Быть мудрым - значит видеть не только то, что перед ногами, но и провидеть будущее. - Теренций
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 173, 09 September 1993

	Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc.


MASSANDRA PROTOCOLS PUBLISHED. After much confusion and disagreement
both between and within the Russian and Ukrainian governments
concerning what was agreed at the Massandra summit, two of the
signed protocols have been published in the 9 September issue
of Kievskie vedomosti. The protocol concerning the Black Sea
Fleet calls for both sides to within a month, "work out all questions
connected with the development of an agreement to the effect
that all of the Black Sea Fleet, including its infrastructure
in the Crimea will be used by Russia and will fly the Russian
flag, with the understanding that the Russian side will pay for
that half of the Black Sea Fleet, including infrastructure, which,
in view of previous agreements would belong to Ukraine." Thus,
the protocol would seem to cede to Russia almost all of the fleet's
assets in return for an indeterminate sum. While Ukraine and
Russia have in the past agreed in principle to a 5050 split
of the fleet, there has been no agreement on how to implement
that general principle, or on how to price Ukraine's portion.
It seems highly unlikely, moreover, that such an agreement will
be forthcoming within the next month. -John Lepingwell

three agreements on nuclear weapons were signed, one governing
the "general principles" of nuclear warhead dismantling, one
more specific agreement on the same issue, and one governing
maintenance of the weapons. Only the more general protocol on
warhead transfer, signed by Kuchma and Chernomyrdin, has been
published. It states that "after the ratification by the Supreme
Soviet (Rada) of Ukraine of the START-1 treaty, the government
of Ukraine will provide for, no later than 24-months from the
date of ratification, the withdrawal of the nuclear warheads
of the strategic nuclear forces falling under the treaty deployed
in Ukraine, to the Russian Federation with the goal of their
dismantling and destruction." -John Lepingwell


PROTOCOL RAISES MORE QUESTIONS. The protocol on dismantling nuclear
weapons is surprising in two respects. First, the proviso that
the protocol covers only the warheads from launchers limited
by START-1 means that in Ukraine's view (but not Russia's) it
excludes the 460 warheads on SS-24 ICBMs and possibly several
hundred cruise missile warheads as well. (This proviso was inserted
by hand into the prepared text, presumably by the Ukrainian side.)
Second, the protocol says nothing about Russian payment to Ukraine
for the fissile materials in the warheads, although this may
be specified in the unpublished agreements. The Ukrainian side
has been claiming that it will also be compensated for the tactical
nuclear warheads withdrawn in spring 1992. This claim was explicitly
rejected, however, by the Russian Ambassador to Ukraine, Leonid
Smolyakov, in remarks to the Ukrainian media on 8-September.
Overall, the protocols signed at the summit appear even vaguer
than previous Russian-Ukrainian agreements, which does not auger
well for their implementation. -John Lepingwell

SKOKOV ENTERS POLITICS. Former Secretary of the Security Council
Yurii Skokov has officially announced the formation of a new
political organization-the Interregional Public Committee "Concord
for Fatherland," ITAR-TASS reported on 8 September. Skokov has
already formed subcommittees in 20 regions. He denied that the
committee was a pre-electoral bloc as formed by other politicians.
He did not, however, rule out that if elections do take place,
his organization would participate in them. His immediate goal
is to convene an "Assembly of People and Citizens of Russia"
next month with the aim of appeasing the conflicting powers in
the center. A presidential spokesman commented that Skokov, supported
by the conservative parliamentary leadership, has joined the
present fight for support from the regions and that the idea
of the assembly was directed at neutralizing President Boris
Yeltsin's attempts to set up the Council of the Federation. -Alexander

VOLSKY PRESENTS HIS INDUSTRIAL PARTY. The leader of the "industrial
lobby" Arkadii Volsky is planning to set up a branch of his recently
created Industrial Party in St.-Petersburg, ITAR-TASS reported
on 8-September. At a press conference, also attended by St.-Petersburg
mayor Anatolii Sobchak, he said that the Industrial Party wants
to take part in future parliamentary and maybe in presidential
elections. He said that organizational committees of his party
already exist in 36 regions. Volsky added that he had quit the
Civic Union. He and Sobchak criticized the Civic Union's remaining
coleader, Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi, for the latter's
shift to the far right. Sobchak, who demonstratively sided with
Volsky, called for new parliamentary elections in the spring
of 1994 and presidential elections in the spring of 1995. -Alexander

TAX WAR BETWEEN MOSCOW AND REGIONS. At last count, 30 of the
89 republics and regions of the Russian Federation were withholding
taxes from the center and the number is growing daily, Nezavisimaya
gazeta reported on 1 September. Chechnya is paying no taxes at
all; other regions are following the example of Bashkortostan
and Tatatstan and declaring fiscal sovereignty-i.e., deciding
unilaterally how much tax revenue they will send to Moscow. The
regions say they have been driven to this step by the failure
of the Russian Finance Ministry to send them enough money to
pay local uniformed police and Security Ministry officers, teachers,
and grain producers. A decision by the Russia Federation to withhold
federal taxes was one of the nails in the coffin of the USSR
in 1991. -Elizabeth Teague

headed by Orel Oblast, have decided to unite as the Central Russian
Republic, Nezavisimaya gazeta reported on 1 September. The new
unit seems to be based on Russia's already existing Central Economic
Region which also includes Moscow Region. -Elizabeth Teague

COUP TRIAL POSTPONED AGAIN. The trial of those accused of participating
in the failed August 1991 coup was postponed again on 8 September,
having resumed only the previous day, ITAR-TASS reported, because
one of the defense lawyers had fallen ill. The hearing is due
to resume on 14 September, when the court will sit on Tuesdays
to Fridays from 10am to 2pm with a break. The reduced hours have
apparently been introduced because of the advanced ages of the
accused. -Wendy Slater

resignation from the position of acting secretary of the Russian
Security Council has evidently been accepted, and he has been
appointed Ambassador to New Zealand according to Radio Rossii
on 8 September. The new position will distance Shaposhnikov from
the ongoing disputes over Russian and CIS security policy. The
new acting secretary has not been announced, but it is expected
to be Vladimir Rubanov who was appointed deputy secretary of
the council in August. -John Lepingwell

day of a four-day trip to the United States, Russian Defense
Minister Pavel Grachev signed a number of accords on military
cooperation with his US counterpart, Les Aspin. The agreements
provide for joint peacekeeping exercises, the establishment of
a direct military-to-military "hotline" between the Pentagon
and Russian Defense Ministry, annual exchanges of visits between
the US Secretary of Defense and the Russian Defense Minister,
and the enrollment of some military personnel in each other's
defense academies. Grachev is to visit the US Strategic Command
(formerly Strategic Air Command) headquarters in Omaha Nebraska
on the second day of his visit. -John Lepingwell

KOZYREV IN KABUL. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev arrived
in Kabul on 8-September for talks with Afghan President Burhanuddin
Rabbani and other Afghan officials. The main subject of the talks
was the increase in tension along the Afghan-Tajik border, but
officials agreed in a joint communique to the release of some
prisoners of the Soviet war with Afghanistan in exchange for
Russian assistance in rebuilding the war-torn country. Kozyrev's
last visit to Afghanistan was in April 1992, ITAR-TASS and Western
agencies reported. In August and September 1992 the Russian embassy
in Kabul was evacuated after attacks left one diplomat and two
members of Russia's trade mission in Kabul dead. The embassy
is still out of operation. From Kabul Kozyrev travelled to Dushanbe
for talks with the Tajik leadership. -Suzanne Crow


Anatolii Golovaty told an ITAR-TASS correspondent on 8 September
that his ministry has proposed requiring all domestic business
in Russia conducted through bank accounts be transacted in rubles
starting in October. The move seems to represent an attempt to
reduce the widespread "dollar economy" in Russian and to strengthen
the value of the ruble. The Russian Central Bank made similar
suggestions throughout last year, but never took any action,
choosing to wait until some confidence in the value of the ruble
vis-‡-vis the dollar had been restored. The Ministry of Finance
now apparently feels that the ruble, which has held to just under
1000 to the dollar for some 3 months, is steady enough to begin
squeezing out parallel currencies circulating in Russia. The
proposal does not call for the banning of dollar cash transactions.
-Erik Whitlock

on 8 September, Turkish Prime Minister Tansu Ciller and Azerbaijan
Parliament Chairman Geidar Aliev agreed on applying joint pressure,
in coordination with Russia, to effect a withdrawal of Armenian
forces from occupied Azerbaijani territory, Reuters reported.
Aliev further stated his readiness to meet with Armenian leaders
to discuss the Karabakh conflict. A scheduled meeting in Moscow
between representatives of the Armenian leadership of Nagorno-Karabakh
and the Azerbaijani government was cancelled after the Azerbaijani
delegation failed to materialize. IRNA on 8 September reported
that Armenian President Levon Ter-Petrossyan had assured Iranian
President Rafsanjani that the Armenian forces will soon withdraw.
Turkish Foreign Minister Hikmet Cetin stated that Turkey is not
concerned by the presence of Iranian troops inside Azerbaijan,
but he characterized the Armenian occupation of Azerbaijani territory
as an invasion comparable to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, Reuters
reported. -Liz Fuller


Commissioner for Refugees to repatriate some 20,000 Tajik refugees
who fled to northern Afghanistan in early 1993 is being hampered
by reports that fifteen refugees who returned home from Afghanistan
or from other parts of Tajikistan have been murdered in the last
two months, Reuters reported on 8 September. UN officials in
Dushanbe were quoted as saying that the program, suspended in
mid-July due to fighting on the Tajik-Afghan border and an outbreak
of cholera in the region, was to be restarted in September but
stories of killings of returnees to the towns of Shaartuz and
Kabodien in Khatlon Oblast have discouraged other refugees. UN
officials said they had documented the murders. -Bess Brown

IZETBEGOVIC MEETS CLINTON. International media on 8 and 9 September report
on the Bosnian president's talks in Washington with US President
Bill Clinton. Clinton told his visitor that US troops could be
used to help enforce a fair peace settlement, but with congressional
approval and under NATO command. Izetbegovic had hoped that Washington
would set a deadline for air strikes against Serb positions besieging
Sarajevo, but CNN notes that the United States has declined to
do so. The New York Times quotes a State Department spokesman
as saying that the Bosnians "do need to return to the bargaining
table and get an agreement." -Patrick Moore

VIOLENCE CONTINUES IN BOSNIA. Meanwhile on the ground in that
embattled republic, Croat forces launched a successful offensive
against Muslim units near Vitez in central Bosnia, the BBC's
Croatian and Serbian Services reported on 8 September. CNN ran
footage of an explosion apparently caused by a Serb mine at a
Croat wreath-laying ceremony in the UNadministered part of Croatia,
killing four and injuring seven. Hina adds on 9 September that
Croatian Vice President Vladimir Seks, who has long been sharply
critical of UN forces in his republic, has demanded that the
UN take action against those responsible for this "terrorist
act." The Croat news agency further notes that Serb forces have
apparently reinforced their positions on Mt. Igman near Sarajevo,
which they were supposed to have evacuated last month. Finally,
Reuters reported on 8 September that two Bosnian peace negotiators
in London accused Britain of trying to pressure them into accepting
an unworkable plan, and at the same time they called for the
resignation of Lord Owen as mediator. The Muslim and Croatian
media generally portray Owen as sympathetic to Serb interests.
-Patrick Moore

five main Croatian opposition parties condemned what they called
Croatian collusion with Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic
in a plan to divide Bosnia into three ethnic ministates, Reuters
reported on 8 September. They said the policy is damaging their
country's image abroad and undermining Croatia's struggle to
reincorporate almost a third of Croatian territory held by rebel
Serbs. "Unified Bosnia is the strategic interest of the Croatian
state and people," Ivica Racan of the Social Democratic Party
said. -Fabian Schmidt

ALBANIAN PRESS HIGHLIGHTS. With parliament now in session, and
all parties in their seats, the main battle lines have become
clear. The Social Democrats returned, noting that their "demands
have been met" and have vowed to fight extremism on the left
and right. The Socialists have also returned, and that party's
agenda has not changed-it remains a purely obstructionist force
hoping to thwart Albania's further integration into Europe, discredit
Albania's ruling Democratic Party, and force new elections. Both
the Socialist and Democratic Party media are focusing on Albania's
attempt to gain membership in the Council of Europe. Zeri i Popullit
notes on 9 September that David Atkinson, head of a the CE Parliamentary
Commission, noted that Albania will not be accepted until a constitution
has been approved. Socialist leader Fatos Nano, currently in
jail, has written several letters to European organizations hoping
to link his case with Albania's further integration into Europe.
A copy of a letter from Miguel Angel Martinez, president of the
Council of Europe's Parliamentary Assembly, acknowledged receipt
of a letter from Nano and noted that his appeal had been passed
on to those reviewing Albania's application for membership. The
ruling Democrats, in the 9 September issue of Rilindja Demokratike,
note the destructive and "antinational" policies of the Socialist
Party. -Robert Austin

CTK said on 8-September that the Czech press agency "in no way
distorted remarks made by Slovak Premier Vladimir Meciar on 3-September"
when it reported Meciar as saying in reference to Romanies that
it is necessary to reduce family welfare payments so that "the
extensive reproduction of socially unadaptable and mentally retarded
people drops." The Slovak government has criticized the report
as inaccurate and hurting the image of Slovakia abroad. The official
Slovak press agency TASR accused some CTK editors of intentionally
harming Slovak interests. On 6 September Simon Wiesenthal, citing
the CTK report, accused Meciar of "harboring Nazi sentiments."
CTK officials said that the tape with Meciar's speech provided
by the Slovak government contains even "worse statements than
those originally reported by CTK" and said that the report merely
paraphrased Meciar's statements but did not distort the main
idea of his speech. For its part the Slovak government continues
to claim that CTK distorted the speech. Roman Zelenay, deputy
chairman of the ruling Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, said
he regrets that CTK, which he had considered "a reliable institution,"
published this "unconfirmed and slanderous news." Zelenay also
said "I do not know of any other state where a department for
Gypsies is set up at a university." Roman Kovac, deputy premier
and MDS deputy chairman said that "Meciar did not refer to Gypsies
when he used the term 'asocial population'" but rather to "the
socially unadaptable inhabitants of Slovakia who often suffer
from genetic disorders," TASR reports. Quoting Reuters, "The
[Slovak] government requests all news organizations who quoted
the report by CTK with the incriminating statements to apologize
for doing so . . . If this does not happen, then we will see
to it that it is done through legal means." Jozef Conka, chairman
of the Association of Romany Intelligentsia in Slovakia told
Reuters it is "naive" that the government requests an apology
since "Meciar only confirmed what was written in the CTK report
and even articulated it in a broader way." -Jiri Pehe and Sharon

DLOUHY TO CENTRAL ASIA. On 8 September Vladimir Dlouhy, the Czech
Minister of Industry and Trade, left for a visit of Kazakhstan,
Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan. At a press conference before his
departure, Dlouhy said that the three countries are "important
areas for exporting consumer goods and machinery." The Czech
Republic would accept deliveries of cotton, oil, and gas as forms
of payment for goods exported to the three countries. Dlouhy
further said that he will transmit to the three countries' leaders
an invitation from President Vaclav Havel to visit the Czech
Republic. -Jiri Pehe

JESZENSZKY TO ROMANIA. Spokesman Janos Herman reports that Hungarian
Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky will make an official visit
to Romania on 15-September-the first such visit since December
1989. Hungary expects "concrete, tangible results" in at least
some areas from the visit, during which Jeszenszky will also
travel to several cities in Transylvania, where the bulk of Romania's
Magyar minority lives, MTI reports. -Alfred Reisch

President Ion Iliescu starts a two-day visit to Turkey that will
include discussions on trade, Radio Bucharest reported on 8 September.
On the 8th Iliescu received Chinese Foreign Minister Qian Qichen,
whose Romanian visit is the second leg of his present tour in
Eastern Europe. Qian also held talks with his Romanian counterpart,
Teodor Melescanu. On 9-September he meets Prime Minister Nicolae
Vacaroiu and other officials. -Michael Shafir

of the opposition Alliance of Young Democrats (FIDESZ), shown
by opinion polls to be Hungary's most popular political party
today, have come out in favor of preserving the existing political
consensus in the field of foreign policy, MTI reports on 8 September.
According to FIDESZ, an end of the consensus, hinted at by the
other two opposition parties, the Alliance of Free Democrats
and the Hungarian Socialist Party, would bring party politics
into a very sensitive area, hurt Hungary's image abroad, and
above all be detrimental to the Hungarian minorities abroad.
FIDESZ also came out in firm support of Hungary's membership
in NATO now that Russian President Boris Yeltsin no longer opposes
it, of French Premier Edouard Balladur's plan based on effective
guarantees for collective minority rights, and of improved relations
with Hungary's neighbors. -Alfred Reisch

ROMANIA AND THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE. In Tirana on 7 September the
commission for nonmember countries of the Parliamentary Assembly
of the Council of Europe approved a recommendation for Romania's
admission to the council, Rompres reported on the same day. A
Foreign Ministry spokesman said Romania's application will be
submitted to the plenary session of the assembly at its next
meeting. -Michael Shafir

EC AID PROGRAM. On 8 September the Executive Commission of the
European Community approved granting 62.5 million ecu ($73.7
million) for aid projects in the three Baltic States, Slovenia,
and Albania, Western agencies report. Lithuania's share, $26.5
million, will be given to encourage private investment, modernize
transport and energy infrastructures, and improve the education
system. The $18.9 million to Latvia will help improve environmental
protection, develop transport and energy, and adapt the social
security system to cope with rising unemployment. Estonia's $12.4-million
share will be used to restructure its banking and finance sectors
and reform health care and labor markets. Slovenia plans to restructure
energy and railroad networks and encourage privatization of state
firms with its $8.8 million, while Albania's $7.1 million is
earmarked for a three-year program to modernize the health system.
-Saulius Girnius

8-September Bulgaria's parliament accepted the resignation of
Deputy Premier Neycho Neev by a vote of 129 to 81, the RFE/RL
Sofia Bureau reports. Neev has been the target of censure from
fellow government officials since holding a private meeting with
four officials from rump Yugoslavia on 25-August. On 2 September
BTA and Western sources reported that Premier Lyuben Berov stated
that he himself would suggest that Neev be stripped of his office,
implying that Neev's meeting with the rump Yugoslav leaders was
a factor in the decision. Parliamentary deputy Ventseslav Dimitrov
has speculated that Neev's removal from the cabinet is not connected
to any personal or private disputes with Premier Berov, but concerns
disagreements over policy. -Stan Markotich

FORMER POLISH MINISTER CHARGED. The district prosecutor's office
for the city of Warsaw has charged former Minister of Internal
Affairs Antoni Macierewicz with violating state secrets rules
when he sent to the Sejm a list of prominent politicians and
officials who allegedly collaborated with communist secret police.
Macierewicz has always claimed that he acted under instruction
from the Sejm itself and assumed that the list would remain secret,
but the document was immediately leaked and eventually was made
public by the media. The disclosure of the list prompted the
dismissal of the government on 4 June 1992. Macierewicz is currently
active in the right-wing groups opposed to the current government.
-Jan de Weydenthal

between Prime Ministers Viktor Chernomyrdin of Russia and Leonid
Kuchma of Ukraine on 8 September, an "unconventional" energy
deal was reached, Reuters reports. The agreement calls for a
third party, the Swiss firm Nordex Group Holding Company, to
act as an intermediary by buying Russian oil for Ukraine and
selling Ukrainian farm and other goods throughout Russia and
other former Soviet states. Russia will also sell an additional
12 million tonnes of oil annually to Ukraine, on top of the 20
million already pledged. Although this falls short of the 40
million tonnes Ukraine needs, Kuchma commented that at least
now Ukraine can complete its harvest. -Ustina Markus

FOUR KILLED AT ICBM COMPLEX IN UKRAINE. An explosion at the Dniprodzerzhynsk
Metallurgical Combine on 8 September killed 4 workers and injured
27, agencies report. The industrial complex includes the world's
largest factory for building ICBMs. The explosion occurred when
workers tried to reactivate a blast furnace that had not been
working at full capacity for two days because of a shortage of
raw materials. The accident comes at a sensitive time: in the
past few months some Russian military officials have accused
Ukraine of attempting to break the launch codes and control mechanisms
on the Russian controlled nuclear missiles in Ukraine. There
is some speculation that this clandestine project is being carried
out in Dnipropetrovsk, close to the Dniprodzerzhynsk complex.
-Ustina Markus

Leonid Kravchuk and Deputy Prime Minister Mykola Zhulynsky opened
an international two-day conference in Kiev on Stalin's man-made
famine in Ukraine of 1933, Ukrainian media report. An exhibition,
including previously concealed official documents dealing with
Stalin's use of hunger as a political weapon against the Ukrainian
peasantry, has also begun. They are part of the official countrywide
commemorations this week to mark the 60th anniversary of the
artificial famine which, it is now claimed in Ukraine, resulted
in the loss of up to seven and a half million lives. -Bohdan

in Moscow, Lt. Gen. Aleksandr Lebed, commander of Russia's 14th
Army in Moldova and candidate for a seat in the "Dniester republic"
supreme soviet, made public his electoral program on 7 September,
Basapress reports from Tiraspol. "The Dniester republic's state
bodies must be shaped as the organs of local administration of
a territory which will in the foreseeable future join, on a federative
or confederative basis, the reborn state." he said. Lebed has
more than once called for Transdniester's accession to Russia
(on the model of Kaliningrad Oblast, which also lacks contiguity
with Russia) but this is the first time that he has taken this
position in a formal political program. Lebed was chosen as Transdniester's
"man of the year" in 1992. -Vladimir Socor

POPE IN LATVIA. On 8 September Pope John Paul II was greeted
at the Riga airport by Latvian President Guntis Ulmanis and other
top officials. Despite heavy rain tens of thousands of people
lined the streets of the pope's route to St. Jekabs Cathedral
where he held a brief liturgy for elderly priests and nuns before
crossing the street to the Saeima where he held talks with Ulmanis.
The pope then went to the Lutheran cathedral where he held an
ecumenical prayer service. In the afternoon he held an outdoor
Mass in the Mezaparka attended by about 35,000 people. -Saulius

the government decided to reform the Laanemaa volunteer infantry
company, some of whose members signed a statement on 25-July
stating that they were withdrawing from the Estonian armed forces,
BNS reports. The conflict led to the resignation of Defense Minister
Hain Rebas. A 20-page report on the company by a government commission
said that the mismanagement of the General Staff that had allowed
many volunteers not to take the Estonian army oath and illegal
business activities of the company had been responsible for the
conflict. It recommended that the statement signers be discharged
from the army within two months although they can apply for readmission
on an individual basis. The company's command was replaced. -Saulius

[As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Suzanne Crow and Charles Trumbull

assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA).
The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU),
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