|The greatest happiness is to know the source of unhappiness. - Dostoevsky|
No. 162, 25 August 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA NEW CHARGES AGAINST RUTSKOI. Andrei Makarov, the head of the anti-corruption commission set up by President Boris Yeltsin, went on Russian television on 24 August to cast new accusations against Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi. Makarov presented bank documents purportedly showing that Rutskoi had signed agreements transferring millions of dollars from state funds to Western companies for food shipments and that some of that money was transferred to a numbered Swiss bank account owed by Rutskoi. He said that the evidence had been turned over to the Moscow City prosecutor and could lead to criminal charges against Rutskoi. Rutskoi denied any allegation that he had misappropriated state money and said that Makarov's accusations were part of a political campaign against him. -Alexander Rahr CENTRISTS OPPOSE RUTSKOI'S HARD-LINE STANCE. The Smolensk regional branch of the Democratic Party has sent a letter to the party's central board complaining about a speech given by Rutskoi during his trip to Smolensk in the beginning of August, ITAR-TASS reported on 24 August. The Democratic Party, led by Nikolai Travkin, had formed an alliance with Rutskoi's People's Party of "Free Russia" when both parties joined the Civic Union in May 1992. The Smolensk regional branch accused Rutskoi of "cheapest populism in the style of the National Salvation Front," and said Rutskoi "discredited the idea of political centrism." The central leadership of the Democratic Party is now expected formally to break with the Civic Union because of Rutskoi's shift to the far-right. -Alexander Rahr YELTSIN ON OBJECTIVES OF POLISH VISIT. President Yeltsin arrived for an official visit to Poland on 24-August. Prior to his departure, Yeltsin outlined the agenda of the visit: to sign eight agreements, including one on a natural gas pipeline through Poland, Russian television reported. The focal point of the trip will be trade relations between Russia and Poland, an area where activity has slowed dramatically since the collapse of the Soviet bloc. Indicative of this situation was Yeltsin's emphasis that the two countries will "have to work out how to cooperate on a new basis, because old mechanisms do not work any more." -Suzanne Crow FOREIGN MINISTRY OFFICIAL TO JAPAN. Deputy Foreign Minister Georgii Kunadze will arrive in Japan on 27 August to begin two days of talks with his Japanese counterpart, Hiroshi Fukuda, AFP and Kyodo reported on 24 August. The talks, aimed at preparing for a planned visit to Japan by Yeltsin in October, will deal with issues that include the Kuril Islands territorial dispute and security in the Asia-Pacific region. They come in the wake of bellicose remarks by Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin to the effect that Russia would never cede any of the four disputed islands to Japan. Meanwhile, former state secretary and long-time Yeltsin ally, Gennadii Burbulis, is set to visit Japan from 2-11 September, Kyodo reported on 23-August. Burbulis will hold talks with Prime Minister Morihiro Hosokawa and Foreign Minister Tsutomu Hata, as well as other prominent government, business, and academic figures. -Stephen Foye JAPAN TOP FAR EAST INVESTOR. The Japanese External Trade Organization (JETRO) said on 24 August that Japan's investment in Russia's Far East was $83.1-million this year, topping both the US and China, who were second and third, respectively. Most of Japan's investment was reported to be in service industries, especially the hotel, restaurant, and retail sectors. AFP said that a similar report issued earlier by JETRO showed that Japan was the world's second largest trading partner with the Russian Far East, after China. -Stephen Foye SOUTH KOREA REJECTS RUSSIAN ARMS OFFER. The government of South Korea on 24-August rejected a Russian offer to supply weaponry as repayment for the interest on debts owed by Russia to South Korea, The Korea Herald reported. The deal was suggested by Russian Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Shokhin, who is in Seoul on an official visit. South Korean officials reportedly cited South Korea's wide-ranging defense ties to the US as the primary reason for the refusal. South Korean President Kim Yong-sam, invited by Shokhin to visit Moscow, said that a visit this year might not be possible, but that it could take place next year. -Stephen Foye INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND VACCINATION PLANS. Samples of vibrioid cholera have been discovered in the Protva river which supplies drinking water to Kaluga, ITAR-TASS reported on 24 August. This may be related to the cholera strain that has swept through much of Asia this year. Also on 24 August, a deputy chairman of the State Epidemics Monitoring Commission told a Moscow news conference that 70,000 cases of viral hepatitis, 45,000 cases of bacterial dysentery, and 40,000 cases of salmonella had been registered so far this year, Reuters reported. He said that the Ministry of Health aimed to spend 1.2 billion rubles on vaccinations against infectious diseases. (Since it is planned to inoculate 90% of all children and 70% of adults against diphtheria alone, this works out at less than 1 cent a shot at the current rate of exchange.) -Keith Bush TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA YELTSIN, ARDZINBA DISCUSS ABKHAZ PEACE AGREEMENT. Meeting in Moscow on 24-August with Russian President Boris Yeltsin, Abkhaz parliament chairman Vladislav Ardzinba expressed his gratitude for Russia's role in mediating last month's Abkhaz ceasefire agreement, ITAR-TASS reported. The two men further agreed on the need for further negotiations on a political solution to the Abkhaz conflict under the aegis of the UN, and with Russian participation. Also on 24-August, the UN Security Council unanimously passed a resolution on sending 88 observers to Abkhazia to monitor the ceasefire, according to an RFE/RL correspondent. -Liz Fuller AZERBAIJAN UPDATE. Tens of thousands of civilians continue to flee towards Iran to escape the ongoing fighting in the region of Dzhebrail in southern Azerbaijan, Western agencies reported on 24 August quoting IRNA. Meeting with Azerbaijani parliament chairman Geidar Aliev in Baku, Russia's special envoy for Nagorno-Karabakh, Vladimir Kazimirov, expressed Russia's concern at the dangerous situation in south-west Azerbaijan, arguing that "Russia cannot remain indifferent to the fate of hundreds of thousands of people, regardless of their nationality." According to ITAR-TASS, he called for an immediate and unconditional cessation of hostilities and the withdrawal of Karabakh Armenian forces to within the confines of Nagorno-Karabakh. -Liz Fuller KYRGYZSTAN TIGHTENS BUDGET. The government of Kyrgyzstan has announced measures to cut state expenditures drastically, ITAR-TASS and Reuters reported on 24 August. The measures include restrictions on lending to industry and sharply reducing funding for the education, labor and health ministries. The government also plans to move some other social expenditures off-budget to what appears to be a fund financed by a tax on sales revenue from enterprises, but excluding many in the agriculture and energy sectors. Kyrgyzstan has been struggling to curtail its budget deficit and maintain the stability of its recently introduced national currency, the som. It was unclear when these budgetary measures would be introduced, and news coverage conflicted concerning which government office issued them. -Erik Whitlock KUNAEV DIES. Former Kazakh CP first secretary Dinmukhamed Kunaev died on 22 August at the age of 81, ITAR-TASS reported. Kunaev's replacement by the Russian Gennadii Kolbin in December 1986, after 24-years as republican Party first secretary, sparked off demonstrations in Alma-Ata which were suppressed by security forces. An obituary signed by the entire Kazakh leadership stresses Kunaev's "enormous contribution" to the development of Kazakhstan's economy and "his services to the people during the difficult period of the Communist experiment." A state funeral was scheduled for 25 August. -Liz Fuller CIS CIS DEFENSE CHIEFS REACH AGREEMENTS. The Council of CIS Defense Ministers, meeting in Moscow for a second day of talks, reached a number of agreements, ITAR-TASS reported on 24-August. Participants agreed, first, to transform the supreme command of the CIS Joint Armed Forces into a permanent headquarters for coordinating military cooperation, to be subordinated to the CIS Council of Defense Ministers. The decision abolished the post of CIS commander in chief, formerly held by Evgenii Shaposhnikov, and named CIS main staff chief Viktor Samsonov as temporary head of the new headquarters. There was apparently some disagreement over the implications that the abolition of the commander-in-chief position would carry for CIS and international agreements on strategic nuclear weapons, and it is not clear if all questions in this area were resolved. All decisions are subject to approval by the CIS Heads of State Council. -Stephen Foye COLLECTIVE SECURITY SIGNATORIES WIDEN COOPERATION. Representatives of the six signatory states to the CIS Collective Security Treaty signed a document that will promote military cooperation in eleven-areas, including the setting up a common air defense system and the drafting a long-term concept on developing the CIS joint armed forces. In addition, they approved a Russian proposal that would apparently set up a Collective Security Council (CSC) to include the heads of CIS states, their Defense and Foreign Ministers, as well as a secretary general. Military bodies, consisting of the Council of Defense Ministers, the Chief of Staffs Committee, and the headquarters for coordinating military cooperation, would be directly subordinated to the CSC. At the same time, five of the CIS signatories to the Collective Security Treaty-Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan-agreed to set up a "coalition" peacekeeping force in Tajikistan. Col.-Gen. Boris Pyankov was nominated to head the peacekeeping contingent. -Stephen Foye CIS FOREIGN MINISTERS AGREE ON JOINT UN INITIATIVES. A meeting of the CIS Council of Foreign Ministers in Moscow on 24 August reached agreement on eight documents, including joint initiatives on fighting terrorism, drugs, pollution, and the spread of weapons of mass destruction to be presented to the 48th UN General Assembly in September, ITAR-TASS and Western agencies reported. They also agreed to nominate Belarus for non-permanent membership of the UN Security Council. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev noted the growing tendency of the CIS states towards cooperation and integration, and said they should become not just a regional but an international factor. Seven of the nine member states were represented by their foreign ministers. Ukraine and Kazakhstan sent only deputy ministers. The foreign minister, acting foreign minister, and first deputy foreign minister of Moldova, Azerbaijan, and Georgia respectively attended as observers. -Ann Sheehy GRAIN EXPORTS FROM KAZAKHSTAN, UKRAINE. In 1993, Russia expects a good grain harvest of around 120 million tons. This will sharply reduce its requirements for imported grain. Kazakhstan and Ukraine are also anticipating bumper crops. Kazakhstan has announced that it plans to export 6 million tons of grain from the new harvest to CIS countries, including 3-million tons to Russia, Mayak reported on 10 August. A Ukrainian government spokesman told an RFE/RL correspondent on 20 August that the republic expects a harvest of some 44 million tons, and may ship grain to Russia in partial payment for energy supplies. -Keith Bush CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIAN UPDATE. A cease-fire was to go into effect in Mostar on 25 August, and on the same day two US planes dropped packaged meals and medical supplies there, international agencies report. The Muslim part of Mostar has received no aid since 2 June and UN officials said that people might begin dying of starvation in the next few days. Bosnian Croats blocked an aid convoy on 24 August, but later agreed to allow the convoy to pass on 25 August if there is first a Croat-Muslim exchange of bodies of fallen soldiers. The UN Security Council said on 24 August that an immediate cease-fire is crucial to a negotiated peace and urged the warring parties to reach a "just and comprehensive settlement." The Security Council reconfirmed Bosnia's sovereignty and territorial integrity and said the republic would retain its seat in the UN under the Geneva peace plan. In Sarajevo Bosnian Foreign Minister Haris Silajdzic said that President Alija Izetbegovic has accepted the principle of Bosnia's ethnic division but still objects to the map drawn up at the Geneva talks. -Fabian Schmidt CROATS PROCLAIM "REPUBLIC OF HERCEG-BOSNA." Vjesnik of 25 August reports that the governing body of the ruling Croatian Democratic Community (HDZ) among the Croats of Bosnia-Herzegovina declared its own republic in Livno the previous day. Those Croats first proclaimed their Croatian Community of Herceg-Bosna on 3 July 1992, which was nominally subject to the Bosnian government, but which used Croatian currency, had its own military organization, and issued its own stamps and car license plates that were similar to those in Croatia. The new republic, however, makes a clean break with what the resolution calls "the former Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina" and calls on all Croats serving with the Sarajevo government to repudiate it and join the service of the new republic. As such it appears to be hewing to the Geneva peace plan, which calls for making Bosnia a union of three republics, but the statement also seems to be a declaration of victory by Herzegovinian Croat nationalists over more moderate Bosnian Croats. -Patrick Moore REACTION TO BELGRADE'S AUSTERITY PROGRAM. The federal Yugoslav government's austerity program, introduced on 18 August in an effort to revive an economy wracked by international sanctions and failed economic policies, has for the most part drawn criticism and skepticism. On 24 August Politika published results of a Tanjug poll that show that most businessmen in Serbia-Montenegro are both critical of and cautious about the economic measures. The head of Belgrade's Economic Chamber remarked that the measures came too late and lack an adequate economic foundation. Serbia's political parties, with the exception of the ruling Socialists, have criticized the measures. The Serbian Renewal Party sees the program as an unsuccessful attempt of the government to "mask its past mistakes." The Democratic Party said the measures clearly disband the current market system and reintroduces a command economy. Vojislav Kostunica, head of the opposition Democratic Party of Serbia, said "hyperinflation is leading us into African-style poverty and hunger." Milomir Minic, the secretary-general of the Socialist Party, described the measures as struggle against corruption and crime and said "nobody will go hungry." Milan Andrejevich UN RESOLUTION ON KOSOVO? RADIO SERBIA REPORTED ON 20 AUGUST THAT A SUBGROUP OF THE UN HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION SUBMITTED A DRAFT RESOLUTION ON KOSOVO THAT COULD LEAD TO A DISCUSSION OF THE RIGHTS OF KOSOVO'S ETHNIC ALBANIANS AT THE COMMISSION'S CURRENT SESSION IN GENEVA. The UN Subcommittee for the Protection of Minorities condemns Serbia for discrimination against Albanians and violations of their human rights. The resolution calls on Belgrade to revoke all discriminatory laws and to facilitate the work of CSCE human rights observers. Meanwhile, Jedinstvo on 24-August reacted to Western reports on the possibility of war in Kosovo due to Serbian repression. The Pristina Serbian-language daily remarked that Serbia does not have a single reason to contemplate war, and that the Serbs and Albanians would "stand to gain nothing by waging war. " The commentary went on to argue that Kosovo is indivisible and cannot belong only to Albanians or only to Serbs, and accused Albanian political groups of provocations in order to place the Serbian province under UN protection. Milan Andrejevich ALBANIAN PRISON NEWS. AFP reports on 25 August that Nexhmije Hoxha, widow of Albanian dictator Enver Hoxha, will again appeal her prison sentence after being convicted last January on charges of abuse of funds. Her last appeal proved counterproductive, when two years were added to her nine-year sentence. Meanwhile, Zeri i Popullit reports on the 25th that Alexandros Alavanos, a Greek deputy to the European Parliament, has written to that body's foreign affairs ministry calling for the immediate release of Socialist leader Fatos Nano and noting the increasingly antidemocratic actions of Albanian President Sali Berisha. Albanian prison life is undoubtedly difficult, as confirmed by the experiences of former President Ramiz Alia reported in Gazeta Shqiptare on 22 August. Alia, along with the majority of Albania's last politburo, are finding it hard to adjust to their new living arrangements in a Tirana jail. They can receive limited visitors and are permitted only 60 minutes of fresh air a day. When arrested, Alia asked to bring a pen along but was refused. In an interview Alia noted that he would prefer "a political trial." He acknowledged that important mistakes were made during the communist period, especially the class war, which "damaged the unity of the people." -Robert Austin BULGARIAN ECONOMIC NEWS. On 24 August Aleksandar Bozhkov, director of the Agency for Privatization, was dismissed. Bozhkov, who recently has voiced criticism of the government's new mass privatization scheme, was removed by a decision of the agency's Supervisory Council. Council chairwoman Reneta Indzhova, appointed only last week, refused to give a specific reason for Bozhkov's removal but hinted to Reuters that the breakdown of cooperation between the agency and the government was a key factor. Meanwhile, Texaco corporate officials announced that a natural gas deposit has been found in the Black Sea, 40-km (26 miles) off the coast. Kontinent of 25 August quoted oil drillers as saying that a few more tests will show whether the deposit is rich enough to warrant extraction. Finally, the Bulgarian financial market is adjusting to the new prime rate, set at 44%. Officials of the Bulgarian National Bank told Pari that the decision to lower interest rates by 4% is hoped to stimulate the loan market. -Kjell Engelbrekt POLAND, BULGARIA SIGN REPATRIATION AGREEMENT. Polish Internal Affairs Minister Andrzej Milczanowski and his Bulgarian counterpart, Viktor Mihaylov, signed an agreement governing the repatriation of illegal immigrants on 24 August in Warsaw. The agreement provides for the deportation of Bulgarians caught attempting to cross into Germany, as well as those arrested for crimes in Poland. PAP reports that 1,523-Bulgarians were caught on Poland's borders between January and July. Mihaylov said that Bulgaria would not have much cause to use the agreement because few Poles now travel to Bulgaria. Poland has signed similar agreements with Germany, Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine, and Romania. Milczanowski announced that the upper limit of 10,000 rejected asylum-seekers that Poland is required to accept from Germany this year will not be reached or even approached. -Louisa Vinton EXTREMIST POLITICIAN DETAINED IN WARSAW. Boleslaw Tejkowski, the head of the Polish National Community, a nationalist fringe party, was arrested in Warsaw on 23 August as he was about to enter a regional television studio to take part in an election broadcast, PAP reports. A former communist party member, Tejkowski was charged in March 1992 with inciting ethnic conflict and slandering the Jews, the Pope, the Catholic bishops conference, and the highest Polish state institutions. Tejkowski then failed to appear at court-ordered psychiatric examinations and evaded police for more than a year. It is not clear if he will now be judged fit to stand trial. Tejkowski's party, which specializes in small but raucous anti-Semitic demonstrations attended mainly by skinheads, is registered for the coming elections in 18 of 52 election districts. It stands little chance of gaining any seats in the parliament. -Louisa Vinton POLISH ELECTION ROUNDUP. Solidarity chairman Marian Krzaklewski repeated charges at a press conference on 24 August that privatization in Poland is "criminal," Polish TV reports. He admitted, however, that there are some privatization success stories. Silesian activist Alojzy Pietrzyk, the deputy who argued the union's no-confidence motion in the government on the Sejm floor, will head Solidarity's national election list. The Polish Peasant Party called for a slow, "evolutionary" approach to agrarian reform and proposed limits on agricultural imports. The "Fatherland" Catholic coalition criticized Poland's association agreement with the EC and launched a campaign to require visas from citizens of former Soviet states. The Self Defense union pledged to set up a "National Tribunal" to sentence "traitors" (including the ministers of privatization, justice, and public administration) to 8-25 years imprisonment. -Louisa Vinton CZECH INTELLIGENCE SERVICES DISCUSSED. Following a series of media revelations in July about alleged misconduct, the Council for Intelligence Activities, a supervisory body, met on 24 August to discuss the future of intelligence services in the Czech Republic. There are currently four organizations in the country: the Czech Bureau of Intelligence and Security (BIS); the Office for Foreign Contacts and Information; Army Defense Intelligence; and Military Intelligence of the Army Chiefs of Staff. CTK reports that the council discussed reducing the number of intelligence services, but did not reach any conclusion. Stanislav Devaty, acting director of BIS, has argued that there should be only one civilian and one military intelligence service. -Jiri Pehe FEWER PEOPLE CROSSING FROM THE CZECH REPUBLIC TO GERMANY. Czech and German media reported on 25 August that the number of people caught trying to enter Germany illegally from the Czech Republic has dropped dramatically since Germany's stricter asylum law took effect on 1 July. Czech police officials say that about 20 people are caught daily along the 700-kilometer German-Czech border, compared with an average of about 100-before the law changed. -Jiri Pehe SLOVAK CABINET PROPOSES AMBASSADOR'S DISMISSAL. At a regular cabinet session on 24-August, Premier Vladimir Meciar's proposal to replace Ambassador to Austria Rudolf Filkus was approved. The proposal will soon be presented to President Michal Kovac, who has the power to dismiss the ambassador. Filkus is accused of "repeated lack of loyalty toward the Slovak Republic's executive structures," TASR reports. The ambassador responded with surprise to the proposal, saying that he has "always concentrated on creating a good image for the Slovak Republic in Austria" and has "never been disloyal towards Vladimir Meciar's cabinet." Filkus, an economist and former chairman of the executive council of Meciar's party, was relegated to the diplomatic corps earlier this year after supporting former Foreign Minister Milan Knazko in his losing battle to remain in office. -Sharon Fisher ROMANIAN RAILWAYS MAY FIRE MORE STRIKERS. An official of the state railway company was quoted by Radio Bucharest on 24 August as saying that more train drivers may be fired for their role in a strike that paralyzed rail traffic between 11 and 17 August. The official singled out the case of four drivers who have already been dismissed because they refused to obey a government order to return to work on 17 August. The four started a protest fast instead. In a separate development, the public prosecutor's office announced that it is investigating whether union leaders who led the recent strike committed a punishable crime. The office said that the Article 274 of the criminal code makes it a crime to deliberately shun work duties or perform them imperfectly. This crime can carry jail terms of between one and five years. -Dan Ionescu MOLDOVA QUESTIONS ROMANIAN AID. Reacting to the Romanian leaders' recent, highly publicized offers to ship fuel and other goods to Moldova as emergency "fraternal aid," senior officials of the Foreign Trade Ministry told Basapress on 24 August that Moldova is in fact required to supply goods to Romania of an equivalent value. Moldovan Energy Department officials in turn told Reuters on 24 August that Romania wants the value of its fuel calculated at world prices. Romanian and Moldovan media have reported in recent days that Romanian officials are exploring ways to ship Moldovan farm produce to Romania in payment for the promised Romanian aid. Responding to charges by the Moldovan Popular Front that Chisinau is being ungrateful for the offer, President Mircea Snegur's chief political adviser, Viorel Ciubotaru, was cited by an RFE/RL correspondent on 24 August as saying that Romanian aid is "just as real as the map of Moldova on the Popular Front's coat of arms". That map shows Bessarabia as part of Greater Romania. -Vladimir Socor RUSSIAN GAS SUPPLIES TO BELARUS RESTORED. During the meeting in Moscow of the Russian and Belarusian prime ministers on 24 August, Russia agreed to restore gas supplies to Belarus in full, Belapan reports. A partial cutoff of gas supplies was announced on 15 August when Belarus was declared to be in default for past deliveries; it has now agreed to pay 25-billion rubles towards the outstanding sum. In recent months, Russia has cut off or curtailed gas supplies to Ukraine, Moldova, and the Baltic States, or has threatened to do so, while Turkmenistan has done much the same with its customers. -Keith Bush GREATER BALTIC COOPERATION SEEN. The Russian cancellation of troop withdrawal talks with Lithuania appears to have spurred the Baltic States to closer cooperation. The scheduled meeting of presidents on 27 August in Riga has now been expanded to also include the three prime ministers, Radio Lithuania reported on 24 August. While the presidential-level talks will primarily focus on Baltic-Russian relations, the premiers will discuss a tripartite free-trade agreement, a draft of which was initialed on the 24th at a meeting of foreign ministry experts in Vilnius. Estonian Mart Laar had declined to attend a meeting of the Lithuanian and Latvian premiers on 16 August on the free trade agreement, calling it premature. His changed position seems to verify that outside pressure is the best method to boost Baltic cooperation. The trade agreement will probably be signed in September. -Saulius Girnius LATVIA AWAITS RUSSIAN REPLY. Martins Virsis, the new head of the Latvian delegation for negotiations with Russia, told the RFE/RL Latvian Service on 24-August that Riga has still not received a response from Moscow to its invitation to resume negotiations on 30-August concerning the withdrawal of Russian troops. Virsis said that according to Baltic estimates at the end of June, there are about 3,500 Russian troops in Estonia and 2,500 in Lithuania. Virsis explained that in Latvia the Russian military personnel number 18,764, of whom about half are officers. Breaking the total down by service, 4,572 belong to the army 7,214 to the navy, 5,008 to the air force, and 1970 to the air defense forces. -Dzintra Bungs BRAZAUSKAS MODERATE ON RUSSIA. On 24 August Lithuanian President Algirdas Brazauskas issued a statement on relations with Moscow, Radio Lithuania reports. It stated that Lithuania has no desire to get involved in "a psychological or cold war" with Russia, noting that Lithuania's firm and moderate position has brought its first results: "even when relations became tense, the dialogue with Moscow was not broken off and now new possibilities for continuing it have emerged, to achieve mutually acceptable positions." This would lead to the withdrawal of the Russian army and the restoration of normal relations with Russia, the statement concluded. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Ustina Markus and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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