|What you can become, you are already. - Friedrich Hebbel|
No. 161, 24 August 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA KHASBULATOV SUPPORTED BY HARD-LINERS. The head of the anti-Yeltsin faction "Russian Unity" in parliament, Vladimir Isakov, told Radio Rossii "Novosti" on 21 August that the right-wing opposition will support parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov as long as he does not violate the constitution. The co-chairman of the hard-line National Salvation Front, Valerii Smirnov, also said that his political organization backs Khasbulatov. Smirnov said Khasbulatov has acquired a "political face" and is now representing the will of the majority of deputies in parliament. A few weeks ago, nationalist hard-liners in the National Salvation Front had still rejected Khasbulatov because of his non-Russian nationality. -Alexander Rahr RUTSKOI AND STEPANKOV AGAIN DENY CHARGES, ACCUSE CRITICS. Responding to allegations of corruption leveled by President Yeltsin's anti-crime commission, Vice-President Alexander Rutskoi again denied that he had taken bribes from Russian companies and kept a secret Swiss bank account, Russian and Western news agencies reported. In a press conference at the Kremlin, Rutskoi accused Yeltsin of hampering efforts to uncover top-level corruption and of continuing the "communist ideology" of "he who is not with us is against us." The vice-president also launched yet another attack on the president's economic policies, saying that they were destroying the country and predicting a nation-wide wave of protests. In an interview on Ostankino Television, Prosecutor-General Valentin Stepankov denied charges that he had plotted the murder of anti-crime commission member Andrei Makarov. Stepankov verified the authenticity of a tape-recorded conversation but insisted that his remarks were taken out of context. -Dominic Gualtieri ANOTHER ANTI-REFORM MOVEMENT TO BE SET UP. A new anti-reform organization-the Movement for Protection of Parliamentarism-will soon be set up by parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov and his followers. Nezavisimaya gazeta reported on 21 August that a founding congress of that movement will be held on 25 September. Last weekend, Khasbulatov convened the "all-Russian meeting of public forces and movements for the protection of the constitutional system, parliament and democracy" at which Yeltsin's policy was attacked and the preservation of the Soviet-style parliamentary system demanded. That meeting was the third of that kind organized by Khasbulatov as a "counterweight" to the All-Russian Constitutional Meeting set up by President Boris Yeltsin last June -Alexander Rahr USDA OPPOSES RUSSIAN RESCHEDULING. Through the week ending 13 August, Russia had missed payments totaling $1 billion on 3-year loans under the GSM102 program of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Journal of Commerce reported on 23 August. This default has obliged the USDA, as guarantor of these loans, to pay banks about $970 million. Russia is expected to request rescheduling at forthcoming bilateral talks in Washington. The acting general sales manager of USDA told the newspaper that the department is against any further restructuring of the Russian debt. -Keith Bush RESTRUCTURING OF SECURITY COUNCIL CONTINUES? KOMMERSANT-DAILY REPORTED ON 21 AUGUST THAT, DESPITE COMPLICATIONS ARISING FROM THE RESIGNATION OF SECURITY COUNCIL SECRETARY EVGENII SHAPOSHNIKOV, REORGANIZATION OF THE COUNCIL CONTINUES. The newspaper claims that Boris Yeltsin has already approved in principle the creation of an Interdepartmental Commission for Scientific-Technical Questions in the Defense Industries, which would be tasked with determining priorities in military-technical policy and with resolving the whole complex of problems that have arisen in this area. The newspaper also claims that the creation of this commission, which is to be but one of several, has been strongly opposed by several of the relevant bureaucratic interests, including Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev and his first deputy, Andrei Kokoshin. They apparently have argued that the commission's creation would lead to a dispersal of oversight responsibility for the defense complex. -Stephen Foye MORDOVIAN CONSTITUTIONAL COURT UPHOLDS PARLIAMENT AGAINST FORMER PRESIDENT. The Mordovian Constitutional Court has recognized as constitutional the 3-April decision of the Mordovian parliament to abolish the posts of president and vice-president, Radio Mayak reported on 21 August. At the same time it has recommended that the parliament adopt a special law on social guarantees for the former president (Vasilii Guslyannikov) and vice-president, and that it elucidate the opinion of the population towards the abolition of the presidency in the manner established by the present constitution. The Russian Constitutional Court had earlier ruled that the matter lay within the jurisdiction of Mordovia, but some had argued that the removal of a popularly elected president in this way was a violation of the population's human and civic rights. Yeltsin had personally expressed his concern at the action of the Mordovian parliament. -Ann Sheehy DIFFERING VIEWS ON PROPOSED FEDERATION COUNCIL. Preparations are going ahead to create the Federation Council, proposed by Yeltsin on 13 August and approved by the Council of the Heads of the Republics and since then by two meetings of regional leaders, ITAR-TASS reported on 23 August. At the same time, according to the agency, even some members of Yeltsin's administration are unclear what its status will be. The first deputy head of Yeltsin's administration, Sergei Krasavchenko, told ITAR-TASS that it should be a consultative body, whereas Yeltsin said in Petrozavodsk that it would acquire the status of "a completely legitimate organ of power." Krasavchenko also said that its members should be elected if it was to be the prototype of the new upper house. Member of the Presidential Council Smirnyagin described the creation of the council as "a step towards the crumbling of the federation" and a "confederal construction." -Ann Sheehy TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA YELTSIN, SHEVARDNADZE MEET. Russian President Yeltsin and Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze held talks in Moscow on 23 August on the situation in Abkhazia and the future of Georgian-Russian relations, ITAR-TASS reported. Shevardnadze subsequently told journalists that "there are no grounds for concern" over a political solution to Abkhazia's future status within Georgia; he also said that a further round of talks on Russian-Georgian relations will take place later this month in preparation for the signing in September of a treaty on friendship and cooperation. Yeltsin will visit Georgia at that time, Radio Mayak reported. -Liz Fuller NEW ARMENIAN DEFENSE MINISTER APPOINTED. In a move that will shed further doubt on Armenian disclaimers of military involvement in Nagorno-Karabakh, Armenian President Levon Ter-Petrossyan has appointed as Armenian Defense Minister 39-year old Sergei Sarkisyan, ITAR-TASS reported on 21 August. Sarkisyan is deputy to the parliament of the self-proclaimed Nagorno-Karabakh Republic in Stepanakert, and to the Armenian parliament in Erevan; his most recent position was head of the Nagorno-Karabakh self-defense forces. -Liz Fuller TALYSH LEADER FLEES. Alikram Gumbatov, who took advantage of Surat Huseinov's June revolt to proclaim a Talysh-Mugan Autonomous Republic on the frontier between Azerbaijan and Iran, fled from the region's capital, Lenkoran, on 23 August after adherents of the Azerbaijan Popular Front stormed his headquarters, resulting in numerous dead and wounded, Western agencies reported quoting Turan. In an emotional 45-minute TV address summarized by Radio Moscow, Azerbaijan parliament chairman Geidar Aliev promised that the unspecified problems plaguing the region would be solved. Alluding to rumors that yet another coup was imminent, Aliev called on the entire population of Azerbaijan to demonstrate calm and restraint. -Liz Fuller UN SECURITY COUNCIL DISCUSSES TAJIK SITUATION. On 23 August the UN Security Council issued a statement expressing concern over the continuing violence in Tajikistan, which it termed a threat to the peace of Central Asia, and called for negotiations between the Tajik government and all opposition groups aimed at an early ceasefire and eventual national reconciliation, an RFE/RL correspondent reported. The statement also noted the critical humanitarian situation in the conflict region and called for further humanitarian aid. -Liz Fuller CIS FOUR NATIONS AGREE TO FORM NEW RUBLE ZONE. Representatives from Russia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Armenia have signed an agreement on the creation a "new type of ruble zone," the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung reported on 23 August. No details were given, but the agreement seems to envisage a gradual transition to unified monetary, fiscal and trade policies. Vladimir Mashchits, chairman of the Russian State Committee on Cooperation with CIS nations said that Tajikistan and Belarus are other candidates for joining the new zone and that even Ukraine could potentially accept some of the articles of the agreement. An article in Izvestiya on 23 August suggests that the document has been only initialled at the moment and will be formally signed soon. The document appears to follow from the declaration of intent to form such a economic union signed by Russia, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan earlier this month. -Erik Whitlock CIS DEFENSE MINISTERS MAKE LITTLE PROGRESS. Participants of a CIS Defense Ministers meeting in Moscow on 23 August made little progress in their efforts to find a mechanism that would increase defense cooperation among CIS member states. The issue that divided the participants appeared to be the same as that which had led to the dissolution of the CIS joint forces command earlier this year; namely, the Russian Defense Ministry's unwillingness to underwrite the maintenance of a permanent CIS command. Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev, who chaired and addressed the meeting, told the assembly that while Russia strongly supported the idea of defense cooperation under the auspices of the CIS Collective Security Treaty, Moscow continued to oppose setting up permanent CIS military structures until other member-states had established their own armed forces and until normative acts were put in place to regulate defense cooperative efforts. According to ITAR-TASS and Radio Mayak reports, Grachev urged reorganization of the Council of Defense Ministers into a working body that would coordinate military cooperation. -Stephen Foye GRACHEV ON "COALITION FORCES; TAJIKISTAN." Prior to the meeting Grachev proposed that, until CIS states had established armies with similar structures, training techniques, and equipment, temporary "coalition" groups of forces should be created when needed to deal with specific security problems. He called for such a group to be set up in Tajikistan. Tajik Defense Minister Aleksandr Shishlyannikov, also quoted by ITAR-TASS before the meeting, called Grachev's proposal "the most realistic variant" for dealing with the border crisis in Tajikistan. He suggested that Russian, Uzbek, Kazakh, and Kyrgyz units might take part. Grachev, who said that Russia preferred a political solution in Tajikistan, also suggested that the Russian 201st division in Tajikistan was already working on the problem of setting up coalition forces. -Stephen Foye CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE RUSSIA WANTS NEUTRAL EASTERN EUROPE. In an interview with PAP and the Polish weekly Polityka on the eve of President Boris Yeltsin's visit to Poland, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev warned the three East European states against joining NATO and reasserted Russian strategic interests in the Baltic region. Attempts by Poland to gain NATO membership would merely strengthen "reactionary forces" in Russia, Kozyrev contended. The three East European countries' integration with Western Europe would isolate Russia and force it to abandon the community of democratic nations, he argued. Kozyrev urged the three states to serve as a neutral bridge between Russia and Germany, rather than a "buffer zone that could be crushed in any situation." "East Central Europe has never ceased to be a field of interest for Russia," Kozyrev cautioned. Russia has rejected imperialist policies, he explained, but remains the largest state in the region and thus "bears special responsibility for the situation on post-Soviet territory." The interview also contained bullying talk on the Baltic States. "If those states do not wish to conduct partner-like talks on the withdrawal of troops, Russia will take unilateral action, in keeping with its own interests," Kozyrev said. Speaking the same day to a session of the Aspen Institute in Warsaw, Polish Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka said that "membership in NATO is one of the strategic goals of our foreign policy." -Louisa Vinton KOSTIKOV: RUSSIA CANNOT BE OUSTED FROM THE BALTIC REGION. Meanwhile, on 23 August Yeltsin's press secretary, Vyacheslav Kostikov, told reporters that for centuries Russia has invested large material and intellectual resources in the Baltic region and it cannot, and will not, ignore facts of history or permit its national interests to be excluded from the region. -Dzintra Bungs UPDATE ON LITHUANIAN-RUSSIAN RELATIONS. At a press conference on 23 August, broadcast live by Radio Lithuania, Justas Paleckis, presidential advisor for foreign affairs, and Albinas Januska, director of the Foreign Ministry political department, gave more information about their talks in Moscow on 21 August. Paleckis denied Russian claims that Lithuania had come to Moscow with nothing to offer, noting that they had brought a number of new proposals, including one to place disputable provisions in a separate declaration. Januska regretted that Moscow had assumed a position of strength and blackmail. Foreign Minister Povilas Gylys said that Lithuania's response would be "mild for the time being" and it would try to have more talks on the troop withdrawal. He said that the hard line of no compromise advocated by the right-wing is not official Lithuanian policy and may be ignored. Russian First Deputy Foreign Minister Vitalii Churkin dismissed suggestions that relations between the two countries have reached a crisis and said that contacts with Lithuania will continue until a mutually acceptable solution is reached. -Saulius Girnius SNEGUR WRITES TO YELTSIN. In a letter to Boris Yeltsin, partially released to the Moldovan media on 23-August, Mircea Snegur again complained of actions by "reactionary forces in Russia working against Moldova's independence and territorial integrity" by supporting the "Dniester republic." Moldova's president urged Yeltsin to help "increase the level of confidence" in Russian-Moldovan relations and build "a bilateral relationship up to contemporary standards and free from prejudice." The letter has apparently been prompted by recent instances of Russian military support to the secessionist forces, which drew Moldovan protests last week, and by the deadlock in the negotiations on the withdrawal of Russia's 14th Army from Moldova. The officially released version of the letter, however, only registers concern over the long, drawn-out trial by a "Dniester" kangaroo court of six Moldovans charged with terrorism. For the past two years Snegur has repeatedly and publicly appealed to Yeltsin to exercise a restraining influence on Russia's policies toward Moldova and on the "Dniester" leaders. -Vladimir Socor MECIAR VISITS RUSSIA. On 23 August Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar and a group of Slovak businessmen made a trip to Moscow to discuss the renewal of economic ties between the two countries, TASR reports. In meetings with Russian Premier Viktor Chernomyrdin and Deputy Premier Oleg Lobov, Meciar agreed to establish a Slovak-Russian governmental commission to evaluate the state of economic relations, in addition to trade centers in Bratislava and Moscow and national funds for trade development. Slovakia's participation in the proposed Russian-Polish gas pipeline as well as possibilities for barter trade of crude oil, gas and nuclear power, was also discussed. The issue of Russian debt to Slovakia, which was estimated by Slovak officials at $1.5 billion, was not discussed but will be negotiated within a few days by Slovak and Russian finance ministers and national bank representatives, Meciar said. -Sharon Fisher SLOVAKS HAVE MIXED FEELINGS ABOUT NATO. According to an opinion poll conducted by the Department of Social Affairs of the Slovak Defense Ministry reported in TASR on 20-August, Slovaks "do not have any clear-cut attitudes" towards foreign policy. Joining NATO is overwhelmingly favored by businessmen, Bratislava residents, university graduates, males and people aged 25-29. Students and recent high school graduates largely oppose entry, while individuals with high school education, women, and persons over 50 have no firm opinion on the issue. -Sharon Fisher BOSNIAN PEACE PLAN CALLED INTO QUESTION. Mediator Thorvald Stoltenberg urged the UN Security Council to plan for an army of perhaps 65,000 to police and implement the latest peace plan, the Los Angeles Times reports on 24 August. The package, accepted by Bosnian Serbs and Bosnian Croats, has yet to be accepted by the Bosnian parliamentary assembly, which is scheduled to meet on 27 August in Zenica. Bosnian President Izetbegovic said, "I will not propose that they vote for such a proposal," while Bosnian commander Stjepan Siber has warned that Bosnians could boycott the peace talks unless UN peacekeepers ensure that aid reaches trapped Muslim populations, Reuters reports on 23-24 August. Meanwhile, Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic is quoted by Tanjug as saying the country's Muslims won't receive any territory his forces control unless the government accepts the plan. -Fabian Schmidt OTHER BOSNIAN DEVELOPMENTS. Elsewhere, the Italian Foreign Ministry is checking reports that three Italian volunteer workers are being held in a Muslim administered prison camp in Bosnia, international news agencies report on 24 August. An Italian aid worker said yesterday he had been told by an Italian mercenary that the workers had been seized while delivering food and medicine to Bosnia. Italian Foreign Minister Beniamino Andreatta has contacted his Bosnian counterpart Haris Silajdzic. Elsewhere, the UN has ordered a UN civilian police team to investigate allegations made by local people and journalists that peacekeeping troops in Sarajevo are more deeply involved in black marketeering than had been suspected. So far 13 Ukrainian peacekeepers have been sent home for offenses connected with war profiteering such as selling cigarettes on the black market. -Fabian Schmidt SITUATION IN MOSTAR REMAINS BLEAK. Reuters reports on 24 August that Croat forces have agreed to let a UN relief convoy enter the beleaguered Muslim east side of town on either that day or the next. The exact nature of any arrangement is unclear, but the Croats had previously insisted on a quid pro quo of aid shipments for embattled Croats in central Bosnia as well as the Muslims' disarmament. Meanwhile, AFP on 23-August quotes a NATO diplomat in Brussels as saying that "if the situation continues to deteriorate, it would be necessary to include Mostar as a safe area." Under the latest peace plan the Herzegovinian capital is slated to be placed under an EC interim authority for two years until a long-term solution can be worked out between the Muslims and Croats. Although that agreement has generally been presented as take-it-or-leave-it, Bosnian Serb leader Karadzic told Politika on 23 August that the question of a Serb outlet to the Adriatic remains open and praised the "great statesmanlike talents" of Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic. Finally, that same paper on 19 August noted that the busy Karadzic has received this year's Risto Ratkovic literary prize for poetry in his native Montenegro. -Patrick Moore SERB-CROAT TENSIONS BREWING. Western news agencies reported on 22 August that Serb rebels again shelled reconstruction work by Croatian engineers on the crippled Maslenica pontoon bridge. Politika on 23-August noted that this prevented the Croats from meeting their own deadline to reopen traffic between the interior and Dalmatia, whose economy is hurting badly from the collapse of the tourist trade and of the old Yugoslav power grid. On 24 August, however, hard-line Croatian Defense Minister Gojko Susak told Vecernji list that "Croatia will not withdraw from Maslenica, [and the nearby areas of] Peruca, and Zemunik. Croatian authority, and the Croatian army and police, remain there where we are." Meanwhile, the Los Angeles Times says that at least some Serb militia forces are now moving out of Bosnia toward Croatia in anticipation of a renewed conflict there. -Patrick Moore BULGARIAN KING'S HEART REBURIED. On 23 August a human heart, presumably that of Bulgaria's King Boris, was buried in a short ceremony at Rila Monastery in southern Bulgaria. The services were organized by a promonarchist group lobbying to have King Boris' exiled son, Simeon, returned to the throne. According to Reuters, Simeon, who became king in 1943 upon his father's death and was exiled three years later, declined to attend the services, vowing to return to Bulgaria only as monarch, an idea strongly resisted by the current government and the majority of parliament. The funeral, originally scheduled for 28 August, was moved back five days in order to keep large crowds from turning the solemn event into an opportunity to voice political opinions. -Stan Markotich CHANGES IN BULGARIAN OFFICER CORPS. On 20-August BTA reported that 502 army officers are due to be released from active duty, with 302 of them transferring to the reserves of their own accord. While some 3,000 officers are receiving promotions, 279 will get a lower rank. In addition, approximately 26% of the officer corps will be reassigned. The changes will take effect on 27 August, when Defense Minister Valentin Aleksandrov signs the order. Chief of the general staff Gen. Lyuben Petrov told Standart of 17 August that the new law on military service is likely to prohibit officers from holding political office at the local or national level while serving in the armed forces. However, careers in research, teaching, and "creative" occupations will not be excluded. -Stan Markotich HUNGARIAN SMALLHOLDERS PREPARE FOR ELECTIONS. Smallholders Party chairman Jozsef Torgyan told the party's general assembly in Zalaegerszeg on 21-August that Hungary needs "to found a new state" led by the Smallholders following the 1994 parliamentary elections, MTI reports. Torgyan called for a new constitution that will provide for the recall of parliamentary deputies, a change in the jurisdiction of the constitutional court-or even abolishing it entirely, and voiding the privatization measures undertaken thus far because they "go against Hungarian interests." Torgyan also announced plans to reduce the salaries of parliamentary deputies to the level of those of unskilled workers and to reduce taxes sharply. He condemned the government of Prime Minister Jozsef Antall for "selling out the country," and pledged to force the government to resign by blockading the parliament building if a law is adopted that allows foreigners to buy agricultural land. On 22 August the numerous party factions that broke away from the Torgyan led party met in Balatonszarszo and accused Torgyan of dividing the party. They called for a unification of the various factions, because in their view only a united party can achieve good results in the elections. -Edith Oltay UNION LEADERS FACE CHARGES IN ROMANIA. The government is pressing charges against eight union officials involved in the locomotive drivers' strike that ended last week, Radio Bucharest reported on 23-August. The radio quoted a Bucharest public prosecutor, who said the eight are charged with undermining the economy, disobeying a decision of the High Court of Justice, and endangering transportation. If convicted, they face possible life sentences. In a related development, also reported by Radio Bucharest, the locomotive drivers' union in Brasov protested against the dismissal of four of the strikers. They had refused to obey orders to resume work and went on a hunger strike in protest against the measures taken by the executive. -Michael Shafir POLISH PRIVATIZATION MINISTER GETS APOLOGY-.-.-. A Warsaw court on 23 August ordered Supreme Control Chamber chief Lech Kaczynski to publish a retraction of charges directed at Privatization Minister Janusz Lewandowski, PAP reports. The retraction must be published in four major daily newspapers within 48-hours. Kaczynski must also contribute 20-million zloty ($1111) to a charity of Lewandowski's choice. In recent interviews with the press, Kaczynski accused Lewandowski of deliberately choosing a less advantageous offer in the sale of a state firm and hinted that the ministry is corrupt. Lewandowski called this slander and took Kaczynski to court under a clause of the new election law that requires a ruling on "false accusations" in only 24 hours. The court accepted Lewandowski's contention that Kaczynski's accusations were made in connection with the election campaign. (Kaczynski's twin brother Jaroslaw heads the antigovernment Center Alliance.) Kaczynski refused to apologize and said he will appeal the decision. Louisa Vinton .-.-.- AND ABUSE FROM SOLIDARITY. In related news Solidarity staged a demonstration against "criminal privatization" in Walbrzych on 23 August. Several thousand unionists took part. Signatures were gathered on a petition demanding the privatization minister's immediate ouster. Warsaw region union leader Maciej Jankowski called privatization a "swindle," Polish TV reports. Solidarity chairman Marian Krzaklewski charged that "privatization in Poland is one huge theft," Gazeta Wyborcza reports. Krzaklewski urged voters to support Solidarity as the only force capable of standing up to the Left. -Louisa Vinton TYPHOID AND DIPHTHERIA EPIDEMICS IN UKRAINE. On 21 August Ukrinform reported an outbreak of typhoid in the western resort town of Svalyava. The disease has already claimed the life of one woman and resulted in the hospitalization of dozens of other people. It has apparently been caused by poor water system standards that allowed bacteria to seep into drinking water supply. On the previous day, Ukrainian TV reported a steep rise in the incidence of diphtheria, revealing that there have been about 1,500 reported cases in the republic this year, with 43 deaths, a third of them among infants. -Ustina Markus and Bohdan Nahaylo TERRORISM IN BELARUS. A man from a St. Petersburg-based pro-Soviet group called the Justice Party, has claimed responsibility for a bomb that went off in Minsk last week, Reuters reported on 23 August. The bomb was detonated in a central square and shattered windows, but caused no injuries. According to police in Minsk, the man, identified as Mzhyslav Myzhaisky, said his group demands "the rebirth of the Soviet Union" and is ready to take military action to this end. -Ustina Markus REGISTRATION OF ALIENS FOR ESTONIAN LOCAL ELECTIONS. Some 83,648 aliens and stateless residents in Tallinn have registered to vote in the local elections on 17 October, BNS reported on 23 August. Estonian citizens are not required to register. The number of candidates eligible to run in each election area, which is based on the number of voters, will be determined on the basis of date from this registration, which was completed on 20 August. It is reported that 21,458 of the circa 80,000 residents in the heavily Russian-populated city of Narva and 8,100 of the 12,000 residents of Sillimae have registered. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Ustina Markus and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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