|The last of the human freedoms- to choose one's attitude in any given set of circumstances, to choose one's way. - Victor Frankl|
No. 174, 10 September 1993
RUSSIA YELTSIN SETS UP GROUP TO FINISH WORK ON CONSTITUTION. President Boris Yeltsin issued a resolution on 9 September setting up a working group to reconcile the draft constitution worked out by the Constitutional Assembly and the latest draft put forward by the parliament. The new group is headed by deputy chairman of the parliament, Nikolai Ryabov, and consists of 15 members of the parliament's Constitutional Commission. The group includes the commission's secretary Oleg Rumyantsev, who is the primary author of the parliament's draft constitution, but does not include parliamentary speaker Khasbulatov. (The majority in the parliament insists that Khasbulatov should take part in the preparation of the final draft.) ITAR-TASS reported that Yeltsin's resolution instructs the working group to submit its recommendations to the president by 15 September. -Vera Tolz YELTSIN REMOVES ZORKIN'S PRIVILEGES. President Yeltsin's Kremlin guard, or Main Protection Directorate, has taken over the official dacha of Valerii Zorkin, chairman of Russia's Constitutional Court, Reuters reported on 9 September. Zorkin, a critic of Yeltsin, had been stripped of most of his official privileges in June. The closure of the dacha mirrors similar actions taken against Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi, the most recent of which was the closure of the vice president's offices in the Kremlin. According to ITAR-TASS of 9-September, Prosecutor General Valentin Stepankov has written to both Rutskoi and Yeltsin warning that the actions of the Kremlin guard were illegal and violated the constitution. Yeltsin's suspension of Rutskoi has been referred by the parliament to the Constitutional Court. -Wendy Slater SHAKHRAI'S AMBITIONS. Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai is the author of the presidential decree on the temporary suspension of Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi and First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko, Moskovskie novosti (no. 37) reported. According to the newspaper, the head of the presidential apparatus, Sergei Filatov, had prepared a less radical decree but Yeltsin chose Shakhrai's version. The newspaper speculated that Shakhrai hopes that if early presidential elections take place Yeltsin would select Shakhrai as a running mate. Shakhrai may even hope to become a kind of acting Vice President during Rutskoi's suspension, the newspaper stated, and added that Shakhrai managed to remove one of his most serious rivals in the democrats' camp, Shumeiko, from the political arena. It said Shakhrai is presently trying, in alliance with presidential advisor Sergei Stankevich, to form a strong political party for his support. -Alexander Rahr REGROUPING OF POLITICAL FORCES. As a reaction to the announcement of former Secretary of the Security Council Yurii Skokov to set up a new political organization "Concord for Fatherland," the leaders of two other influential political blocs-the head of the liberal-oriented bloc "Russia's choice," Egor Gaidar, and the chief of the Industrial Party, Arkadii Volsky-met in the Kremlin and agreed to form jointly a new centrist bloc to counter Skokov's attempt to occupy the political center, Moskovskie novosti (no. 37) reported. The newspaper also said that Yeltsin's entourage became alarmed about the results of a recent public opinion poll which showed that economist Grigorii Yavlinsky was more trusted by the population than Yeltsin and other politicians. Yeltsin, the newspaper speculated, may now offer Yavlinsky a job in the government. -Alexander Rahr HITCHES IN CREATION OF FEDERATION COUNCIL. The signing of the agreement on the creation of the Federation Council, which Yeltsin's head of administration Sergei Filatov had said on 31 August was scheduled for this week, has obviously not taken place as planned. The soviets of some regions have rejected the idea, and even those regions that in principle support the creation of the council often have reservations about the draft agreement. Pravda of 4 September reported, for instance, that the chairmen of six oblast soviets of the Black Earth region, in response to an order from Filatov to telegraph their approval of the agreement by 3 September, said they were preparing their own, alternative agreement and that they regarded it as crucial that the council should consist only of the leaders of representative and executive power of the subjects of the federation, with the possible participation in its work of the Russian president, parliamentary head, and prime minister. In other words, this plan meant that the president should not chair the council. A similar view has been voiced by other regions. -Ann Sheehy MEASURES TO SALVAGE ENERGY SECTOR APPROVED. The Presidium of the Council of Ministers has approved a program to alleviate the crisis in Russia's energy and fuel industries in 1994 and 1995, according to ITAR-TASS on 9 September. Few details were provided, and the plan does not envisage halting the tumble in the most troubled industry of the sector, oil, within the coming year. On 8 September an oil industry research group told energy ministers from various states of the CIS that Russian oil extraction would amount to about 327 million tons in 1994. This compares to the 340-350 million tons expected this year and the 570-million tons extracted each year in 1987 and 1988. The Russian Ministry of Economics reported on 9 September that the continued drop in oil production would mean some cuts in exports in 1994 and that these cuts would primarily be at the expense of other nations of the former Soviet Union. -Erik Whitlock RUSSIA'S EXTERNAL DEBT. Russia's total external debt stood at $72.5 billion at the end of the first quarter of 1993, Reuters reported on 9 September, citing a document released by the Russian Central Bank. The figure was said to include $4.7 billion in overdue interest payments. Comparable figures for 1 January 1993 were given as $74.6 billion and $2.8 billion. These magnitudes are somewhat lower than most Western estimates. It was not stipulated whether the figures applied to the total debt of the former Soviet Union nor whether commercial arrears had been included. -Keith Bush CIS KAZLOUSKI ON BELARUS ENTRY INTO CIS SECURITY PACT. In an interview published in Vo slavu Rodiny on 9 September, Belarusian Defense Minister Paval Kazlouski, put forth the terms under which Belarus would enter into the CIS collective security pact. While supporting Belarusian participation in the pact he emphasized that should the agreement be ratified by parliament, Belarusian servicemen would not do duty in any CIS "hot spots" beyond the republic's borders. In the case of external conflicts, Belarus's role would be to help through political initiatives. He went on to say that the events which would induce Belarus to participate in military operations would not come from far away conflicts in the east, but would be on its western frontiers. Although the Belarusian parliament voted to join the collective security pact last April, the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet, Stanislau Shushkevich, has refused to sign the agreement, saying that it is a betrayal of national sovereignty. -Ustina Markus TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA MORE RUSSIAN TROOPS TO TAJIKISTAN. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev met with Tajik leaders in Dushanbe on 9 September, after telling correspondents that several thousand more Russian troops would be sent to Tajikistan to reinforce the approximately 15,000 who are already there to protect the Tajik-Afghan border, Russian and Western news agencies reported. Kozyrev said that he had urged Tajikistan's leadership to begin a dialog with the Tajik opposition. Armed opposition groups headquartered in Afghanistan are largely responsible for the fighting on the border. Tajik Foreign Minister Rashid Alimov, speaking to the same correspondents, said the Tajik government refuses to have anything to do with the "government-in-exile" set up by Tajik oppositionists, calling it a group of criminals. -Bess Brown AKAEV OPENS SLAVONIC UNIVERSITY. Kyrgyzstan's President Askar Akaev formally opened a Slavonic University in Bishkek on 9 September, ITAR-TASS reported. The university is a centerpiece of Akaev's efforts to induce Kyrgyzstan's Russian-speaking population not to leave the country, taking their professional, administrative, and technical skills with them. Thousands of Russian-speakers have already left Kyrgyzstan, largely, Akaev said, because they saw no future in the Central Asian state. His remarks appear to have been aimed at Kyrgyz nationalists who have criticized him for insufficient commitment to defending Kyrgyz national interests. -Bess Brown KOZYREV ON RUSSIAN LANGUAGE. After his visit in Dushanbe, Kozyrev traveled to Kyrgyzstan where he made a speech on 9 September at the opening of the Slavonic University in Bishkek. Kozyrev hailed the opening of the new university, but lamented that lately he had perceived attempts artificially to limit the sphere in which the Russian language is used in some former Soviet republics. This recalled the "persecution of the Slavonic languages in Europe in the Middle Ages," Kozyrev said. He expressed the hope that a reasonable and farsighted approach toward the Russian language would prevail in Central Asia. He admitted that his statements left him vulnerable to charges of "language imperialism." In any case, Kozyrev said, if that is imperialism, it is precisely the kind of imperialism that serves the interests of all the peoples of Central Asia (at a minimum-the Russian and Russian speaking population of the region), ITAR-TASS reported. -Suzanne Crow RUSSIA/TURKEY/US/KARABAKH. Speaking at a news conference in Moscow on 9-September at the end of her official visit, Turkish Prime Minister Tansu Ciller stated that Turkey and Russia are in agreement over the need for joint action to bring about a withdrawal of Armenian forces from occupied Azerbaijani territory, according to The New York Times of 10 September. Russia failed, however, to agree to a Turkish proposal to deploy joint Russian-Turkish peacekeeping forces in the region. Also on 9 September, the Armenian Foreign Ministry released the text of a letter dated 3 September from US Secretary of State Warren Christopher to Armenian Foreign Minister Vahan Papazyan. As summarized by ITAR-TASS, the letter expresses concern over the unjustified occupation of Azerbaijani territory by Armenian forces and calls for "a more constructive approach" on the part of the Karabakh Armenians to peace negotiations. An informal meeting of the CSCE Minsk group opened in Moscow on 9 September to discuss the timetable for implementing the peace plan drawn up on the basis of UN resolutions 822 and 853, ITAR-TASS reported. -Liz Fuller ARMENIA ACCUSES UKRAINE OF ARMING AZERBAIJAN. Armenia's foreign ministry declared that it has evidence that Azerbaijan is getting military equipment from Ukraine and is demanding an explanation from Kiev, an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 9 September. The equipment allegedly includes tanks and aircraft. Neither Baku nor Kiev have commented on the report. -Ustina Markus GEORGIA ACCUSED OF JEOPARDIZING ABKHAZ CEASEFIRE. On 9 September Russian members of the tripartite commission monitoring compliance with the ceasefire agreement of 27 July accused Georgia of undermining it by delaying the withdrawal of military hardware from the region and thus facilitating the theft of a consignment of weapons by followers of ousted Georgian president Zviad Gamsakhurdia, ITAR-TASS reported. The Russian contingent also protested the refusal of Georgian villagers to release five Russians taken hostage on 7-September while examining the wreckage of a Russian transport helicopter downed in January. A Georgian official disclaimed any responsibility for the actions of Gamsakhurdia supporters and affirmed his government's support for the withdrawal of illegal armed groups from the conflict zone and full compliance with the ceasefire. -Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE KUCHMA RESIGNS. Ukrainian Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma and his cabinet offered their resignations on 9-September, various agencies report. In a statement broadcast by Ukrainian Radio, Kuchma said he is resigning because he does not have the authority to implement economic reform, without which the country risks losing its independence. The resignation letter was addressed to President Leonid Kravchuk, but the president has not immediately accepted it, saying that the prime minister's resignation is a matter for the parliament. Kuchma's resignation comes as no surprise, since he had already offered to step down in May. Parliament would not accept his offer. Many nationalists have been opposed to Kuchma because he called for greater economic cooperation with Russia as a way of helping Ukraine out of its economic crisis. He has come under criticism from many sides for his proposed economic reforms and does not have a large enough support group in parliament to push through his plans after his special powers to implement reform were not renewed in May. -Ustina Markus CORRUPTION SCANDAL HITS HUNGARIAN BANKING. Finance Minister Ivan Szabo told Radio Budapest on 8 September that a series of corruption cases involving a total 20 billion forint ($210 million) has been uncovered by the police and will soon be dealt with by the courts. He provided no names of particular individuals and banks, but the head of the criminal division of Hungary's national police directorate has already announced a number of arrests and the recovery of 2.5 billion forint. Some 25 to 30 banks and bank branches in Budapest and the provinces are implicated in irregularities in the loan-granting sector. Banking officials were caught by surprise by the announcements and expressed fear that the news may cause a run by depositors on Hungary's banks. The affair is the number one topic in the Hungarian press, which is speculating about how many banking officials will resign or retire in the next few days. -Alfred Reisch ANTALL'S HEALTH. Government spokeswoman Judit Juhasz told the press on 9 September of the recommendations of the team of doctors that has been treating Prime Minister Jozsef Antall since late 1990 for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In the next few months the premier will be unable to work for periods of 4-5 days at times planned in advance in under to undergo medical treatment, Radio Budapest reports on 9 September. The treatment will not prevent Antall from carrying out the duties of his office, Juhasz said. During Antall's absence, Interior Minister Peter Boross or other designated ministers will substitute for him. Antall and the ruling Hungarian Democratic Forum party he leads are facing crucial general elections in the spring. -Alfred Reisch ROMANIAN NATIONALISTS URGE BAN ON JESZENSZKY VISIT. The Party of Romanian National Unity has urged the government to cancel next week's visit by Hungarian Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky. In a statement broadcast over Radio Bucharest on 9 September the PRNU said that the visit should be canceled because of the Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania's memorandum to the Council of Europe. The Chamber of Deputies debated the memorandum on the same day, and all deputies except those representing the HDFR attacked it. The chamber decided to send the records of the debate to the CE. Reacting to the PRNU demand, a spokesman for the Foreign Ministry said the visit must take place as planned. The spokesman, Avram Tura, however used language clearly aimed at soothing the PRNU, saying that the ministry "understands" its concerns, which were said to be "shared by [all] political forces and Romanian public opinion." In a related development, the PRNU vice president Ioan Gavra said at a press conference in Bucharest that local authorities in Cluj (whose mayor is PRNU president Gheorghe Funar) will never allow Hungary to open a consulate there, an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 9 September. Gavra added that the party does not object to the opening of a US consulate, provided no Hungarian-Americans are on its staff. At the same press conference, according to Radio Bucharest, Gavra said his party wants to join the government and the issue will be discussed with Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu next week. If no agreement is reached, the PRNU will withdraw support in parliament for Vacaroiu's cabinet. -Michael Shafir KEY REFORMER RESIGNS IN ROMANIA. The Financial Times reported on 9 September that Aurelian Dochia, head of the privatization agency has resigned, adding to the uncertainty over the commitment of the Vacaroiu cabinet to reform and rapid privatization. Dochia's departure follows the resignation of Misu Negritoiu, minister of state in charge of economic strategy, and the dismissal of Emilian Ijdelea, president of the Romanian Development Agency, on 28 August. Dochia said the state has so far sold only 1% of the equity in the 6,280 state companies earmarked for privatization, although the 1991 privatization law stipulates that 10% should be sold each year. In an interview with the daily Jurnalul national on 9-September, Dochia said his resignation had been triggered by the intention to set up a ministry for privatization which, he opined, would "negatively impact the process of privatization" in Romania. -Michael Shafir FIRST PERMANENT EC MISSION TO ROMANIA. Karen Fogg, the head of the first permanent mission of the European Community, has arrived in Bucharest to assume her post, Radio Bucharest reported on 8 September. Fogg, who carries the rank of EC ambassador, said her mission signals the beginning of a better relationship between Romania and the EC, and that Romania was likely to receive $160 million in aid from an EC program supporting political and economic reform in East European countries. -Michael Shafir LOCOMOTIVE DRIVERS DEMONSTRATE IN BUCHAREST. About 1,000 railroad drivers demonstrated in Bucharest on 9 September, an RFE/RL correspondent reported on the same day. They were assured by a railroad official that an agreement reached on 9 September concerning the reconsideration of the dismissal of some strikers last month and the cancellation of an order to evacuate strikers and their families from company-owned apartments will occur. -Michael Shafir IZETBEGOVIC LOBBIES IN US. Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic, speaking to the press in Washington, says his government is ready to resume peace talks in Geneva with Serbs and Croats "as soon as possible," but continues to insist that for an agreement his adversaries must yield more territory in the planned partition of his country. Izetbegovic made the same argument to UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali in New York on the 9th. Bosnian Foreign Minister Haris Silajdzic candidly told reporters in Vienna on 9 September that an early resumption of peace talks is unlikely. The ongoing struggle in the former Yugoslavia will top the agenda of an informal meeting of European Community foreign ministers this weekend at Alden Biesen castle in Eastern Belgium. Fighting resumed on the 8th in Croatia between Serb defenders and Croat forces trying to recapture Serb-held villages near Gospic, 185 km south of Zagreb. UN officials confirmed that the Croatian forces were successful in recapturing at least two villages in the area. -Charles Trumbull WALESA CONCERNED ABOUT THE ELECTORAL CAMPAIGN. Polish President Lech Walesa appealed to political parties involved in the electoral campaign for parliament to clarify their positions on key issues in a letter sent on 8 September and made public the following day. "I am worried about the lack of [debate on] essential issues in this campaign," the president said, "I get the feeling that discussions and arguments concern insignificant problems. There are too many personal skirmishes." Walesa asked in his letter that the parties express their views on privatization, unemployment, corruption, law and order, and culture. He also asked that they name their candidates for prime minister. Most parties have either ignored the president's letter of refused to take position on its content. The election is scheduled for 19 September. -Jan de Weydenthal HAVEL ON VISEGRAD, NATO, SLOVAKIA. At a press conference on 9 September, Czech President Vaclav Havel said that the role of the Visegrad group is changing, CTK reports. Havel said that while the group played a crucial role in the dismantling of the Warsaw Pact and the CMEA, it should now not strive to become an institution. Rather, it should be turned into an economic and political consultative forum to propose concrete forms of cooperation among its members. The president indicated that he does not support Polish Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka's proposal for setting up a Central European security institution as an alternative to NATO. Havel said that Central European states should join Western structures "when they are ready," and not wait for each other. He expressed his hope that the next NATO summit, scheduled for January 1994, will clearly define its relationship to the Central European states. Havel also said that, for the benefit of European stability, Slovakia should be allowed to join NATO. He added that if Slovakia is denied admission, a new "political border" might be created between the Czech Republic and Slovakia. -Jan Obrman NO COMPENSATION FOR EXPELLED GERMANS POSSIBLE, HAVEL SAYS. Havel told journalists that the Czech Republic "will not and cannot compensate Sudeten Germans" for their confiscated property, Czech TV reported on 9 September. Havel's statement is a reaction to remarks made by German Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel last weekend. Kinkel was quoted as having said that the German government never accepted the expulsion and expropriation of many million Germans in Central and Eastern Europe. Havel pointed out, however, that there is no reason to prevent a dialogue between Czechs and Sudeten Germans. He said that the question of Sudeten Germans is the "heritage of past generations that cannot simply be ignored." -Jan Obrman PROCOMMUNIST RALLY IN SOFIA. According to Reuters, thousands of people, mostly senior citizens, gathered in a Sofia park on 9 September to mark 49-years since the emergence of the first communist-dominated government. Several former communist officials and leaders of the Bulgarian Socialist Party were present by a statue commemorating Bulgaria's World War II partisans. Procommunist songs were sung, and numerous red flags were prominently displayed by those gathered. On 8 September 1944 Soviet troops entered Bulgaria, and on the 9th, with the help of Bulgarian partisans, overthrew the country's government. Subsequently 9 September was made Liberation Day, and became a national holiday under the communist regime. Since the collapse of communism in 1989, 9 September is a regular workday and most people accord it no special significance. -Stan Markotich MINORITY LEADER CRITICAL OF BULGARIAN SOCIALIST PARTY. In a 7 September interview with an RFE/RL correspondent, Ahmed Dogan, leader of the mainly Turkish Movement for Rights and Freedoms, indicated that his party might withdraw its support for the government, which is currently backed both by the MRF and the Bulgarian Socialist Party. At present, Dogan's party and a splinter group of the UDF hold the parliamentary balance of power in the National Assembly. In language amounting to a veiled threat, Dogan said that while his party is allowing the socialists ample opportunity to demonstrate they have rejected their old communist practices, he would certainly be willing to withdraw his party's support for the BSP should it attempt to govern in a dictatorial fashion. Dogan also said his party has tired of holding the balance of power without reaping much benefit, and noted that this role could pass to another organization, such as the United Agrarian Union, after upcoming elections. President Zhelyu Zhelev last week suggested that the MRF and UDF again consider forging a political alliance. -Stan Markotich GAGAUZ OFFER ACCESSION TO CIS, CHALLENGE MOLDOVAN SOVEREIGNTY. Russian and Moldovan media report that a session of the Gagauz Supreme Soviet on 8-9 September appealed to the CIS states to recognize the "Gagauz republic" as an independent subject of the CIS, and declared its readiness to sign the documents of accession to the "new economic and political community." The same session resolved to transfer local administrative bodies from Moldovan to Gagauz authority, passed a law on the use of "the Russian, Gagauz, and Moldovan languages" (in that order), in effect annulling Moldova's language law (which provides for local use of the language of the Gagauz, a dialect of Turkish), and resolved to hold a joint session of the Dniester and Gagauz supreme soviets to call for recognition and accession to the CIS. This abrupt escalation of Gagauz demands adds to Russian economic measures designed to press Moldova into the CIS. -Vladimir Socor SHUSHKEVICH, KEBICH ON TIES WITH RUSSIA. Following the signing of a bilateral agreement on closer cooperation between Russia and Belarus on 8 September in Moscow, both the chairman of the Supreme Soviet, Stanislau Shushkevich, and the prime minister, Vyacheslau Kebich, made statements advocating closer economic ties with Russia, ITAR-TASS reports. Shushkevich said economic reform in Belarus can only take place through closer economic cooperation with Russia and other CIS countries in order to preserve this market for its exports. In an interview with Belinform, Kebich, who signed the agreement, stated that only through close ties with Russia would Belarus be able to retain its sovereignty. Belarus has been undergoing severe economic shocks as Russia has pushed forward with its own reforms and began raising the price of its energy exports to world levels, forcing republics out of the ruble zone. Without an economic reform program of its own, even nationalist politicians in the country have increasingly been looking towards Russia for economic salvation. -Ustina Markus BELARUS ECONOMIC NEWS. The effects of the energy crisis are making themselves felt throughout the republic. An RFE/RL correspondent reported on 8-September that bus routes have been closed and fuel for factories curtailed forcing some to close. Even the chairman of the Supreme Soviet has felt the effects as he has been forced to take trains instead of flying, and his bodyguard restricted to using only 10 liters of gas a day, ITAR-TASS reports. Recent developments in foreign trade have also been unfavorable. Exports to non-CIS countries have dropped by 13.8% to $398.5 million, while imports rose by 80% to $436.7 million. Germany is Belarus's main foreign trading partner, followed by Poland. Barter deals account for over half of these trades. Among the former Soviet republics trade totaled $1.44 billion, 67.7% with Russia and 14.7% with Ukraine. Despite opposition to Russian control over its monetary policy, Belarus was one of five republics that signed the 7-September agreement to stay in the ruble zone and abide by Moscow's monetary and fiscal policies. The accord has yet to be endorsed by parliament. -Ustina Markus INFLATION DOWN IN ESTONIA, LITHUANIA. In August the rate of inflation in Estonia was the smallest in the past several years-only 0.7%-BNS reported on 7 September. A 3.6% rise in the price of services and a 2.6%% rise in manufactured goods was countered by a 2.5% decline in food prices. The Statistics Department of Lithuania announced on 8 September that inflation in August had been reduced to 0.9%, Radio Lithuania reports. As in Estonia, a decline in food prices served to offset increases in the price of services and nonfood items. -Saulius Girnius POPE IN LATVIA. On 9 September Pope John Paul II traveled to the Latgale region in east Latvia, which has the highest concentration of Catholics in the republic. More than 50,000 people attended an outdoor ecumenical service at the church in Aglona, at which the pope praised the Latgalian people for safeguarding their faith through periods of repression. In the evening he spoke to about 1,500 students and intellectuals at the University of Riga, where he condemned the exploitation of both communism and capitalism. On 10 September he flew to Tallinn for a ten-hour visit after which he will return to Rome. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Suzanne Crow and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.