority by taking 61 and 84% of the votes, respectively. -Fabian Schmidt and Louis Zanga AIRBUS CRASHES IN WARSAW. A German Lufthansa airbus with 70 passengers and crew on board crashed on landing in heavy rain and strong winds at Okecie Airport on 15 September, PAP reports. A copilot and a passenger were killed; 45 others were injured. The flight originated in Frankfurt. The plane apparently failed to come to a halt after landing, collided with an earthen embankment at the end of the runway, and burst into flames. Emergency fire and ambulance services responded rapidly. There were initial Western press reports of heavy casualties, but these proved false. Polish Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka ordered an official government investigation. -Louisa Vinton WALESA WRITES NATO. In letters to the heads of government of all NATO countries and NATO Secretary-General Manfred Woerner, Polish President Lech Walesa presented Poland's reasons for seeking membership in the alliance, PAP reports. "The significance of the Alliance in the contemporary world extends beyond the boundaries of the member countries, which is why Poland's stance on the issue should be presented," the president wrote. No other details of the letter were made public in the communique released by the president's press office on 14 September. -Louisa Vinton BALCEROWICZ ON THE POLISH ELECTIONS. Appearing at a press conference organized by the Liberal Democratic Congress (KLD) on 14 September, former Finance Minister and Deputy Prime Minister Leszek Balcerowicz said that the election programs of opposition parties could be divided into two groups. The first, articulated by the Confederation for an Independent Poland and the Polish Peasant Party, amounted to "programs proposing the violent destruction of the foundations for economic growth." The second, proposed by the Democratic Left Alliance and the Union of Labor, amounted to "programs of creeping destruction." Balcerowicz observed that political parties often concealed destructive economic intentions behind seemingly rational slogans, such as "economic stimulus," "state intervention," and "protection of the domestic market." He charged many parties with attempting to destroy the public's faith in market reforms. Balcerowicz praised both the KLD and the Democratic Union, however, as parties that "play fair" and have realistic goals, PAP reports. -Louisa Vinton KOOIJMANS IN PRAGUE, BRATISLAVA. Dutch Foreign Minister Pieter Hendrik Kooijmans, who is paying official visits to the Czech Republic and Slovakia, held talks with President Vaclav Havel, Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus, and his counterpart Josef Zieleniec in Prague, Radio Prague reports on 14 September. Among the issues discussed were the role of small states in the European integration process and the changing international role of Germany. Kooijmans made it clear that the Netherlands supports the Czech Republic's eventual admission to the EC and to NATO. He declined to suggest a timetable, however, arguing that "a discussion of concrete dates raises concrete expectations." On 15-September the Dutch foreign minister is scheduled to meet with Slovak President Michal Kovac, Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar, and Foreign Minister Jozef Moravcik in Bratislava. -Sharon Fisher and Jan Obrman SLOVAK FOREIGN CURRENCY RESERVES RISE. In a 14 September government press conference, Finance Minister Julius Toth said that the Slovak National Bank's recent sale of $270 million worth of bonds in London has helped to increase the bank's foreign currency reserves to $570 million, TASR reports. Meanwhile, Slovak National Bank Chairman Vladimir Masar, along with other representatives of Slovak financial and banking institutions returned on 14 September from a one-week visit to Canada, where they met with representatives of the Bank of Canada, the Canadian Finance Ministry, and insurance firms. -Sharon Fisher HUNGARIAN-IMF AGREEMENT. Finance Minister Ivan Szabo said that negotiators are awaiting final approval by the IMF's governing board on a loan agreement worked out in Budapest, MTI reports. According to the plan, Hungary's 1994 budget deficit would be 290-billion forint ($3 billion), or 5.6% of the planned GDP. For 1993 that percentage will be about 7%. The agreement would be effective till the end of 1994, and Hungary could receive a $200-million IMF loan in 1993. -Karoly Okolicsanyi DEMONSTRATION IN BUDAPEST AGAINST AGRICULTURAL POLICY. About 20,000 people demonstrated in front of the parliament building, calling attention to the financial difficulties in Hungarian agriculture, MTI reports. The demonstrators want parliament to spend more time on agriculture matters. The action was supported by the Hungarian Socialist and Free Democratic parties and by the largest trade union. Agriculture, one of the most dynamic sectors during the 1970s and 1980s, is suffering drastic cutbacks in government subsidies, and uncertainties caused by the land compensation laws leading to the break up of many agricultural cooperatives. -Karoly Okolicsanyi HUNGARIAN FOREIGN MINISTER TO BUCHAREST. Geza Jeszenszky starts a visit to Romania on 15 September. He is scheduled to meet officials in Bucharest and go to Transylvania, where most of Romania's Hungarian minority lives. In a statement released through Rompres on 14 September, Jeszenszky expressed hopes that the visit would bring clarification in the two countries' stance on a series of bilateral and international issues. Romanian Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu stressed in an interview with MTI that dialogue is the only way to solve existing bilateral problems. He added that he is ready to discuss all controversial issues with his Hungarian counterpart. In a lengthy interview in the 14 September issue of the Hungarian daily Nepszabadsag, Melescanu said "difficult, hard bargaining" was to be expected during the talks. Romania remained determined to have a clause on the inviolability of the borders included in the bilateral state treaty being negotiated and not to allow the reopening of the Hungarian consulate in Cluj, Transylvania, closed in 1989. -Dan Ionescu and Alfred Reisch ROMANIAN PARLIAMENT ENDS DEBATE ON INTELLIGENCE SERVICE. On 14 September Radio Bucharest broadcast live for a second day a parliamentary debate on the activities of the Romanian Intelligence Service (RIS). Service chief Virgil Magureanu reportedly gave evasive answers to questions by deputies regarding crimes committed by the former communist secret police, the killings during the December 1989 revolt , and repeated political violence in 1990-91. But he dismissed accusations that his organization is little more than the Securitate under a new name. Magureanu admitted nevertheless that many RIS officers had belonged to the Securitate. He dwelt upon the case of Col. Aurel Rogojan, a former top Securitate official, describing the decision to keep him as "unwise." Romania's main opposition coalition, the Democratic Convention, asked President Ion Iliescu to remove Magureanu. -Dan Ionescu FRENCH SUPPORT FOR BULGARIAN ENTRY INTO THE EC. On a visit to Bulgaria, France's Minister of European Affairs, Alain Lamassoure, told BTA that his country, both unilaterally and in its capacity as member of the European Community is firmly committed to support Bulgaria. In an apparent reference to the prudence of Sofia's Balkan diplomacy, Lamassoure told Foreign Minister Stanislav Daskalov that Bulgaria has earned a place in all European structures. In an interview with Pari on 15 September, he said the French position is that every Central and East European state must be treated equally regarding its entry into the EC, and that the criteria for joining the community are not linked to geographic or other discriminatory requirements. -Kjell Engelbrekt UKRAINE CONSIDERS RETURN TO ECONOMIC PLAN. A meeting organized by the Cabinet of Ministers on 14 September proposed the reintroduction of state planning of economic and social development, Radio Ukraine reports. The meeting, led by Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma, examined the idea of "state regulation of economic and social processes" in view of the economic crisis and ongoing drop in production levels. At the same time, it was stressed that such a move is not tantamount to a return to "directive planning" and did not signify abandonment of the government's commitment to market reforms. -Roman Solchanyk UKRAINE MAY CUT GAS TO ENTERPRISES. Oleh Savatyuk, the deputy chairman of the Ukrainian state corporation Ukrgaz, told an RFE/RL correspondent on 14 September that the government is considering cutting gas supplies to chemical and metallurgical enterprises that have not paid their bills. Enterprises were warned a week ago that this would be the consequence of nonpayment. Russia is still supplying Ukraine with gas, but its hard line on Ukraine's debt has prompted the Kiev government to take a similar attitude towards its own enterprises. -Ustina Markus LATVIAN RUBLE TO BE TAKEN OUT OF CIRCULATION. On 14 September Bank of Latvia president Einars Repse announced that from 18 October the Latvian ruble will no longer be accepted in payment for goods and services, and the lats will be the sole currency, Diena reports. The Bank of Latvia and other banks will, however, continue to exchange Latvian rubles for lats in unrestricted quantities after that day. -Saulius Girnius SLEZEVICIUS ADDRESSES SEIMAS. On 14 September Lithuanian Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius gave a speech at the parliament, broadcast live by Radio Lithuania, outlining the state of the republic's economy. He said that the major achievement of his administration is the successful curbing of inflation that has enabled pensions and wages, especially of health and education workers, to be increased more than the cost of living since June. He noted that in the first half of the year Lithuania had a favorable trade balance of 1,081 million litas. Privatization is continuing successfully; 3,800 enterprises (68% of total number, but with only 23.8% of capital) have been privatized, but hard-currency sales for are proceeding very slowly. Lithuania has already filled 80% of its fuel reserves for the winter and will continue to subsidize home heating heavily. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Keith Bush and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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