|The only certainty is that nothing is certain. - Pliny the Elder|
No. 171, 07 September 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. CIS MORE DIVERGENT INTERPETATIONS OF MASSANDRA "AGREEMENTS". Both the Russian and the Ukrainian sides have continued to present conflicting interpretations about what was supposedly agreed to at the Russian-Ukrainian summit in Massandra on 3-September. On 6 September the Chairman of the Russian State Delegation for Negotiations with Ukraine, Yurii Dubinin, told an RFE/RL correspondent in Moscow that presidents Yeltsin and Kravchuk had agreed in principle at their meeting on the sale of Ukraine's share of the Black Sea Fleet to Russia in return for cancellation of Ukraine's debts. Also on 6-September, the Ukrainian Foreign Ministry issued a statement accusing "Russian and other foreign media," as well as "some Russian officials" of misinformation. -Bohdan Nahaylo KRAVCHUK GIVES HIS VERSION ABOUT MASSANDRA. In what appeared to be a rather belated attempt at damage control, President Kravchuk held a press conference in Kiev on 6-September at which he presented his version of what had occurred at the Massandra summit. The conference was broadcast live by Radio Ukraine. He explained that the Ukrainian side had been presented with a virtual ultimatum: either Ukraine find a way of beginning to repay its debt to Moscow, which he said was a little over two billion US dollars, or Russia would cut off the oil and natural gas supplies on which Ukraine is dependent. The Ukrainian delegation had been totally surprised by President Yeltsin's proposal that Ukraine pay off its debt by selling its share of the Black Sea Fleet and leasing Sevastopol to Russia. The Ukrainian side had agreed only "to study" this unexpected proposal. Kravchuk himself, however, indicated that because of "economic realities" he favored the idea of selling some part of Ukraine's share of the Fleet to Russia and leasing Sevastopol to Russia. -Bohdan Nahaylo WHAT WAS AGREED ON NUCLEAR WEAPONS? EXACTLY WHAT AGREEMENTS CONCERNING NUCLEAR WEAPONS, IF ANY, WERE REACHED AT THE MASSANDRA SUMMIT STILL REMAINS UNCLEAR. Initial reports indicated that Ukraine had agreed to turn over all warheads from dismantled launchers to Russia and that their fissile material would be reprocessed and returned to Ukraine as reactor fuel. Furthermore, Russia was reportedly willing to compensate Ukraine for the tactical nuclear weapons withdrawn to Russia in early 1992. A statement released by the Ukrainian Foreign Ministry on 4 September indicated, however, that the warhead agreement was conditioned on the prior conclusion of an agreement between the US, Ukraine, and Russia on the disposition of the warheads. During a 7 September press conference, Leonid Kravchuk noted that the warhead agreement was also dependent upon ratification of the START-1 treaty and that any formal treaty concerning warhead disposition would have to be ratified by parliament. He also stated that an agreement had been reached on servicing nuclear weapons and launchers. -John Lepingwell RUSSIA TO ASSUME KAZAKHSTAN'S DEBT. Under an agreement to be signed on 7-September, Russia will assume responsibility for Kazakhstan's share of the Soviet Union's foreign debts in return for the Soviet assets on Kazakhstan's territory, Russian and Western news agencies reported on 6 September. This agreement was among the issues discussed by Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev and Russian President Boris Yeltsin on 6-September, in preparation for the signing by leaders of several CIS states of an agreement on creation of a "new" ruble zone. In addition to issues of economic, political, and military cooperation between Kazakhstan and Russia the two leaders also discussed the future of the Baikonur space center, which is drawing great interest on the part of potential foreign investors. -Bess Brown RUSSIA GAIDAR CALLS FOR NEW ALLIANCE OF DEMOCRATS. Ex-Acting Prime Minister Egor Gaidar told a conference of democratic forces in Ekaterinburg on 6-September that the anti-Yeltsin opposition could gain strength because the democratic forces projected weakness after their victory in the August 1991 putsch, ITAR-TASS reported. He said that democrats should have acted according to tougher political rules. He indirectly accused President Yeltsin of having made too many concessions to his opponents in personnel appointments. Gaidar stated that in September, regional founding conferences for the new pro-democratic bloc "Russia's choice" would be held throughout Russia. In October, an all-Russian founding conference of the bloc will be convened in Moscow. The bloc intends to unite most potential pro-democratic parties and organizations for the next parliamentary elections. -Alexander Rahr GAIDAR THINKS OF COMEBACK. In an interview with Nedelya (no. 35) Gaidar said that he fears Yeltsin "may become tired" and not capable of further performing his duties. He also complained that the government is in a state of disarray and does not conduct consistent market reforms and claimed that if he had remained in charge, he would have acted differently. He said his current aim is to form a strong democratic alliance capable of winning a majority of seats in future parliamentary elections and to confront reactionary forces. He deplored the fact that democrats have so far failed to unite because of personal ambitions and did not exclude his own political comeback. -Alexander Rahr RUTSKOI TURNED AWAY FROM KREMLIN OFFICE. On the morning of 6 September Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi was prevented from entering his office in the Kremlin, apparently on the orders of Kremlin commandant Aleksandr Barsukov and President Yeltsin's chief of staff Sergei Filatov. Russian and Western media reported that Rutskoi's access to telephone communications had also been cut off. ITAR-TASS released a presidential press service statement saying that the offices of Rutskoi and ex-First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko had been sealed to prevent any tampering with documents. Both men were temporarily suspended by Yeltsin over corruption allegations on 1 September. On 4-September Rutskoi had demanded that the prosecutor general investigate why his telephone links had been severed; on 6 September eight opposition parliamentary factions backed him, asking the procurator general to give "a legal assessment" of the affair. -Wendy Slater LOBOV ON REFORM. First Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Lobov told journalists that there still was hope that the executive branch could gain parliament's agreement on the creation of the Council of the Federation. ITAR-TASS on 3 September quoted him as saying that if parliament rejects the idea, the subjects of the federation would have the right to set up the Council of Federation without parliament's approval. Lobov, who after the suspension of Vladimir Shumeiko, became the second-ranking politician in the government's hierarchy and has probably taken over most of Shumeiko's functions, sought to project a new image as a reform-minded politician. He said that economic reform proceeds slowly but successfully. He deplored the fact that property has so far not become recognized as a commodity on the market. -Alexander Rahr TRAVKIN DID NOT ASK PERMISSION FROM HIS PARTY TO JOIN SKOKOV. The chairman of the executive board of the Democratic Party of Russia, Valerii Khomyakov, told Ekho Moskvy on 4 September that the leader of the party, Nikolai Travkin, acted against his party's will when he entered the new centrist bloc set up by former Secretary of the Security Council, Yurii Skokov. Khomyakov said that the Democratic Party's leadership agreed only to hold consultations with Skokov but had taken no decision actually to join the new bloc. The name of Travkin appeared among the members of the organizational committee of Skokov's bloc "Concord For the Fatherland". -Alexander Rahr POLTORANIN QUESTIONED. Russian TV reported on 6 September that Deputy Prime Minister Mikhail Poltoranin spent three hours in Russian Prosecutor-General Valentin Stepankov's office. Poltoranin, a close ally of Yeltsin, said that he was questioned as a witness, rather then a suspect, on the case on abuse concerning the disposal of the Russian state property in East Berlin. He added that investigators made him to sign an obligation not to leave Moscow without their permission-a measure that by law cannot be applied to a mere witness. -Julia Wishnevsky BLUEPRINT FOR CONVERSION. Writing in Nezavisimaya gazeta of 27 August, Mikhail Malei surveys the current disturbing state of the military-industrial complex (MIC) and suggests a future way to go. Formerly the president's chief adviser on conversion, Malei is now head of the Interdepartmental Commission of the Russian Federation on Scientific-Technical Problems of the Defense Industry. He criticizes the Gaidar and Chernomyrdin administrations, parliament, and the trade unions for their neglect and mishandling of the MIC, and warns of frustration and insubordination in the complex. In his view, the shift of the "peaceful and disciplined" ranks of the MIC towards strikes and the political struggle would be the last straw for the current government. Among his proposals for reform are his own elevation to the cabinet and closer cooperation with other CIS members. -Keith Bush RETURN OF GOSAGROPROM? PARLIAMENT, "AT THE REQUEST OF PRESIDENT YELTSIN," HAS FORMED A STATE COMMITTEE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION FOR MACHINEBUILDING AND THE SERVICING OF AGRICULTURE, THE FOOD INDUSTRY, AND THE PROCESSING INDUSTRY, ITAR-TASS REPORTED ON 3-SEPTEMBER. Its formation is aimed at improving the standards of repair and maintenance of equipment and machinery: these have fallen, according to Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Zaveryukha, to the levels obtaining in the late 1960s. The new organization appears to be remarkably similar to the Gosagroprom-a "superministry" lasting from November 1985 through March 1989-which gained notoriety for its bureaucracy and inflexibility. The creation of the new committee appears to constitute a large stride backwards from the market. -Keith Bush TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA YELTSIN, ALIEV MEET. The talks in Moscow on 6-September between Russian President Boris Yeltsin and Azerbaijani Parliament Chairman Geidar Aliev yielded agreement on the principles for cooperation to achieve a settlement of the Karabakh conflict, Aliev told ITAR-TASS. Whether this would entail the deployment of Russian peacekeeping troops is not clear, but Russian Defense Minister Grachev told ITAR-TASS that Aliev had asked him to use "the authority of the Russian army, the Defense Ministry, and personal relations with the Armenian leadership." Aliev further said he would attend the CIS summit in Moscow on 24-September and that he had been authorized by the Azerbaijan parliament to explore the possibility of Azerbaijan joining the CIS. -Liz Fuller ABKHAZ PARLIAMENT ACCUSES GEORGIA OF VIOLATING CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT. On 6 September the Abkhaz parliament in Gudauta charged that Georgia is withdrawing only defective military equipment from Abkhazia, leaving operable armor in place, and that Georgian troops have remained in Abkhaz villages under the guise of police, ITAR-TASS reported. The tripartite Russian-Georgian-Abkhaz commission monitoring compliance with the agreement stated, however, on 6 September that Georgian and Abkhaz troops had been disengaged and that remaining equipment will be destroyed the following day by a special field engineering group. President Yeltsin has decided to replace Sergei Shoygu as head of the Russian section of the tripartite commission. -Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE ARE THE SERBS AND CROATS PLANNING SOMETHING IN BOSNIA? RECENT STATEMENTS BY SOME LEADERS OF THESE TWO NOMINALLY ANTAGONISTIC PEOPLES SUGGEST THAT THEY INDEED MAY INTEND TO MAKE GOOD ON THEIR THREATS TO PARTITION BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA BETWEEN THEM IF THE MUSLIMS CONTINUE TO DELAY IN ENDORSING THE GENEVA PEACE PLAN. The president of the Bosnian Serbs' assembly wrote on 6 September to the Security Council that Izetbegovic no longer represents any Bosnian polity but only the Muslims, while Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic warned again that time is running out and that the Serbs are ready to proclaim their own republic and seek international recognition if the Muslims continue to demand more territory. The BBC's Serbian and Croatian Services also report on Croatian President Franjo Tudjman's regular monthly press conference. He again told the Muslims that they would not get the Herzegovinian Croat port of Neum, and, perhaps more importantly, Tudjman went on to suggest that Muslim demands for Neum indicate that they no longer regard themselves as being part of any common Bosnian state with the Croats and Serbs. He also stated that Croatia is interested in all Croats in Bosnia-Herzegovina, not just in the minority who will be included in the new "Croatian Republic of Herceg-Bosna." The upshot of all this may be that Tudjman and Karadzic are indeed setting the stage for some sort of declaration that the proposed union of three republics in Bosnia is dead because of the Muslims' own doings, and that the Croats and Serbs will now take matters into their own hands. -Patrick Moore MUSLIMS TELL OF TORTURE, INHUMANE CONDITIONS. International media on 7-September quote a UN official who heard "horror stories" from about 100-Muslim prisoners released from a Croat camp in Herzegovina the previous day. The prisoners, who arrived at the beleaguered town of Jablanica amid harsh conditions, said that 2,500 more are still being held, unable to lie down or to have access to even elementary sanitation or medical care. Meanwhile, the BBC's Serbian and Croatian Services report that Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic has complained that the UN has "passed a lot of nice resolutions, nice words, and nice appeals, but there have been no actions to back them up." He nonetheless intends to appeal to the Security Council to help the Muslims get more territory in a future peace settlement, a proposition that both the Serbs and the Croats have said is a non-starter. Finally, Hina reports on 6 September that the Bosnian Croats' two top leaders have written UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali protesting what they said was increased Muslim attacks on Croat villages in recent weeks during the Geneva peace talks. -Patrick Moore MACEDONIA TIGHTENS BORDER WITH SERBIA. The Republic of Macedonia will reportedly begin tightening sanctions against the rump Yugoslavia. According to Reuters, which relied on information from the Belgrade daily, Politika, the move came after a letter from US Secretary of State Warren Christopher allegedly suggested that the opening of a US representative's office in Skopje will depend upon strict enforcment of UN-sanctions imposed on rump Yugoslavia, Macedonia's largest trading partner. In the past this border has been porous. -Robert Austin MORE PROTESTS IN SOUTHERN ALBANIA. Reuters reports on 6 September that 100 ethnic Greeks from southern Albania took part in a demonstration-but this time they are protesting against the Greek government, not the Albanian. Albania's Greek leadership, as well as officials in Athens, have continually argued that the Tirana government denies the Greek minority basic human rights. According to the report, the protesters alleged that several of their conationals were beaten by Greek police when they tried to cross into Greece without valid papers. -Robert Austin CROATIA AND BALKAN ECONOMIC INTEGRATION. Branko Horvat, a noted economist and leader of the Social Liberal Union of Croatia, explained in an interview with Globus that Croatia's only hope for development and integration in Europe is to strive for Balkan economic integration. He said the EC is not able to absorb the multitude of new and underdeveloped countries, adding that Croatia is doomed to meet the fate of Caribbean economies-which he characterized as "waiters on the outside, peasants on the inside"-without regional integration. He pointed out that the economic and social disintegration now taking place in the former Yugoslavia happened before, during World War II, when the level of brutality and deaths was much higher-"and yet we were able to live together in a common state after 1945." -Milan Andrejevich POLISH FINANCE MINISTER ON COMMERCIAL DEBT. In a 6 September interview with Reuters, Finance Minister Jerzy Osiatynski said that spending on servicing the internal and external debt is expected to increase from 64 to 115 trillion zloty ($3.2 to 5.8-billion) in 1993, and that Poland will be unable to contain its spiraling public debt without a substantial write-off on its $12-billion debt to foreign commercial banks. The creditor banks have offered 30%, but Poland is hoping for a 50% write-off. Osiatynski stressed the need to eliminate wastage in public spending on health and education, and reform spending by state firms. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka NEW YORK PROSECUTORS REJECT POLISH MEMO ON ARMS SUSPECTS. Gazeta Wyborcza reported on 6-September that neither the US State Department nor the prosecutors in the case of five Polish citizens accused of having attempted to smuggle automatic rifles to Iraq in violation of the UN embargo were swayed by a memorandum from the Polish Foreign Ministry and a letter from Prime Minister Suchocka invoking diplomatic arguments to support a request that the case be tried by a Polish court. The accused have consistently denied knowledge that the arms were destined for Iran and claim to have been the victims of a trap prepared by US customs officials. The trial, which opens in New York today, is seen by many Poles as involving a violation of Polish sovereignty. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka CZECH REPUBLIC: THE RUSHDIE CONTROVERSY. On 6 September, Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus distanced himself from a visit to Prague by the British author Salman Rushdie, who had been sentenced in absentia to death by Iran four years ago for publishing The Satanic Verses, a novel that Islamic fundamentalists found to be blasphemous. Rushdie, who visited Prague on 2-5 September to participate in a conference, met on 5 September with President Vaclav Havel, who expressed moral support for the writer. In a statement issued on 6-September, Klaus said that he considers Havel's meeting with Rushdie to be the private matter of the president. He also said he hopes that the meeting "will not be interpreted as an act aimed against Islamic states." The premier claimed he had not been informed about Rushdie's visit in advance. However, the spokesman for the president told Czech TV on 6 September that he had personally informed Klaus's government about Rushdie's visit before the British author's arrival. This is the latest in a series of cases in which the president and premier have crossed swords over procedural matters of state." -Jiri Pehe SLOVAK PREMIER'S REMARKS ON ROMANIES CAUSE OUTRAGE. Vladimir Meciar's alleged statements about Romanies have led to attacks by several international groups. On 6-September Simon Wiesenthal, accusing Meciar of "harboring Nazi sentiments," said "similar remarks were made by the Nazis who deported thousands of Gypsies from all European countries to extermination camps," Reuters reports. The International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights said such remarks "do not inspire confidence in Slovak policies to realize human rights standards to which Slovakia has committed itself" and called on Meciar to withdraw them. The Austrian group Romano Centro said "Slovakia should be barred from the Council of Europe until Meciar has left office," while Germany's leading Gypsy group said Meciar should be barred from German soil. The uproar began with a 3-September report by CTK that Meciar, in reference to Romanies, said it is necessary to reduce family welfare payments so that "the reproduction of socially unadaptable and mentally retarded people drops." Although the story has been picked up by several international news agencies, it has not been officially confirmed. There was no similar report by the Slovak press agency, and there was no immediate comment from Meciar's office. -Sharon Fisher RABBI ASSAULTED IN BRATISLAVA. In an unrelated instance, on 5 September Baruch Myers, a US citizen and the only rabbi in the Slovak capital, was attacked by unknown assailants, who yelled "Jews get out" in German. Although Myers suffered only minor injuries, he is "shaken mentally," Reuters reports. Myers went immediately to a police station following the assault, but the policeman on duty failed to report the case. The investigation was thus delayed more than seven hours, and the police have not found the attackers, TASR reports. -Sharon Fisher HUNGARY ON ROMANIA AND THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE. Hungary's parliamentary foreign relations committee on 6 September heard a report by Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky on Romania's request for Council of Europe membership, due to be voted upon in Strasbourg in about three weeks, MTI and Radio Budapest report. The committee confirmed Hungary's interest in seeing Romania integrate into Europe but said Bucharest should support its application with "well-defined, broad, concrete guarantees" for the rights of Romania's large Magyar minority. in order to meet the CE's requirements in that sphere. No decision was taken as to how Hungary will vote on the issue, and further consultations are planned with the Romanian side and the CE. The Romanian government, caught between the CE's and Hungary's demands and the attacks of Gheorghe Funar's ultra-nationalist National Unity Party, on whose support it depends, must soon make a decision with regard to bilingual signs in minority-inhabited areas as their prohibition could further delay Romania's admission into the Council of Europe. -Alfred Reisch ROMANIAN PARLIAMENT DEBATES CORRUPTION. Parliament voted to invite the dismissed chief of the Financial Police, Gen. Gheorghe Florica, to the debate on the opposition's motion of censure over government corruption. Western agencies reported on 6-September that Florica failed to produce the expected new evidence. The debate, in which Florica appeared to be incoherent, was broadcast live by Radio Bucharest. Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu said evidence produced so far does not warrant the dismissal of members of the government and called the motion "nothing but a scenario to prevent the government from implementing its [reform] program." The debate continues on 7-September. -Michael Shafir LOW TURNOUT IN ROMANIAN LOCAL ELECTIONS. Partial local elections were held in 57-electoral districts on 6 September, but most failed to produce a winner because of a very low voter turnout. Radio Bucharest said in 44 districts the turnout was less than the required half of the electorate plus one, and new elections will be held in two weeks. In five districts the turnout met the legal requirement, but none of the candidates gathered enough votes to be elected; in these districts, a runoff between the candidates who placed first and second will also be held in two weeks. Mayors were elected in only 8 of the 57 districts. -Michael Shafir LEBED FORESEES LONG-TERM ROLE IN MOLDOVA. Ostankino TV's "Itogi" reported on 5-September that the forces of the Dniester republic held an "impressive military parade, including armor and even combat aviation," on the anniversary just celebrated in Tiraspol. Noting the growing political role of Lt.-Gen. Aleksandr Lebed, commander of Russia's 14th Army in Moldova, the program commented that it reflects "Russia's increasingly strong influence on events in the region." In an interview on the program, Lebed pointedly said that his army is "based on Dniester territory" (not Moldovan) and expressed confidence that he "will serve there for a long time to come." On 2 September Lebed told Ekho Moskvy that he is "confident that the recognition of the Dniester republic [by Russia] is only a matter of time", reminding listeners that it took the Soviet Union ten years to be recognized. -Vladimir Socor GAGAUZ LEADERS "HAVE GREATER RUSSIA IN THEIR BLOOD." "The last time I was in the Soviet Union was two weeks ago," a delighted correspondent wrote in Pravda of 4-September 1993 upon returning from the self-proclaimed Gagauz republic on Moldovan territory. "Consider yourself on the territory of the renewed USSR," Gagauz foreign minister Petr Zavrichko greeted the correspondent. "Gagauzia is historic Russian land, our umbilical cord ties us to Russia," and "we have Greater Russia-the great union-in our blood," the republic's president Stepan Topal told Pravda. -Vladimir Socor CABINET OF MINISTERS DENIES KUCHMA RESIGNATION. In response to reports by ITAR-TASS on 4-September that President Leonid Kravchuk had accepted Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma's resignation, Dmytro Tabachnyk, the press secretary of the Cabinet of Ministers, officially denied that the government had confirmed Kuchma's resignation, Ukrainian TV reported on 6 September. Earlier in the day ITAR-TASS reported that Tabachnyk said that Kuchma had formally submitted his resignation on 4 September. Neither the president nor the prime minister has made a statement about such moves. -Ustina Markus QIAN QICHEN IN UKRAINE. Having arrived in Kiev on Ukrainian Airlines' first flight from Beijing, China's Foreign Minister Qian Qichen met with President Leonid Kravchuk on 6 September, Ukrainian Radio reports. The two discussed the possibility of expanding cooperation in a variety of areas along lines discussed during Kravchuk's visit to China in October 1992. Ukraine is the first stop on Qian's itinerary of five east European countries. On 7 September he is scheduled to meet with Parliament Chairman Ivan Plyushch and Foreign Minister Anatolii Zlenko and attend the opening of China's embassy in Kiev. -Ustina Markus RUSSIA RESTORES GAS TO BELARUS. Russia has fully resumed shipments following the government's payment of half of its $100-million gas bill and promise to pay the remainder by October, Reuters reported on 6 September. Leonid Zhakovich of the Belarus State Planning Commission said that Belarus is now receiving 27 million cubic meters of gas a day, the same level it received before Moscow reduced supplies last month. The payment was made partly in cash, and partly through barter deals. -Ustina Markus POPE CONTINUES VISIT IN LITHUANIA. On 6 September Pope John Paul-II traveled to Kaunas where he held an outdoor Mass attended by his largest audience yet in Lithuania, Radio Lithuania reports. In his sermon he condemned the disastrous environmental legacy of the former USSR and appealed for renewing the earth. He met with the Lithuanian Conference of Bishops, headed by Cardinal Vincentas Sladkevicius. In the Darius and Girenas Stadium he warned a crowd of about 20,000 young people about the dangers of racism and brutality towards other people. He criticized the "search for an artificial paradise," greater use of drugs, and the marketing of sex and pornography. On 7-September the pope will travel to the Hill of Crosses near the city of Siauliai for another outdoor Mass and visit the shrine in Siluva. -Saulius Girnius ESTONIAN COURT NULLIFIES SILLAMAE REFERENDUM. On 6 September the Estonian Supreme Court declared null and void the referendum on local autonomy held in Sillamae on 17 July, BNS reports. The court's chairman, Rait Maruste, explained that, according to the Constitution, local governments do not have the right to call referendums or the power to declare their own autonomy. The decision was expected for on 11 August the court had declared null and void a similar referendum held in Narva on 16-17 July. Sillamae Council Chairman Aleksandr Maksimenko said that the city authorities will abide with the court's ruling although he still maintained that the Estonian laws that had prompted the calling of the referendum discriminated against the Russian-speaking minority. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Suzanne Crow and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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