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No. 170, 06 September 1993
COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES YELTSIN, GRACHEV ON MASSANDRA SUMMIT. Russian President Boris Yeltsin announced on 3 September that he and Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk had agreed at a summit meeting in the city of Massandra on the Crimean peninsula that day that Ukraine would turn over its share of the Black Sea Fleet in exchange for "more or less" the cancellation of Ukrainian debts to Russia. Yeltsin also announced that agreement had been reached on the return of nuclear warheads from Ukraine to Russia for dismantling. Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev made similar claims at a press conference the following day, ITAR-TASS and Western agencies reported. The text of the Russian-Ukrainian communique signed at the meeting and published by ITAR-TASS on 4 September made no reference to the kinds of deals mentioned by Yeltsin and Grachev. -Suzanne Crow UKRAINIAN SIDE DENIES MASSANDRA "DEALS". After an initial delay of several hours, Ukrainian representatives began challenging the Russian and Western accounts of what had been agreed to at Massandra. When President Kravchuk and other members of the Ukrainian delegation finally arrived back in Kiev late on 3 September they denied that any deals concerning the sale of Ukraine's share of the Black Sea Fleet or Ukraine's surrender of its nuclear warheads to Russia had been made. Kravchuk explained to journalists at Kiev airport that "nothing" fundamental "had changed." Ukraine was not in a position to maintain its entire share of the Black Sea Fleet and would consider a Russian proposal to sell some of the ships to it and allow it to use some of the Ukrainian naval "infrastructure" (i.e. Sevastopol), but it was "absolutely not the case," he stressed, that he agreed to sell all of Ukraine's share of the fleet and to lease Sevastopol to Russia. -Bohdan Nahaylo THE UKRAINIAN VERSION OF THE SUMMIT. From what President Kravchuk, foreign minister Anatolii Zlenko, and the deputy minister for military conversion, Valerii Shmarov, told journalists at Kiev airport on their return from Massandra, and from what has emerged subsequently from other Ukrainian officials and been reported by the Ukrainian media, the Russian side had evidently surprised and flat-footed the Ukrainian delegation by the toughness of its position on the debt issue and by proposing that Ukraine settle this problem without delay by selling its share of the Black Sea Fleet and leasing Sevastopol to Russia. The ensuing negotiations had apparently been very strained and some Ukrainian representatives, as various Western newspapers have reported, have even accused the Russian side of overstepping the bounds of "civilized methods" and of "economic diktat." The only agreement in this sphere which was reached, according to Ukrainian officials, was to form a commission which would study the Russian proposal concerning Ukraine's share of the Black Sea Fleet. -Bohdan Nahaylo NO CHANGE IN UKRAINE'S "TEMPORARY" NUCLEAR STATUS. As for the issues connected with nuclear weapons, the Ukrainian side considers that it made the real breakthrough at Massandra, and not the other way round. Kravchuk, Zlenko, and other officials have emphasized in their statements carried in the Ukrainian media that the agreements that were reached on these matters at Massandra come after protracted negotiations with Russia and concern the maintenance of warheads situated in Ukraine and compensation which Ukraine is claiming for warheads sent to Russia for dismantling. For the first time, they stress, the Russian side has also agreed to consider Ukraine's claims for compensation for the tactical nuclear weapons which it transferred to Russia in 1992. There has been no suggestion from any Ukrainian official that Ukraine has in fact altered its stance on nuclear weapons and is prepared to give all, or some of them, up before parliament finally makes a decision about the ratification of START-1. -Bohdan Nahaylo GRACHEV AND MOROZOV ALSO DISAGREE. On 5-September Ukrainian Minister of Defense, Konstantin Morozov responded to Russian Minister of Defense, Pavel Grachev's 4-September statement suggesting that Ukraine may join Russia in a Black Sea defense union after Russia took over the Black Sea Fleet. Morozov denied that an agreement to sell off Ukraine's portion of the Black Sea Fleet had been reached or that had any leasing arrangements of the naval base at Sevastopol been decided on. He said any agreements on the base would have to take into account Ukraine's security interests, which include the withdrawal of the Russian fleet beyond Ukraine's borders, Ukrainian Radio reported on 5-September. -Ustina Markus THE DOMESTIC POLITICAL FALLOUT IN UKRAINE. Despite the explanations which Kravchuk and other Ukrainian officials have offered about what occurred at Massandra, the preliminary reports about an agreement to sell off Ukraine's naval force and hand over nuclear warheads to Russia sent shock waves throughout Ukraine and exacerbated the political crisis in the country. Stunned leaders of the democratic opposition and nationalist groups promptly accused the Ukrainian president of 'capitulationism' and of betraying Ukraine's national interests, Ukrainian and Western media report. The leader of the main opposition party, Rukh, Vyacheslav Chornovil, for instance, has declared that Kravchuk deserves to be impeached and urged that parliament (which adjourned last Thursday until 21 September) be reconvened. There are reports, too, of protests from demoralized Ukrainian naval officers in Crimea and a demonstration on 5 September in Lviv. -Bohdan Nahaylo CIS SUMMIT POSTPONED. The CIS summit scheduled for 7 September has been postponed until 24 September, Yeltsin announced at his joint press conference with Kravchuk in Massandra on 3 September, ITAR-TASS reported. In an interview on Ostankino television on 4 September, Yeltsin said the postponement was the result of a request by Kravchuk that the summit not meet until the Ukrainian parliament had discussed the question of creating an economic union, which will be the main topic of the summit. Yeltsin said that he attached great importance to the summit. Interest in some form of economic union is such that both Moldovan president Mircea Snegur and Azerbaijan parliament leader Geidar Aliev had announced they would be attending even though their republics are no longer members of the CIS. Georgian head of state Eduard Shevardnadze has not yet replied to the invitation to attend, ITAR-TASS reported on 3 September. -Ann Sheehy RUSSIA PARLIAMENT REFERS RUTSKOI'S SUSPENSION TO CONSTITUTIONAL COURT. The Russian parliament on 3 September rejected President Yeltsin's request to support his temporary suspension of Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi and First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko because of corruption allegations, Western agencies reported. The text of Yeltsin's message was carried by ITAR-TASS on 3 September. The Parliament voted overwhelmingly to refer the section of the decree which concerned Rutskoi to the Constitutional Court; parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov said that the vote had thus nullified Rutskoi's suspension and termed the decree "a shocking betrayal of the constitution." Justice Minister Yurii Kalmykov, accusing the Constitutional Court of bias, has predicted that it will overturn Yeltsin's decree. -Wendy Slater DEMOCRATIC RUSSIA DEFENDS SHUMEIKO. The coordinating council of the Movement "Democratic Russia" has issued a statement criticizing the temporary suspension of First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko because his departure has weakened the reformist wing in the government, ITAR-TASS reported on 3 September. It said that after the successful organization of Yeltsin's campaign at the April referendum, Shumeiko's popularity had risen so high that he was considered as a possible candidate for future presidential elections. Reactionary forces have therefore chosen Shumeiko as a target of their attacks, the leadership of "Democratic Russia" said and appealed to the state procuracy to speed up investigation into corruption charges leveled against Shumeiko so that he could be cleared and return to his former job. -Alexander Rahr PARLIAMENT REJECTS PROPOSAL TO SPEED UP CONSTITUTION ADOPTION. Parliament rejected on 3 September a proposal by pro-Yeltsin deputy Father Gleb Yakunin, who suggested that the parliament should set a date for a new session of the Congress of People's Deputies for the discussion of a new constitution. ITAR-TASS said that Yakunin thought the parliament should debate the draft constitution that was prepared in June by the Constitutional Assembly. The same day, Radio Mayak reported that after rejecting Yakunin's proposal, the parliament voted to create a commission headed by its speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov empowered to begin talks with Yeltsin on the reconciliation of the Constitutional Assembly's draft and the latest draft constitution worked out by the parliament's constitutional commission. The procedure for adopting a new constitution has not yet been agreed upon, since many politicians think that the Congress of People's Deputies should not be entrusted with this task, despite the fact that this is what the currently existing legislation requires. -Vera Tolz RUSSIAN MINERS BEGIN 24-HOUR STRIKE. 10,000 coalminers failed to show up for the first shift in Russia's Far Eastern Sakhalin Region on 6 September, ITAR-TASS reported, forcing the closure of all the mines on the island. Next to refuse to work were miners at the Inta collieries in Russia's Far North. Miners in the Urals region of Western Siberia are not striking, but have agreed to suspend deliveries as a sign of solidarity with those who are. The miners are staging a 24-hour protest against the government's decision to free coal prices. The ending of state subsidies means that as many as half Russia's mines may be threatened with closure; thousands of miners will be thrown out of work; and those that remain in work will see a sharp fall in wages and other benefits. -Elizabeth Teague TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA MASSIVE ATTACK ON PRIVATIZATION PROGRAM ANTICIPATED. The deputy prime minister in charge of privatization has warned that parliament is preparing a massive attack on the program, Biznes-TASS reported on 3 September. Anatolii Chubais told a meeting of the All-Russian Association of Privatized and Private Enterprises that the legislature is planning to broaden the powers of the State Property Fund (GKI) and to replace its chairman with a parliamentary deputy who will effectively halt the current privatization process. On 5-September, Moscow Mayor Yurii Luzhkov claimed that President Yeltsin shared his concern about "wild" privatization, Central TV reported. Luzhkov and Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Lobov had sent the president a letter spelling out recent instances of corrupt buyouts, including the sale of the ZIL automobile plant. -Keith Bush TURKEY REINFORCES TROOP PRESENCE ON FRONTIER WITH ARMENIA. On 3-September Turkey moved additional troops to its frontier with Armenia and placed them on heightened alert, Reuters reported quoting the semi-officials Anatolian News Agency. A spokesman for the Iranian Embassy in Baku told Radio Liberty's Azerbaijani Service that no Iranian troops had crossed the frontier into Azerbaijan; Turkish President Suleyman Demirel characterized the Armenian occupation of territory in southern Azerbaijan as "ethnic cleansing". In an interview published in Hurriyet on 4 September, Turkish Prime Minister Tansu Ciller warned that she could not exclude military retaliation if Armenian forces attack the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhichevan. -Liz Fuller ALIEV IN MOSCOW. Azerbaijan parliament chairman Geidar Aliev flew to Moscow on 5-September for talks with the Russian leadership aimed at correcting what he termed "serious errors" in the policy adopted by the leadership of Abulfaz Elchibey and placing Russian-Azerbaijani relations on "mutually advantageous foundations", ITAR-TASS reported. Whether the possibility of CIS membership for Azerbaijan will be discussed is not clear. Aliev will also attend talks under the aegis of the CSCE beginning on 9 September. It is not known whether he will meet in Moscow with Turkish Prime Minister Tansu Ciller, who is scheduled to arrive there this week. -Liz Fuller TAJIK LEADER FOR EARLY ELECTIONS. Tajikistan's head of state, Supreme Soviet Chairman Imomali Rakhmonov, told the country's Constitutional Commission on 5-September that he agrees on the need for early elections to the national legislature, but such elections cannot be held until social and political stability is restored, ITAR-TASS reported. He also listed the disarming of illegal armed groups and the repatriation of all Tajik refugees in Afghanistan as preconditions for parliamentary elections. Rakhmonov made his observations in connection with an appeal to the commission to speed up work on a new constitution, which he said Tajikistan needs as soon as possible in order to create a democratic, secular state based on law. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE TRYING TO REVIVE BOSNIAN PEACE TALKS. Radios Bosnia and Serbia report on 4-5 September that leaders of the warring parties in Bosnia are willing to revive the Geneva peace talks but clearly show they are not willing to compromise. After meeting with Turkish officials in Istanbul, Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic told reporters on 4 September that he is ready to resume negotiations, but would not change his demands that Bosnian Serbs and Croats give up more land and access to a port on the Adriatic. Izetbegovic meets with UN Security Council on 6 September. Nikola Koljevic, vice president of the self-proclaimed Serb Republic, told the Novi Sad Dnevnik on 5 September that his side is willing to exchange some territory-but not grant additional land-to the Muslims if it means it would salvage the Geneva talks. Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic made a similar statement saying there can only be "territorial adjustments within the framework of the current plan." Meanwhile, on 5 September, Bosnian presidency member Mirko Pejanovic, a Serb, and Bosnia's deputy commander of the army, Stjepan Siber, a Croat, have asked UNPROFOR commanders to intervene to ensure that humanitarian aid reaches embattled Muslim areas such as Mostar and Gornji Vakuf. Vjesnik on 5-September published a report in which Bosnian Croat army officials accused Muslim government forces of holding more than 1,000 Croat families in detention centers in central Bosnia where Muslims were trying to force the Croats to renounce their ethnic identity. The charges came one day after Roger Wilkinson, a spokesman for the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, remarked that Muslim civilians released from Croat detention camps near Mostar "looked like concentration camp victims from the Second World War." -Milan Andrejevich EUROPEAN DEMOCRATIC UNION CONGRESS ENDS CONGRESS. At the end of its 16th congress held in Budapest from 1 to 3 September, and attended by the prime ministers and other top officials of ten European states, the European Democratic Union issued a final declaration calling for even closer economic cooperation among the countries of Western and East Central Europe in support of the latter's political and economic reforms and of its stability and security. According to the EDU chairman, Austrian Foreign Minister Alois Mock, the organization supports the desire of Hungary, Poland, and the Czech Republic to join the European Community and NATO, MTI reports. The EDU granted observer status to Slovakia's Hungarian Christian Democratic Movement, and full membership to the Hungarian Democratic Union of Romania, whose leaders said this will enable them to better represent Magyar minority interests and protect them against attacks from Slovak and Romanian nationalists. -Alfred Reisch KOHL TO SUPPORT CZECH ADMISSION TO EC. According to the daily Mlada Fronta Dnes, German Chancellor Helmut Kohl told journalists in Bonn on 3-September that he will support the Czech Republic's integration with the West and particularly its admission to the EC. He said that the integration of Germany's closest eastern neighbors with Western Europe is an elementary precondition for internal peace in Europe and Germany. Referring to a meeting with Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus in Budapest last week, Kohl indirectly criticized Prague's unwillingness to open a debate with representatives of the more than three million Germans who were expelled from Czechoslovakia after the war. The chancellor indicated that the failure to discuss common history and efforts to exclude Sudeten Germans from such discussions represent an obstacle for reconciliation between the Czech Republic and Germany. Kohl was quoted as saying that it should not only be the prime ministers of the two countries who talk to each other but also "people who have a very special relationship" to the common past. Kohl added that a true dialogue between Czechs and Germans is impossible if one side tries to exclude a group from it or refuses to accept it as a partner. -Jan Obrman SLOVAK PREMIER ON ROMANIES, HUNGARIANS. In a 3 September visit to the eastern Spisska Nova Ves district, Premier Vladimir Meciar, in a reference to Romanies, said that it is necessary to reduce family welfare payments so that "the reproduction of socially unadaptable and mentally retarded people drops." According to local and international media, Meciar said it is not "socially just when someone who does not work is better off than someone who works," or "when large families get huge welfare support" simply because they have many children. Romanies represent 13% of the Spisska Nova Ves district residents and are reportedly responsible for a significant share of its crime and unemployment. In response to the Hungarian parties' recent letter to the Council of Europe concerning minority rights legislation, Meciar said Slovakia "was given six months to adopt the necessary changes in its legislation, and this time is still not over. Blaming us for not complying with something is an outright lie. Those who do so are doing it with a deliberate intention to harm this country," TASR reports. -Sharon Fisher HORTHY REBURIED IN HUNGARY. Admiral Miklos Horthy, Regent of Hungary from 1919 to 1944, who died in exile in Portugal in 1957, was reburied with his wife and son in the family vault at Kenderes on 4 September, MTI and Radio Budapest report. The ceremony, which the Horthy family intended to be a private one, was attended by some 50,000 persons, including seven ministers and Prime Minister Antall's wife and son-albeit in a private capacity-and top leaders of Hungary's Reformed and Roman Catholic Churches. On the eve of the reburial, several hundred persons gathered in Budapest to "bid farewell" to the Horthy era in a demonstration organized by Hungary's Democratic Charter, and close to 1,000 persons held a silent demonstration at the request of Hungary's Jewish organizations to remember Hungary's 600,000 Jews killed at the end of World War-II. The Hungarian press on 4-September published numerous articles reminiscing about Horthy, who is still a controversial figure and whose role is viewed in differing ways by Hungarians at home and abroad. -Alfred Reisch ROMANIA, THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE, AND THE MAGYAR MINORITY. Romania is close to being accepted as a full member of the Council of Europe, diplomats and officials in Strasbourg told an RFE/RL correspondent on 3 September. On the previous day the council's judicial and human rights commission approved its admission, and sources in Strasbourg say the application might get the approval of the council's parliamentary assembly when it meets later this month. Both assembly approval and the concurrence of all 31-member-states is required for admission. Diplomats say Hungary may be opposed to immediate Romanian membership over the issue of the Magyar minority. In an interview with Adevarul on 4-September, Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu said Budapest's attitude toward Romania's admission will "provide a genuine test for its sincerity" in "normal relations of collaboration," adding that the issue will figure prominently in his talks with his Hungarian counterpart, Geza Jeszenszky, in Bucharest later this month. At a press conference on 3-September a spokesman for the presidency criticized a memorandum from the Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania to CE Secretary-General Catherine Lalumiere for not seeking "to cooperate constructively" with the government. At a press conference carried live by Radio Bucharest on the same day, Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu denounced the memorandum, saying it could have "serious consequences" for Romania's application. -Michael Shafir ROMANIAN GOVERNMENT REJECTS OPPOSITION CENSURE. Vacaroiu said at the same press conference that the government rejects the opposition's motion of censure, which demands the dismissal of two ministers and the government's secretary-general on suspicion of corruption. He said the accusations are part of a "tasteless scenario" and that he will present the executive's position to parliament on 6 September. On the other hand, Vacaroiu revealed that a government investigation has turned up "large deposits in foreign banks" in connection with a failed shipping deal with a Greek company that figured among the corruption allegations. The premier did not explain whose accounts were involved, but said those found guilty will have to pay, no matter how high their position. In a related development, the Party of Romanian National Unity said it has given the government until the end of the month to meet demands on economic reform or face a no-confidence motion. The PRNU has backed the Vacaroiu government, and is probably less interested in economic reform and more on forcing the executive to include some of its members and rejecting Magyar demands on minority rights, PRNU vice chairman Ioan Gavra hinted at a press conference on 2 September. -Michael Shafir VISEGRAD DEFENSE OFFICIALS MEET IN POLAND. Deputy defense ministers and chiefs of general staff from the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia gather on 6-September for a working meeting in Cracow. According to Polish media reports, they are to discuss logistical problems in coordinating military activities in the four countries, which form the so-called Visegrad Group in East Central Europe and maintain close cooperation in political and security matters. -Jan de Weydenthal LAST PUBLIC OPINION POLL BEFORE POLISH VOTE. Excommunists won the most public support in the last public opinion poll before the parliamentary elections, gaining about 15% of votes in a national sample. They were followed by a left-wing peasant party (13%), the Democratic Union (12%), the Walesa-supported BBWR and left-leaning Labor Union (6% each), Solidarity and the populist Party X (5%). No other group secured 5% of the vote, as is required for the representation in parliament. The results of the poll were reported by the media, which also said that the turnout is expected to reach about 50%, 10% more than that of the 1990 ballot. The election is to take place on 19 September. -Jan de Weydenthal PRIMAKOV VISITS BULGARIA. On 3 September the director of the Russian foreign intelligence service, Evgenii Primakov, arrived in Sofia to meet with high-ranking government officials and his Bulgarian counterpart, Gen. Brigo Asparuhov. According to BTA, Primakov held discussions with Premier Lyuben Berov covering the effects of the UN imposed sanctions against rump Yugoslavia on the Bulgarian economy; they also spoke about international terrorism, the drug trade, and how to deal with the organized crime activities of the Bulgarian and Russian mafias. With President Zhelyu Zhelev, Primakov spoke about the war in ex-Yugoslavia. Ties between the Bulgarian and Soviet intelligence authorities were strong under communism, with the KGB being involved in directing secret police operations in Bulgaria. -Stan Markotich ALBANIAN PRESS HIGHLIGHTS. Gazeta Shqiptare reports on 5 September that the Albanian branch of the Helsinki Committee has aired concerns over rising religious extremism in Albania and warned that current trends might break down the existing harmony among religions. The group also noted that religion is being used as a criterion for job placement in some state institutions. Reuters also reports on 5 September that Christian and Moslem missionaries are using financial incentives to win followers. In other developments, Rilindja Demokratike reports on 5 September that at the meeting of the European Democratic Union held in Budapest last week, Albania's Democratic Party was denied membership in the body. According to the Democratic Party press, this was the result of efforts by Greece's New Democracy Party, which opposed the move on grounds that Albania does not recognize the rights of its Greek minority. However, according to an article on 5-September in the Socialist paper Zeri i Popullit, the reason might in fact be that the Democratic Party jails people opposed to its policies. In internal developments, all Albanian dailies report on the beginning of a new parliamentary session with all parties, including the Socialists, present and accounted for; the Socialists obviously felt that their parliamentary boycott was useless and now vow an all-out battle in parliament. This session's main focus will continue to be the country's new constitution. Finally, 24 Ore reports on 5 September that former president Ramiz Alia has published a new book, Hopes and Disillusions, that chronicles the period from May 1991-April 1992. -Robert Austin MOLDOVAN PRESIDENT ON SECURITY GOALS. Addressing a ceremony marking the first observance of Moldovan Army Day on 3 September, President Mircea Snegur said that the creation of Moldova's own armed forces pursues two main objectives: contributing to "filling the security vacuum resulting from the disintegration of the Warsaw Pact in this region," and "orienting [Moldova] toward fruitful cooperation with NATO and its bodies." The settlement of the Transdniester crisis is a political matter and it tops the leadership's political agenda, Snegur said, as quoted by Basapress. -Vladimir Socor ODESSA TO BE FREE-TRADE ZONE. In a step towards market reform, the Ukrainian Cabinet of Ministers has decided to set up the country's first free-trade zone in Odessa, ITAR-TASS reported on 4 September. Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma signed an order creating a Committee for the Establishment of the Odessa Economic Free-Trade Zone. Over the next three months the committee is to work out regulations regarding international trade, transit duties and foreign investment in Odessa. The committee will be headed by parliamentary deputy Ruslan Bodelan. -Ustina Markus POPE IN LITHUANIA. John Paul II began his week long visit to the Baltic States on 4-September in Vilnius, where he met with President Algirdas Brazauskas and his family before holding a Mass for the Poles in Vilnius, Radio Lithuania reports. On 5 September after meeting with Jewish leaders, he held an outdoor Mass in Vilnius and called upon the Balts to reconcile with Moscow. President Boris Yeltsin has invited the pope to visit Moscow, but an invitation from the Orthodox Church is also needed. On 6 September in Kaunas the pope held an outdoor Mass for more than 100,000 people. The pope spoke in Lithuanian in major gatherings. The pontiff's efforts to visit Lithuania in 1984 and 1987 were vetoed by the Soviet authorities. -Saulius Girnius UN MISSION ON TROOP WITHDRAWAL IN LATVIA. On 3 September a UN delegation, headed by special envoy Tommy Koh, traveled from Lithuania to Riga where it held talks with top Latvian officials. On 4-September the delegation visited Russian military units and spoke with the command of the Northwestern Group of Forces. Koh told a press conference that he sees differences in the positions of the two countries: Russia wants to complete the departure of its troops by the end of 1994, not 1993 as Latvia requests; desires a signed agreement on the withdrawal that was lacking with Lithuania; wants fixed guarantees on pensions for retired servicemen; and desires to keep its military objects at Liepaja, Ventspils, and Skrunda for nine more years, Diena reports on 6 September. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET Compiled by Suzanne Crow and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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