|The only thing one knows about human nature is that it changes. - Oscar Wilde|
No. 175, 13 September 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA PROSECUTOR BRIEFS PARLIAMENT ON CORRUPTION. On 10 September, Deputy Prosecutor General Nikolai Makarov addressed the parliament on corruption, Russian television reported. (Makarov had chaired the special commission of the Office of the Russian Prosecutor-General that was set up to check the allegations of corruption among members of the Yeltsin administration made by Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi in April). Makarov said that 41 of the 50 instances cited by Rutskoi had been confirmed by his commission, while 9-had proved to be erroneous. Six criminal investigations had been initiated, including one against the head of the Federal Information Center, Mikhail Poltoranin, who was accused of abuse of office and of forgery. Following Makarov's report, the commission was disbanded at his request to avoid further political tensions. -Julia Wishnevsky PARLIAMENT PROVIDES PROTECTION FOR DISSENTING OFFICIALS. After hearing Makarov's report, parliament adopted some critical measures. A bill on criminal liability for officials violating the immunity of either the president or vice president of Russia was adopted at the first reading. Those found guilty of this offence would be liable to up to 8 years of imprisonment. The bill was adopted upon the recommendation of Prosecutor General Valentin Stepankov to protect Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi, who had been barred from entering his Kremlin office by presidential guards a few days earlier. Parliament also decreed the establishment of a special security service for judges of the Constitutional Court. (Last spring the head of Yeltsin's bodyguards stopped the protection of members of the Constitutional Court after they had ruled a number of Yeltsin's decrees unconstitutional). -Julia Wishnevsky PARLIAMENT SETS UP GROUP TO CONSULT YELTSIN ON CONSTITUTION. On 10-September, the parliament set up an eight-member group to consult with President Yeltsin on coordinating constitutional reforms. The group is headed by parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov and includes the secretary of the parliament's Constitutional Commission Oleg Rumyantsev, the head of the parliament's Council of Nationalities Ramazan Abdulatipov and a leader of the pro-Communist opposition Vladimir Isakov, ITAR-TASS reported. Meanwhile a working group set up last week by Yeltsin to finalize the draft constitution, met for the first time on 10 September. The group's head, deputy chairman of the parliament Nikolai Ryabov told ITAR-TASS that the group will be mainly preoccupied with political rather than legal issues. He said the focus of the group's discussion is the division of powers as envisaged by the draft constitution and relations between the central government and Russia's regions and republics. Four representatives of the hardline parliamentary opposition, including Isakov, had joined the working group, according to ITAR-TASS on 11 and 12 September, President Yeltsin having agreed to Ryabov's suggestion to this effect in a letter of 11 September. -Vera Tolz RYABOV REPRIMANDED. Parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov has reprimanded his deputy, Nikolai Ryabov. During a parliamentary session, Khasbulatov told his subordinate that if he continued to disregard the Constitution, he would be removed, ITAR-TASS reported on 10 September. Hardliners in parliament had demanded Ryabov's ouster because of his switch to the president's camp. Ryabov, in turn, accused parliament of having become a new kind of CPSU Central Committee. According to the present Constitution, Ryabov, as Khasbulatov's deputy, must act only upon the authorization of the speaker. President Yeltsin's appointment of Ryabov to chair a group of politicians that will draft a final version of the new constitution provoked the uproar against Ryabov in the parliament. -Alexander Rahr YELTSIN AIDE, SHAKHRAI ON FEDERATION COUNCIL. Yeltsin aide Yurii Baturin told ITAR-TASS on 10-September that replies had been received from 139 of the representatives of legislative and executive power as regards the creation of the Federation Council. Baturin said that 90 were completely in favor, 20 were in favor with reservations, and 6 against (he did not reveal how the remaining 23 replied). Baturin said the president's administration was not hurrying events, and was hoping that not only the heads of administrations but also the heads of the parliaments and soviets would come round to supporting it. In Novosibirsk Deputy Premier Sergei Shakhrai said the council would be stillborn if several regions such as Novosibirsk oblast refused to participate, ITAR-TASS reported on 10 September. Shakhrai mentioned the possibility of Novosibirsk oblast taking part as an observer. -Ann Sheehy TV JOURNALISTS TO SET UP INDEPENDENT CHANNEL. On 12 September, a group of leading Russian TV journalists announced their intention of setting up an independent TV channel. Speaking on the Ostankino TV weekly political program "Itogi," its moderator, Evgenii Kiselev, said the new channel would be started by journalists from both the Ostankino and Rossiya state-run TV companies. He said the new channel plans to start broadcasting news programs in October. Called "Segodnya" (Today), it will be co-hosted by well-known newscasters Tatyana Mitkova and Mikhail Osokin. Kiselev said he and other journalists are quitting the state-run TV operations because they believe that truly informative programs can be done only by stations that do not rely on the state for support. This year, the control of Russia's state-run media by the political leadership has been the subject of intense discussion by journalists concerned at attempts by the legislative and executive branches of power to use the media in their power struggle. -Vera Tolz YELSTIN WANTS COMPROMISE ON PRIVATIZATION. President Yeltsin has asked First Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Lobov and Deputy Prime Minister Anatolii Chubais to reconcile their differences on privatization policy, Russian and Western news agencies reported on 11-September. Lobov has lobbied for a revaluation of Russian capital stock and privatization vouchers to account for inflation and enable fairer competition between domestic and foreign investors. Yeltsin, who was initially won over to Lobov's position, has now rescinded the 30-August decree, which incorporated many of Lobov's proposals, in response to objections by Chubais and others. Chubais says the Lobov approach would mean "abandoning [mass] privatization" as it would raise the nominal value of capital stock by a much greater factor than that of the vouchers. -Erik Whitlock YELTSIN REJECTS PARLIAMENT'S BUDGET AGAIN. President Yeltsin used a technicality to avoid signing into law the parliament's draft budget for 1993, the Financial Times reported on 11 September. The parliament overrode Yeltsin's original veto of its budget which envisages a deficit almost twice as large as Yeltsin and the Cabinet of Ministers would like. In doing so, however, the parliament changed the name of the budget law, thus giving Yeltsin the opportunity to veto the legislation again. On the same day, governmental advisors Andrei Ilyaronov, Sergei Vasiliev and Anders Aslund suggested that it made little difference which budget ultimately became law because state spending was no longer under the control of the Ministry of Finance or Cabinet of Ministers. -Erik Whitlock SHAPOSHNIKOV STAYING IN MOSCOW. Contrary to reports broadcast by Radio Rossii and Russian Television on 9 September, Marshal Evgenii Shaposhnikov has not been appointed Russian ambassador to New Zealand. In a brief interview with Izvestiya on 10 September, Shaposhnikov confirmed that he had been offered the post, but stated that he had turned it down. -John Lepingwell CIS MOROZOV CRITICAL OF MASSANDRA AGREEMENT. According to a report carried by UNIAR on 10-September, Ukrainian Defense Minister Konstantin Morozov has informed President Leonid Kravchuk that he will disclaim all responsibility for Ukraine's southern defenses if the Massandra agreement to sell Ukraine's half of the Black Sea Fleet is implemented. Kravchuk has reportedly ordered that a study be prepared, to be discussed at a Ukrainian Security Council meeting on 17-September. Reuters reported on 11 September that Ivan Plyushch, the speaker of the Ukrainian parliament, also opposes the agreement. However, Admiral Eduard Baltin, the fleet's Russian commander, has sent a telegram to Yeltsin and Kravchuk expressing his support for the agreements and claiming that the "overwhelming majority" of the fleet's officers support the agreement, according to UNIAR on 10 September. The Ukrainian naval officers' union had earlier denounced the agreement. -John Lepingwell UKRAINE DENIES SUPPLYING ARMS TO AZERBAIJAN. On 9 September the Armenian foreign ministry presented a formal note of protest to Ukraine over reports that Ukraine was supplying Azerbaijan with weapons, an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 9 and 11-September. In response, the deputy chief of the Ukrainian security service's press service, Viktor Varenyk, denied that Ukraine was sending Azerbaijan modern military equipment. Varenyk said that Ukraine did have an agreement to repair Azerbaijani tanks, but it was not sending anything more than repaired tanks to Azerbaijan. -Ustina Markus TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA NAGORNO-KARABAKH PEACE TALKS. Representatives of Nagorno-Karabakh and Azerbaijan agreed on 10 September to extend the ceasefire agreed on 31-August for an additional two days, until 13 September, an RFE/RL correspondent reported. Azerbaijani deputy parliament chairman Affiatdin Dzhalilov and Nagorno-Karabakh's Foreign Minister Arkady Gukasyan met in Moscow on 12 September to prepare for a meeting between Azerbaijan parliament chairman Geidar Aliev and Nagorno-Karabakh representatives, but no progress was made, according to AFP; a second round of talks will take place on 13-September. On 12 September the Iranian Foreign Ministry issued a communique warning Armenia against any attempt to change existing borders in the Caucasus and calling for a swift resolution of the Karabakh conflict, ITAR-TASS reported. -Liz Fuller NEW GEORGIAN GOVERNMENT ANNOUNCED. On 11 September Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze named a new Council of Ministers which includes three new deputy prime ministers: Irina Sarishvili, one of the leaders of the radical National Democratic Party; Amiran Kadagishvili, a prominent Georgian businessman; and Nikoloz Lekishvili, a former Tbilisi City Party Committee first secretary who is currently head of the parliament commission on industry and communications, the Georgian Information Agency reported. Shevardnadze himself has temporarily assumed the duties of Interior Minister, and on 12-September was planning to introduce a state of emergency nationwide in the hope of neutralizing armed supporters of ousted president Zviad Gamsakhurdia who are currently occupying several towns in western Georgia. -Liz Fuller STATE OF EMERGENCY IN KAZAKHSTAN AFTER CHOLERA OUTBREAK. A state of emergency has been declared in Almaty and the capital's airport has been closed to flights originating in Asia in the wake of an outbreak of cholera, Russian and Western sources reported on 12 September. According to AFP, quoting Radio Rossii, some 200 cholera cases have been identified; Reuters reported that markets have been closed in Almaty after 13-people who bought food in one of the city's farmers' markets contracted the disease. Officials in Kazakhstan were reported to believe that cholera had been brought into the country from Pakistan after 30-passengers on a flight from Pakistan were found to be suffering from the disease. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE THE HEAVIEST FIGHTING IN CROATIA SINCE 1991. This is how UNPROFOR civil affairs chief Cedric Thorn-berry summed up the renewed conflict that began on 9 September with a Croatian attack on three Serb-held villages in the Gospic area of Krajina. The Serbs, international media add, have put up dogged resistance and on 12 September hit Somobor and a Zagreb suburb with rockets. They have also announced a list of up to 30-sites they might target for further rocket attacks, and in the meantime they have shelled Karlovac and the Gospic area. Following what Croatian Television depicted as a somber and tense meeting of the top defense and security council, President Franjo Tudjman announced a unilateral 24-hour cease-fire. Meanwhile, the UN began efforts to broker a broader truce, but the BBC noted that the Serbs are unlikely to agree as long as the Croats hold onto the captured villages. Domestic political pressure is, however, intense on the Tudjman government to recapture the up to one-third of Croatian territory held by rebel Serbs, and, as one international observer put it, "we could be in for quite a lot of trouble." -Patrick Moore MUTINY IN BANJA LUKA. The situation in war-torn Bosnia-Herzegovina over the weekend appeared relatively quiet compared to what went on in Croatia, with the major exception of the Serb-held town of Banja Luka in the northwest. On 10 September at least two units of soldiers blocked access roads with tanks and took control of key buildings. They demanded the arrest of corrupt officials and war profiteers, who, The Guardian on 11 September reported, have allegedly "increased their wealth with the blessing of the powers that be, spitting on the graves of our dead soldiers." Tensions between soldiers who see themselves fighting and dying out of patriotism on the one hand, and profiteers on the other have been present on all three sides of the conflict, and suggestions that the Bosnian Serb leadership engineered the putsch to get rid of powerful Banja Luka personalities have not been proven. Bosnian Serb political leader Radovan Karadzic and military chief Gen. Ratko Mladic have both gone to the town, which, Politika reports on 13 September, is quiet. Meanwhile, the London Times said on 10-September that Serb extremists destroyed the last of Banja Luka's 16 mosques, two of which were UNESCO-registered and dated back to the early 17th century. -Patrick Moore SERBIAN BLOCKADE UPDATE. Macedonia became one of the last countries to tighten sanctions against rump Yugoslavia by stopping freight traffic on 4 September. President Kiro Gligorov said: "of all Serbia's neighbors, the sanctions affect Macedonia most because we don't have an exit to the sea, we don't have other good alternative streets or railroads . . . [and] that will have economic, social, and other consequences," Vreme reports on 13-September. According to Reuters, UN observers at one Macedonian border post reported still in July that up to 200 trucks crossed every night. Elsewhere, food-starved Serbia closed the border to Montenegro for trucks with flour and other goods, Vreme adds. "No single cucumber" can cross the Serbian-Montenegrin border anymore "without permission of the Serbian trade ministry," the weekly notes, adding that Montenegro might stop the export of salt, coal, and aluminum in response. But Borba says on 12-September that the Serbian trade minister denies there is a blockade against Montenegro, while that same paper the next day quoted Montenegrin President Momir Bulatovic as similarly playing down reports of a blockade. -Fabian Schmidt FOREIGN MINISTER SAYS SLOVAKIA WANTS TO JOIN NATO. In a 12 September televised debate on European security structures Jozef Moravcik said the idea that Slovakia could be a neutral country is "naive." According to Moravcik, membership of the Visegrad Four nations in NATO is "very important" because it will "provide a guarantee for good neighborly relations." He also said that membership in NATO should secure Slovakia's entry into the European integration process, which will create conditions "for internal stability and prosperity." Commander of the Slovak Army Julius Humaj said that while Slovakia does not possess the military criteria for entry to NATO, the more important matters for entry are political will and the acceptance of existing members. -Sharon Fisher SLOVAK COURT SAYS CE RECOMMENDATIONS NOT LEGALLY BINDING. In response to a 31 August request of Minister of Transport Roman Hofbauer to determine whether Council of Europe recommendations have legal supremacy over Slovak law, Constitutional Court Chairman Milan Cic said the CE recommendations concerning minority rights standards "do not have and cannot have-.-.-. legal implications for the state organs of the Slovak republic," CTK reports on 11 September. Cic also said that according to a 1990 law of the Slovak National Council, "the right to change names of communities belongs to the government of the Slovak Republic," and not to local decision makers. Hofbauer's request concerns the issue of whether Hungarian communities should be allowed to post signs in the Hungarian language alongside the Slovak ones. Hofbauer recently ordered the signs be removed, leading to protests from the country's large Hungarian minority. -Sharon Fisher HAVEL FAVORS RESTITUTION OF JEWISH PROPERTY. Czech President Vaclav Havel favors a new law to regulate the return of property confiscated from Jewish communities by the Nazis and never returned to them after the war, CTK reports on 12 September. Havel made it clear, however, that a possible law on the restitution of Jewish property should not be linked to other restitutions. Prague officials are reportedly concerned that a return of Jewish property confiscated before February 1948 could encourage Sudeten Germans to demand a restitution of their property seized after the war. Earlier, on 9 September, Havel also called for a solution to the dispute between government coalition parties over the restitution of Catholic Church property expropriated after the war. The President told Czech Parliament Chairman Milan Uhde that, for instance, he supports the return of St. Vitus Cathedral at the Prague Castle to the Church. -Jan Obrman CZECH FOREIGN MINISTER VISITS HUNGARY. Czech Foreign Minister Jozef Zieleniec held talks on 10-September in Budapest with his Hungarian counterpart Geza Jeszenszky, Prime Minister Jozsef Antall, President Arpad Goncz, and Hungary's parliamentary foreign relations committee, MTI reports. The two sides agreed that bilateral relations are good and contribute to the strengthening of stability in Central Europe. Preparations for a new bilateral treaty are under way, bilateral trade is improving, and Hungary supports the Czech Republic's bid for the East European nonpermanent seat at the UN Security Council in 1994-95. According to Zieleniec, admission into NATO will involve for the Czech Republic a "longer process" rather than a "concrete step" because its geopolitical situation differs from that of Hungary; but should Hungary and Poland be admitted, Prague could not imagine being left out. Zieleniec also said European integration would in the long term solve the national minority questions, as the region was not yet ready to implement strict European norms in that field. -Alfred Reisch HUNGARIAN PREELECTION MOVES. The leadership of the opposition liberal party Alliance of Free Democrats on 12 September voted to propose to its national council Gabor Kuncze, a 43-year old economist and leader of its parliamentary faction, as head of its electoral list in the 1994 general elections. This means that Kuncze would be the AFD's prime minister-designate. At the 11-12 September meeting of the presidium and parliamentary faction of the Hungarian Socialist Party, chairman Gyula Horn reached an agreement with Matyas Szuros, vice chairman of the Hungarian parliament, who in recent weeks had repeatedly criticized his own party. Szuros will remain in the HSP and enter next year's electoral race under its banner; he also agreed to express his eventual criticisms of the HSP first before party forums rather than going public, MTI reports. -Alfred Reisch BUCHAREST WON'T WITHDRAW JESZENSZKY INVITATION, BUT . . . On 10 September the Romanian government officially rejected demands by the Party of Romanian National Unity to cancel the visit of Hungarian Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky, due to begin on the 15th. Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu said a dialogue with Hungary would help relations and contribute to defending the national interests of both countries. At the same time, Melescanu said the government "understands" the concerns of the PRNU. In a message addressed to the nationalist organization Vatra Romaneasca on the occasion of the country-wide conference of the organization, President Ion Iliescu stated that Vatra (whose political arm is the PRNU) has been "an element of stability and equilibrium for the country," and praised its "encouragement and promotion of national values." Iliescu also said he was "convinced" that in the future Vatra will "orient itself even more [than in the past] towards cultivating a climate of tolerance and mutual understanding," thus proving that "extremist and xenophobic manifestations" are "foreign to the spirit of our people." Several other political formations issued statements related to the Hungarian national minority. The opposition Party of Civic Alliance said the memorandum sent by the Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania to the Council of Europe was "not legitimate and untimely." More bluntly, in a statement carried by Radio Bucharest on 10 September, the Greater Romania Party demanded again outlawing the HDFR, calling it "a terrorist" organization. -Michael Shafir ROMANIAN OPPOSITION WANTS POLITICIANS TO DECLARE ASSETS. The main opposition alliance, the Democratic Convention of Romania, called on 10-September to adopt regulations requiring persons in public office to declare their personal assets, an RFE/RL correspondent reports. The president of the DCR, Emil Constantinescu, told reporters in Bucharest that the alliance will propose that parliament obligate politicians, including government employees and the president's staff, to declare their assets and business holdings of family members. The initiative comes against the background of the public debate on corruption. -Michael Shafir BARTHOLOMEW I ENDS BULGARIAN VISIT. On 12-September Bartholomew I, the Ecumenical Patriarch of Istanbul, ended a five-day visit to Bulgaria. Besides touring important religious sites, Bartholomew used the opportunity to meet several top Bulgarian politicians, including President Zhelyu Zhelev. News agencies report that one of Bartholomew's chief aims was to try and initiate a process which eventually could close the existing deep rift in the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. Inspired by the visit, a conference of church officials on 9 September called on the Board for Religious Affairs to help mediate in the conflict between Metropolitan Pimen, who has established a rival Holy Synod, and the incumbent Patriarch Maksim, appointed in 1971. The main objection to Maksim is that a Convention of Clergy and Laity, which according to church statutes shall elect a Patriarch every four years, has not been called for 40-years. Bartholomew's visit has nonetheless been widely perceived as indirect support for Patriarch Maksim. -Kjell Engelbrekt ZHELEV ASKS FOR PERMANENT MFN STATUS. In an interview on 11 September, President Zhelyu Zhelev revealed that he has asked the United States to grant Bulgaria permanent most-favored-nation trading status. Zhelev told Darik Radio that a better trading status could help to compensate for some of the losses Bulgaria is suffering because of the United Nations sanctions against rump Yugoslavia. He said the request was expressed in the response to a letter from Vice President Al Gore, who had voiced US concerns that Bulgaria might stop honoring its commitment to the UN embargo because of the high costs. -Kjell Engelbrekt MOLDOVAN PROTEST TO RUSSIA. On 10 September the government issued an official statement describing the recent escalation of Gagauz demands, coordinated with the "Dniester republic," for the confederalization of Moldova as a "direct result" of recent visits to those two would-be republics by Russian parliamentary deputies "who support the rebirth of the USSR." The latest Transdniester and Gagauz demands "confirm the fact that these two unlawful formations were created in order to blackmail Moldova and keep it within the former empire's zone," the statement, carried by Moldovapres, said. -Vladimir Socor KUCHMA TO CONTINUE DUTIES. Following Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma's resignation on 9 September, President Leonid Kravchuk has asked him to continue carrying out his duties until the parliament reconvenes on 21 September, Ukrainian Radio reported on 10 September. While Kuchma agreed to the president's request he still plans to resign, along with the whole higher rank of the cabinet of ministers, once parliament meets. It is rumored that one of the main candidates being considered to replace Kuchma is the Kharkiv Oblast deputy, Oleksandr Maselsky. Other candidates are the president's representative in Lviv Oblast, Stepan Davymuka, and the president's representative in Mykolaiiv Oblast, Anatolii Kinakh. -Ustina Markus BELARUS, RUSSIA SIGN ECONOMIC AGREEMENT. On 8 September Prime Ministers Viktor Chernomyrdin and Vyacheslau Kebich signed an agreement uniting the monetary systems of Russia and Belarus, Radiefakt reported on 10 August. The agreement also set prices for natural gas from Russia and its transport costs, and placed the Belarusian state gas transport enterprise, Beltransgaz, under the Russian gas monopoly Gazprom. Kebich and a representative of the Belarusian National Bank, Stanislau Bahdankevich, also signed an agreement to stay in the ruble zone along with six other former Soviet republics. ITAR-TASS reported on 10-September that Bahdankevich hailed the accord as more than just a monetary union, but also an economic one as well. -Ustina Markus WORLD BANK ON BELARUS. Basil Kavalsky, who oversees World Bank operations in Belarus and Ukraine, said Belarus has begun making progress in its economic reforms, Reuters reported on 12 September. If the country continues with its reforms, he said, the bank will be willing to help Belarus. Belarus, however, has to assure the bank that any assistance will go toward restructuring the economy, and noted that attention should be paid to privatization and changing taxation policies. The bank is currently processing a $100million loan for Belarus. -Ustina Markus POPE IN ESTONIA. On 10 September Pope John Paul II concluded his week-long visit to the Baltic States with a 10-hour stop in Tallinn, Baltic media report. From the airport he traveled to the St. Peter and Paul Church, where he met representatives of the small Catholic community in Estonia and then held an ecumenical service with Lutheran and Orthodox clergy at the Lutheran St. Nicholas Church. After a meeting with President Lennart Meri, he held an outdoor Mass in City Hall Square, attended by about 6,000 people. As in Latvia he did not reply to pleas to urge the speed up the withdrawal of Russian troops from the countries, but stressed the need for respecting the language and culture of other ethnic communities. -Saulius Girnius IMF DELEGATION IN LITHUANIA. On 9 September Adalbert Knobl, head of the IMF's Baltic Division, told a press conference in Vilnius that the IMF is satisfied with the Bank of Lithuania's monetary policy, especially its successful curbing of inflation, BNS reported on 10-September. Knobl praised the decision of bank chairman Romualdas Visokavicius and Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius the previous day to cancel their previously established limit of 60% interest on loans granted by commercial banks. He, however, criticized the bank for not holding hard-currency auctions and the parliament for the law on money it had passed before its summer recess. -Saulius Girnius UNEMPLOYMENT AND DEFLATION IN LATVIA. The number of registered unemployed in Latvia rose from 69,900 on 3 August to 73,100 on 7 September. There were 89,300 people seeking work of whom 17,500 had been out of work for more than six months and thus no longer eligible to receive unemployment compensation. The consumer price index in August, however, was 1.7% lower than in July. Food prices decreased by 4% offsetting slight increases in the price of other manufactured products and services, BNS reported on 11-September. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Keith Bush and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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