|Science and art belong to the whole world, and before them vanish the barriers of nationality. - Goethe|
No. 176, 14 September 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA WHO'S RUNNING THE SECURITY COUNCIL? THE RUSSIAN SECURITY COUNCIL, ONCE CONSIDERED TO BE AN IMPORTANT COORDINATING BODY, APPEARS TO BE FLOUNDERING. According to an article by Pavel Felgengauer published in Segodnya on 11 September, the acting secretary, Marshal Evgenii Shaposhnikov, did indeed request that he be assigned to New Zealand as ambassador, but after being offered the post was persuaded by President Yeltsin not to take it. Thus, Shaposhnikov is apparently still acting secretary of the council, since Yeltsin has not formally accepted his resignation. Felgengauer also reports that the planned formation of up to 8 committees within the security council is an attempt to "depoliticize" the council by assigning it functional responsibilities. This proliferation of committees, however, may impede the council in its primary function, that of coordinating policy between the various ministries and executive branch components. -John Lepingwell TATARSTAN TO BE OBSERVER IN FEDERATION COUNCIL. At present Tatarstan is intending to confine itself to the role of observer in the future Federation Council, Radio Rossii reported on 12 September. Rafael Khakimov, an adviser to Tatarstan president Mintimer Shaimiev, said that Tatarstan could be a founding member only if the Russian leadership recognized Tatarstan's declaration of sovereignty and the article in the Tatarstan constitution stating that the republic is an associate member of the Russian Federation. Russia's refusal to accord this recognition is still stalling negotiations on a Russian-Tatarstan treaty which, it had been stated earlier, might be signed at the end of July. -Ann Sheehy INGUSHETIA TO HOLD REFERENDUM ON SECESSION. The Congress of the Peoples of Ingushetia, which met on 11 September, decided to hold a referendum on whether Ingushetia should remain part of Russia in the light of Russia's failure to ensure the return of Ingush refugees to the Prigorodnyi raion of North Ossetia, Ekho Moskvy reported. The referendum, which was urged by Ingush president Ruslan Aushev, is likely to take place in October or November. According to a highly-placed official of Russia's State Committee for the Affairs of the Federation and Ethnic Relations, who preferred to remain anonymous, the majority of the population will vote against secession since it would lead to the disruption of virtually all ties with Russia and Ingushetia would then have no choice but to prepare for war with North Ossetia. Aleksandr Khodov, the secretary of the North Ossetian Security Council, described the Congress's decision as blackmail, Ekho Moskvy reported on 13 September. -Ann Sheehy RUBLE EXCHANGE RATE PASSES 1000 AGAIN. The ruble-dollar exchange rate rose from 997 to 1,006 on the Moscow Interbank Currency Exchange on 13-September, Russian and Western agencies reported. Finance Minister Boris Fedorov continues to express confidence that the ruble rate can hold at its present level of around 1000 if present economic policies are maintained. Several observers, however, note that the Russian Central Bank has been selling significant amounts of dollars recently to support the ruble and, at its current level of intervention, will run out of reserves in a couple of months. The chief factor undermining economic stabilization at the moment is the expansion of credits to agriculture, according to the government's Center for Economic Reforms as reported in Delovoi mir and Segodnya. -Erik Whitlock PRESIDENTIAL COUNCIL TO MEET. President Yeltsin has called a session of his Presidential Council to meet today, 14 September, for a strategy discussion expected to include the formation of the Federation Council and the possibility of early elections. Yeltsin's threat to call early parliamentary elections is being resisted by the Russian parliament and its speaker, Ruslan Khasbulatov. Journalist Marina Shakina, writing in the latest issue of Novoye vremya (No. 37), predicts that the earliest parliamentary elections are likely to be held is next spring but she goes so far as to hazard that both Yeltsin and the Russian parliament will see out their allotted terms in office. -Elizabeth Teague KHASBULATOV WARNS AGAINST MAFIA INFLUENCE. Interviewed by Radio Liberty's Russian Service on 11 September, parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov said one result of early parliamentary elections could be the election of representatives of the criminal gangs which, he said, are flourishing at the regional level. Khasbulatov has an ax to grind, but the leader of the Republican Party, Vladimir Lysenko, also ruled out early elections in an interview with Radio Liberty on 6 September. Lysenko said that, in the present climate, where charges of corruption are flying in all directions, neither side in the power struggle will dare to hold elections because both fear that if they lose they will land up, as Bukharin once put it, not in opposition but in jail. -Elizabeth Teague COUP TRIAL POSTPONED AGAIN. The trial of 12 men accused of treason for their part in the failed 1991 coup has been postponed yet again, ITAR-TASS reported on 13 September. The hearing, due to resume on 14-September, has been put off for one week because of the continuing illness of one of the defense lawyers. -Wendy Slater DEMOCRATS URGE YELTSIN TO ACCELERATE CONSTITUTIONAL REFORMS. In an open letter to President Boris Yeltsin, reported by ITAR-TASS on 13-September, the Democratic Choice bloc, which unites many pro-reform parties and organizations, urged the president to renew the constitutional process and the work of the constitutional assembly. Democratic Choice called for the promulgation of a temporary constitutional act together with an election law because, it said, a pre-election campaign had in effect already begun without the legal basis for it, thus undermining authority and benefiting only extremist forces. It criticized Yeltsin for staking everything on the formation of the Federation Council and thus neglecting the constitutional reform process. Democratic Choice warned that economic and political reform was being stalled while the extreme opposition bloc, the National Salvation Front, was openly colluding with the conservative segment of the parliament. -Wendy Slater RUTSKOI SAYS YELTSIN NOT IRREPLACEABLE. Temporarily suspended Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi said during his visit to the military conversion exhibition in Nizhnii Novgorod that he cannot bear to hear people saying that President Yeltsin is irreplaceable, ITAR-TASS reported on 11 September. Rutskoi said he disagrees with the "immoral" policy of Yeltsin, and asserted that the policies of Yeltsin and Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev have "thrown Russia out of the arms sales market." Rutskoi flew to Nizhnii Novgorod on a regular commercial flight at the invitation of Boris Nemtsov, the governor of the region. -Alexander Rahr NATIONALIST WRITER CALLS FOR YELTSIN'S RESIGNATION. The well-known nationalist writer Anatolii Salutskii suggested in an article in Pravda on 14-September that President Yeltsin should resign in dignity and hand over his responsibilities to a "collective leadership." Salutskii proposed that the Congress of People's Deputies should change the Constitution to provide for this. Salutskii compared the present situation with that of February 1917, asserting that Yeltsin faces similar problems as Tsar Nicholas II who resigned in order to prevent further bloodshed. He stated that the present article in the Constitution which automatically elevates Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi to the country's top post, bears the danger of a new confrontation. According to Salutskii, Rutskoi will conduct a massive purge in the Kremlin if he comes to power. -Alexander Rahr CIS KHASBULATOV ON CIS REINTEGRATION. Parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov told Den (5-11 September) that he expects the resurrection of a new kind of Soviet empire, and called for the development of a new common state ideology based on Russian traditions. He said that the Interparliamentary Assembly is pursuing that goal. Khasbulatov claimed, that as head of the Interparliamentary Assembly, he is the highest ranking politician in the CIS. He stated that he had always been against the demise of the Soviet Union and that President Boris Yeltsin and his team initiated the break-up while Khasbulatov was away in South Korea. The Speaker accused the Yeltsin administration of resisting the course of reintegration within the CIS. He stated that he has prepared, and will soon present to parliament, new legal drafts aimed at limiting the powers of the president. -Alexander Rahr KRAVCHUK CALLS FOR REALISTIC APPROACH ON BLACK SEA FLEET. President Leonid Kravchuk has defended his approach to the issues of the Black Sea Fleet and Sevastopol in an interview given on 9-September to the independent new Ukrainian news agency UNIAR. It was shown on Ukrainian Television on 13-September. Kravchuk argued for political realism and compromise. At present, he said, although the Black Sea Fleet was under joint Russian and Ukrainian commanders, the majority of the officers were waiting to raise Russian flags at the first opportunity. An overwhelming majority of Crimea's population-78%-is Russian and there is no getting away from the fact that it "will gravitate towards Russia." If there is a conflict over the Fleet and Crimea, Ukraine is in no position to win it, and stands to lose both the Fleet and the peninsula. The alternatives are either confrontation with Russia and the likelihood of Ukraine's losing what it has, or a deal upholding a variant of the status quo. Kravchuk has been under heavy fire for the position which he took at the recent Russian-Ukrainian summit in Massandra. -Bohdan Nahaylo TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA KARABAKH CEASEFIRE EXTENDED, SUMMIT AGREED. Agreement was reached at the talks in Moscow on 13 September between representatives of Azerbaijan and Nagorno-Karabakh to extend the existing ceasefire until 5 October, Radio Moscow reported on 14-September, and also on a bilateral summit which will probably be attended by Azerbaijani parliament chairman Geidar Aliev and Nagorno-Karabakh parliament chairman Karen Baburyan. -Liz Fuller SHEVARDNADZE ISSUES ULTIMATUM TO REBELS. Addressing a meeting in Kutaisi on 12-September, Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze warned that supporters of ousted president Zviad Gamsakhurdia have one month to lay down their arms or be liquidated, Reuters reported quoting Radio Tbilisi. Shevardnadze also stated that a nation-wide state of emergency, entailing a ban on demonstrations and possibly media censorship, will be imposed if approved by the parliament majority faction. In partial confirmation of a Krasnaya zvezda report of 10 September that up to one-third of the troops withdrawn from Abkhazia have gone over to Gamsakhurdia's side, Shevardnadze alleged that the rebels obtain the greater part of their weapons "through official structures." -Liz Fuller US AID TO TAJIKISTAN LINKED TO REFORM. US Special Ambassador Strobe Talbott signed an agreement in Dushanbe on 13 September on speeding up US aid to Tajikistan, but told Tajik officials that the amount of US aid will depend on their willingness to institute economic and political reforms and observe human rights standards, ITAR-TASS reported. Talbott, on a tour of several former Soviet republics, earlier promised US help to Kyrgyzstan, praising that country's advances toward Western-style democracy. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CROAT-SERB SITUATION REMAINS TENSE. Hina reports that President Franjo Tudjman on 13 September chaired yet another session of Croatia's supreme defense council, but did not elaborate. Serb artillery continued to shell the Gospic and Karlovac areas, and that of Sisak as well, but no new rocket attacks were reported. The BBC noted that there is a possibility of the Serbs getting reinforcements from Bosnia and Serbia, and suggested that Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic might be trying to defuse the continuing Banja Luka mutiny by urging soldiers there to leave to fight in Croatia. Both Serbs and Croats have agreed to consider UN proposals for a cease-fire, but the Serbs are unlikely to agree unless the Croats evacuate the villages they took on 12 September. The Croats now say they are willing to do so but only if the UN, not the Serbs, takes control. Finally, a Reuters dispatch from Zagreb suggests that the man-in-the-street is eager to take back Serb-held lands because the Serbs themselves "grabbed what they wanted and-.-.-. the world has done nothing about it," but warns that "Franjo [Tudjman] shouldn't have started anything if he's not ready to fight to the bitter end." -Patrick Moore BOSNIAN UPDATE. International media have centered their attention on the Banja Luka mutiny to the extent that they have given Bosnia any coverage at all. Politika on 14 September reports on Gen. Ratko Mladic's apparently unsuccessful appeal to the troops the previous day to withdraw their tanks, and Karadzic is expected to arrive there soon. That Belgrade daily also reports that the mutineers are tough and mean business in their quest to improve the lot of soldiers' families and crack down on profiteers. Meanwhile, President Alija Izetbegovic is slated to wrap up a trip that has taken him to Turkey, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait, and meet on 14 September with Tudjman in Geneva. Finally, Reuters reports that the World Court on 13 September "said it was not satisfied [that Serbia and Bosnia] had done all they could to prevent genocide in Bosnia" and ordered them to do all in their power to do so. -Patrick Moore DANUBE BLOCKADE CONTINUES. Tanjug reports that on the evening of 13 September an unidentified vessel crashed through a blockade on the Danube imposed by two Serbian nationalist groups, White Rose and New Byzantium to protest the UN-imposed sanctions against rump Yugoslavia. The vessel, whose name was painted over and which showed no flag or any other identifying marks, failed to respond to warning shots as it sailed past the blockade, pulling four to six barges and reportedly sinking two vessels belonging to rump Yugoslavia. The blockade was imposed on 2-September when the two nationalist groups used eight barges and numerous small boats to prevent five Ukrainian ships from transporting their cargo to Austria and Hungary, Reuters reports. The two groups have vowed to continue their protest until removed by force, and they have threatened to escalate their action by blocking land routes to Hungary and Macedonia. -Stan Markotich ALBANIAN PARTIES MEET IN KOSOVO. A "minisummit" of 11 ethnic Albanian political parties took place at an unspecified recent date, Borba reports on 14-September. The session seems to constitute a revival of the "coordinating committee of all [ex-Yugoslav] Albanian political parties, which was formed as the Albanian [shadow] government . . . two years ago." This governing body prepared for presidential and parliamentary elections in May 1992 and then dissolved itself in anticipation that the new parliament would soon meet. In fact the parliament never met because the Serbian police prevented it from doing so. Since then the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo has been headed by Ibrahim Rugova, whose election as president is not recognized by the Serbian authorities, the exile government of Prime Minister Bujar Bukoshi in Stuttgart, and several ministers, of whom five also live abroad. According to Borba, Albanian commentators in Kosovo see the meeting as inaugurating a new political constellation, which includes more parties than it did in 1992, saying: "Rugova has no more opponents on the coordinating committee any more, neither on the right nor on the left." -Fabian Schmidt SLOVAK AMBASSADOR TO AUSTRIA RESIGNS. Following a meeting with President Michal Kovac and Foreign Minister Jozef Moravcik, Rudolf Filkus announced on 13-September that he will resign from his post. This action follows Premier Vladimir Meciar's request of three weeks ago that the president sack Filkus because he was allegedly damaging Slovakia's image abroad. Filkus said he decided to resign since "it is not necessary to increase the tension between the president and the premier," TASR reports. Filkus also mentioned that it is "very interesting that the premier himself-.-.-. decided to fire [him], since according to the Slovak Constitution, only the president is allowed to appoint and fire ambassadors." Concerning his future plans, Filkus said he would like to resume work as an economist, but he is not yet sure whether or not he will remain a member of the Movement of a Democratic Slovakia. -Sharon Fisher MECIAR ON "CAMPAIGN AGAINST SLOVAKIA." Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar said in an interview with Radio Vychod on 13 September that prior to reports of his recent statements, which some Romany organizations found offensive, as well as the physical attack against Rabbi Baruch Mayers in Bratislava, officials had uncovered a campaign designed to harm Slovakia's image abroad. He pointed out that he was warned some time ago to "expect yet another round of media attacks." The prime minister made it clear that his decision to bring charges against Karel Hirman, the CTK correspondent who covered his speech in Spisska Nova Ves, was based on the intention to protect Slovakia, rather than himself. Deputy General Prosecutor Ludovit Krupa said in an interview with CTK on 13 September that Hirman could face up to two years in prison if found guilty of "defamation." According to TASR of 13 September, Hirman is charged with slander and causing "serious damage to the professional career" of Meciar. Lubomir Lintner, chief news editor of Slovak Radio, defended Hirman in a commentary broadcast by the station on 13-September. He said that his report of Meciar's statements was accurate and that the job of a reporter is to give the essence of a speech, rather than its full text. Lintner praised CTK as an important source for Slovak Radio and warned that the "quest for enemies" is becoming a symptom in Slovak politics. -Sharon Fisher and Jan Obrman ADVISORY BOARD FOR PROBLEMS OF BULGARIAN GYPSIES. The President's Office is proposing that the government set up an advisory board that could deal comprehensively with the many difficulties currently faced by Bulgaria's Roma population, presidential advisor on ethnic issues Mihail Ivanov told a press briefing on 13 September. BTA quotes Ivanov that the board would organize and coordinate research projects but also help formulate legislation that pertain to Gypsies. He pointed out that no other group has been suffering more than the Roma as a result of economic dislocation and unemployment, problems he said are aggravated by widespread lack of education. In the meantime, reports say teaching of the Gypsy language has begun in several schools. A Romany language faculty is being set up in the city of Shumen. -Kjell Engelbrekt HUNGARIAN BANK CORRUPTION INVESTIGATIONS UNDER WAY. According to the office of Hungary's chief prosecutor, bank corruption-related investigations are under way in 42-cases, charges are being filed in 4 cases, and 34 cases are before the courts. Four cases are under investigation in Budapest, 9 each in Bekes and Komarom-Esztergom Counties, while Borsod County leads with 18 court cases. In many instances, bank managers and employees are charged with fraud and accepting bribes in exchange for granting credits on the basis of nonexistent collateral, with the damage amounting to some 16-18 billion-possibly as high as 20 billion-forint ($210 million). -Alfred Reisch WALESA REIGNITES SECRET POLICE CONTROVERSY. The abrupt dismissal of Gdansk State Security Office chief Adam Hodysz on 3 September, apparently on the urging of President Lech Walesa, has sparked new controversy in Poland on the eve of the parliamentary elections. Hodysz was the only member of the communist security police known to have collaborated with the Solidarity movement in the 1980s. He served four years in prison after being unmasked in 1983. No official explanation was given for his dismissal. In an interview on 10 September, Walesa acknowledged pressing the State Security Office to fire Hodysz for alleged disloyalty. Walesa also implied that Solidarity activists who maintained contacts with Hodysz in the 1980s had actually been collaborating with the secret police. Media reports have suggested that the dismissal was motivated by Hodysz's determination to follow the normal chain of command rather than kowtow to the president's office. Walesa's move has drawn protests from former Solidarity activists. Several politicians have also pointed to alleged unsavory links between the president's office and the police and security forces. Andrzej Olechowski, the prime minister candidate for Walesa's Nonparty Reform Bloc, argued on 13 September that the press is blowing the issue out of proportion. -Louisa Vinton POLAND, CHINA GRANT MFN STATUS. Poland and China granted each other most-favored-nation trade status on 13 September, Polish TV reports. A new trade agreement signed in Warsaw will also increase Polish exports to China and help reduce Poland's trade deficit. Polish-Chinese trade dropped off dramatically when hard-currency accounting was introduced in 1990. -Louisa Vinton POLAND'S INTERWAR PRESIDENT REBURIED. The remains of the third president of the interwar Polish Republic, Ignacy Moscicki, were reburied in Warsaw on 13 September, PAP reports. President Lech Walesa attended the ceremonies. Moscicki, a supporter of Marshal Jozef Pilsudski, served as president from the May coup d'etat in 1926 until the German and Soviet invasion in 1939, when he was interned in Romania and ceded power to a successor. Moscicki's remains were returned to Poland from Switzerland, where he died in exile in 1946. Similar ceremonies are planned for Poland's war-time commander in chief and prime minister, General Wladyslaw Sikorski, on 17 September. -Louisa Vinton ROMANIAN INTELLIGENCE CHIEF REPORTS TO PARLIAMENT. Addressing a joint session of parliament, Virgil Magureanu, chief of the Romanian Intelligence Service, complained that the RIS is unjustly harassed by the press and some exiles who, he said, are serving foreign interests, an RFE/RL correspondent and Radio Bucharest (which carried the speech live) reported on 13 September. Magureanu said the RIS operates according to democratic standards but suffered image problems from the legacy of the communist-era Securitate. Nearly half of its personnel, he said, had no links whatever to the former secret service. (In the debate that followed, however, an opposition deputy said that 62% of the RIS personnel had been in the Securitate). Magureanu claimed that the denigration campaign is deliberately undermining Romania's national interests and warned that in the present difficult economic situation some people are ready to sell state secrets at what he said is a very low price. He also alleged that there exists an unspecified number of illegal Romanian parallel secret services (whose identity he did not disclose) active in the country. -Michael Shafir ILIESCU: WEST HAS BUILT A NEW BARRIER IN EUROPE. Apparently hinting at obstacles his country has been facing in joining the European Community and otherwise becoming integrated into postcommunist Europe, as well as difficulties in obtaining Western loans, Romanian President Ion Iliescu says the West has erected a new barrier against the former communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The barrier, he says, is discriminatory and negatively affects attempts by the former communist countries to join European structures. Iliescu spoke at a joint press conference in Bucharest on 13 September with Alain Lamassoure, French Minister for European Affairs, with whom he conducted talks on the same day, an RFE/RL correspondent reports. Iliescu said if the West continues in its "attitude of arrogance," the gap between rich and poor will grow in Europe. -Michael Shafir LEBED WINS AGAIN. Lt. Gen. Aleksandr Lebed, commander of Russia's 14th Army in Moldova, won 88% of the votes in a four-way race on 13 September for a seat in the "Dniester republic" supreme soviet, Basapress reports from Tiraspol. Ignoring Moldovan law, Lebed had pointed out during his campaign that Russian Federation citizens enjoy full political rights in Transdniester. Lebed had publicly announced his electoral bid while in Moscow for business at the Defense Ministry on 24 August, and in a separate statement published on that date, he claimed to have been given political functions in Moldova in addition to his military role. No Russian civilian or military authority is known to have tried to restrain him from joining the Transdniester body. Following the announcement of the election result, Lebed declared that he is not aware of plans to withdraw the 14th Army from Moldova, adding that "the Army will stay here as long as necessary to ensure stability and peace." Moldova's Defense Ministry said in a statement that Lebed "clearly did not do this on his own initiative, but at someone's behest," Reuters reports. Moldovan Parliament Vice-Chairman Victor Puscasu told Chisinau media that Lebed's step is "an abnormal phenomenon without precedent in world practice," and wondered whether Lebed was supposed to represent Russia's Defense Ministry or the Russian civilian government as a deputy in Tiraspol. Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev called off with one day's notice a "working visit" to Chisinau planned to have begun on 14 September. -Vladimir Socor BALTIC FREE TRADE AGREEMENT. On 12 September in Tallinn Prime Ministers Mart Laar (Estonia), Valdis Birkavs (Latvia), and Adolfas Slezevicius (Lithuania) signed the Baltic Free Trade Agreement, a joint declaration on regional security, and a message to the European Community expressing their willingness to sign free trade agreements with it, Radio Lithuania reports. Laar and Birkavs also signed a protocol on the exchange of letters of ratification of the Estonian-Latvian border agreement while Laar and Slezevicius signed an agreement on avoiding double taxation and preventing tax evasion. A declaration was signed on security and defense cooperation between the three states affirming their interest in joining European collective security structures, including NATO and the West European Alliance. -Saulius Girnius CSCE OFFICIAL IN LATVIA. On 12 September CSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities Max van der Stoel arrived in Riga for a three-day visit. On 13-September he held talks with Foreign Minister Georgs Andrejevs primarily dealing with the rights of the ethnic minorities, Radio Lithuania reports. He urged Latvia to pass a citizenship law complying with international norms as soon as possible. On 14 September he will meet with President Guntis Ulmanis and other leaders. -Saulius Girnius BANK OF LITHUANIA CHAIRMAN SUSPENDED. On 7 September formal charges were issued against Bank of Lithuania Chairman Romualdas Visokavicius for abusing his authority and causing damage to the state by issuing a 20 million litas credit to the Litimpex Bank. Parliament Deputy Chairman Egidijus Bickauskas told a press conference on 12-September that this action results in the immediate suspension of Visokavicius until the investigation is completed, Radio Lithuania reports. Visokavicius, however, remains in charge of the bank since its five deputy chairmen on 11-September issued a statement saying that none of them would agree to replace Visokavicius. President Algirdas Brazauskas is expected to suspend Visokavicius formally on 13 September, but it is unclear whom he will name as the bank's temporary chairman. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Keith Bush and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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