|If there is technological advance without social advance, there is, almost automatically, an increase in human misery. - Michael Harrington|
No. 160, 23 August 1993
RUSSIA YELTSIN FORMALLY REQUESTS EARLY ELECTIONS; KHASBULATOV REFUSES. President Boris Yeltsin initiated his plan to abolish the current parliament with a formal request to the parliament for early elections, agencies reported on 20 August. He claimed that the results of the April referendum justified pre-term elections. Parliamentary chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov swiftly rejected Yeltsin's request and said that he had withdrawn his "offer" to hold simultaneous legislative and presidential elections. However, he promised to organize presidential elections if Yeltsin still wished to stand. The council of parliamentary factions, meanwhile, reiterated the demand made on 13 August by most of its members for a meeting with Yeltsin to persuade him against parliamentary elections. -Wendy Slater RYABOV CRITICIZES PARLIAMENTARY LEADERSHIP. Deputy parliamentary speaker Nikolai Ryabov again demonstrated his shift to the presidential camp when he said on 20-August that part of the parliamentary leadership, including Ruslan Khasbulatov, was trying to implement the slogan of "all power to the soviets." This, Ryabov said, would lead to the "Bolshevization" of the country and ran counter to democracy in Russia. Together with the head of the presidential administration, Sergei Filatov, Ryabov organized a meeting on 21-August of regional leaders who voiced support for the idea of a Federation Council, as proposed by Yeltsin. Recently, opposition parliamentary factions have called for Ryabov's resignation. -Wendy Slater FEDOTOV RESIGNS. Press and Information Minister Mikhail Fedotov has resigned from his post on 20 August, Russian television reported on 21 August. Fedotov indicated that he resigned to protest the drastic amendments to the Law on Mass Media made recently by the parliament, which foresees the setting up of special supervisory councils for the media. His resignation, however, followed two weeks of speculation in the Russian media that Yeltsin had wanted to replace Fedotov with his close ally, Mikhail Poltoranin. Media chiefs had previously accused Fedotov of failing to resist political pressure from parliament. Early on 22-August, shots were fired at the building of the Press and Information Ministry. Nobody was hurt and Fedotov commented that the shots may have been a warning to him. Fedotov said that he plans to set up an all-Russian strike committee to defend the freedom of the press. -Alexander Rahr and Julia Wishnevsky CORRUPTION CHARGES SPREAD; FOREIGN TRADE MINISTER RESIGNS. Summoned back to Moscow on corruption charges only hours after his departure on an official five-nation African trip on 21 August, Minister for Foreign Economic Relations Sergei Glazyev submitted his resignation. According to Reuters, Glazyev charged in his resignation letter that he had been hounded from office by Justice Minister Yurii Kalmykov and First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko, at least in part because the Ministry had recently attempted to impose stricter controls on the export of strategic raw materials and military technology. Glazyev was appointed to his post in December of 1992, when he replaced the relatively liberal Petr Aven. In early February of this year, Boris Yeltsin said that Aven's failure to promote Russian arms exports had cost him his job, and he threatened Glazyev with the same fate. Glazyev's dismissal appears to have been the result of Moscow's enduring failure to increase arms exports, of continuing charges that the Trade Ministry was corrupt, and of Yeltsin's efforts to consolidate the forces around him in anticipation of an impending political showdown with the opposition. -Stephen Foye RUSSIAN NUCLEAR INDUSTRY PROBLEMS. In his interview with Nezavisimaya gazeta on 18 August, Minister of Atomic Energy Viktor Mikhailov claimed that Russian nuclear reactors had a better safety record for the year than those in France, England, Germany, and especially the US. According to Mikhailov, only Japan had a better record. He went on to note that his ministry employed almost one million workers, even though the central apparatus numbered only some 900 people. Of the total workforce, only 15% are reportedly directly engaged in nuclear weapons work. At the Arzamas-16 nuclear center, average pay was increased on 1 July from 40,000 to 74,000 rubles per month, although there was insufficient money to actually pay the increased salary. (The increase was prompted by a workers' strike threat in June.) Despite these financial difficulties, though, he denied that there was a "brain drain" of workers from the nuclear weapons sector to other countries, even though in 8-months in 1992 approximately 30,000 workers had left the ministry. -John Lepingwell SOUTH KOREA OFFERED RUSSIAN WEAPONS DEAL. Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Shokhin, who arrived in South Korea on 22 August to begin a 4-day visit, will offer Seoul a deal whereby Russia would supply South Korea with military hardware as payment for interest on some $1.47 billion in loans extended by South Korea to Russia since 1988. Russia is apparently unable at present to repay the loans or the interest on them. According to reports by AFP and a South Korean newspaper, Shokhin is prepared to offer missiles, fighter aircraft and other ultra-modern weapons systems. The proposal could cause tension in Washington; the US has long been South Korea's major weapons' supplier. Shokhin is also scheduled to meet with South Korea's President and will reportedly invite him to Moscow to meet with Boris Yeltsin. -Stephen Foye RUSSIA TO STAGE MAJOR ARMS SHOW. Some 215-Russian defense enterprises plan to display their wares, included non-military goods produced by converted defense plants, at an arms fair to be held in Nizhnyi-Novgorod (formerly the closed city of Gorky) from 8-13 September, AFP and ITAR-TASS reported. The organizers, who include the Russian Defense Ministry and local government officials, claimed that 15-governments had already pledged to send representatives; the short notice nevertheless suggests that the fair has been put together hastily. A Foreign Ministry spokesman emphasized that prospective sales would be carefully reviewed by the Russian government. -Stephen Foye TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA NEW GEORGIAN PRIME MINISTER APPOINTED. On 20 August the Georgian parliament approved by 126-votes to 17 with 6 abstentions the appointment as Prime Minister of Otar Patsatsia, Western agencies reported. Born in 1929, Patsatsia graduated from the Leningrad Technological Institute. In 1965 he was appointed director of a major cellulose and paper plant in Zugdidi; during the 1980s he was repeatedly praised by the Georgian Party leadership for innovations aimed at improving living conditions of the plant's workers. His most recent position was as head of the local administration in Zugdidi. Patsatsia was praised by Shevardnadze as "a man of his word" with a gift for personal relations and resolving economic problems. -Liz Fuller ARMENIA-AZERBAIJAN UPDATE. On 20 August ITAR-TASS quoted the Azerbaijani defense ministry as saying that artillery shells fired from Armenian positions near the Azerbaijani-Iranian frontier hit Iranian territory. On 21 August, the Azerbaijan Ministry of Defense claimed to have retaken Dzhebrail and to have repulsed several new Armenian offensives, according to Radio Baku. Also on 21 August, Turan quoted the Russian special emissary to the CSCE Karabakh negotiations criticizing the CSCE negotiation effort as ineffective as "it has no experience of large peacekeeping operations." -Liz Fuller ASALA THREATENS TO SABOTAGE AZERBAIJANI-TURKISH OIL PIPELINE. In a statement issued in Beirut and summarized by AFP on 22 August, the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) stated that it "would not allow" the passing of the planned oil pipeline from Baku to Yumurtalik on Turkey's Mediterranean coast through what it termed "occupied Armenian territories" in Eastern Turkey. ASALA also issued unspecified threats against the consortium of eight Western oil companies currently engaged in renegotiating with Azerbaijan on exploitation of three major offshore oil fields. -Liz Fuller NEW TURKMEN CURRENCY TO REPLACE THE RUBLE. President Saparmurad Niyazov announced that Turkmenistan would replace the ruble fully with its own currency, the manat, on 1 November, Russian and Western agencies reported on 19 August. The rate of exchange will initially be fixed at one manat to the dollar. On 1 September Turkmenistan will begin phasing out the ruble, allowing citizens to exchange up to 30,000 rubles (about $30) in cash, at the rate of 1,000-rubles for one manat. Niyazov asserted that the Russian Central Bank's unexpected decision to remove old rubles from circulation last month hastened the introduction of the manat. Niyazov also promised that the minimum monthly wage would be 150 manats ($150), and the average pay the equivalent of $370 to $400 after Turkmenistan leaves the ruble zone. -Yalcin Tokgozoglu CIS CIS DEFENSE CHIEFS TO MEET. The Council of CIS Defense Ministers was scheduled to begin a two-day meeting in Moscow on 23 August, ITAR-TASS reported. The situation on the Afghan-Tajik border and a reorganization of the CIS command structure were among the key issues scheduled to be discussed. According to ITAR-TASS, Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev was expected to chair the meeting. An invitation was also extended to former CIS Commander-in-Chief Evgenii Shaposhnikov, but he reportedly declined to attend. His departure is expected to be formalized at the meeting. -Stephen Foye SHUSHKEVICH-YELTSIN MEETING. The main outcome of the 19 August meeting between Belarusian Supreme Soviet Chairman Stanislau Shushkevich and Russian President Boris Yeltsin appears to be the transformation of technical credits issued by the Central Bank of Russia into Belarusian sovereign debt owed to the Russian state. It is hoped that this arrangement will stabilize the value of the Belarusian rubel which has been falling recently in value against the ruble, and open new credit lines for purchasing gas and oil from Russia, Postfaktumradie and ITAR-TASS reported. Despite Shushkevich's positive pronouncements on the outcome of the meeting, this cannot be seen as a special concession to Belarus since Russia has also transformed debt into technical credits for Armenia, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, Moldova, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan in bilateral agreements during the past few days, ITAR-TASS reported on 20 August. At a press conference Shushkevich was quoted as saying, "If we do not put an end to our squandering and disorder no amount of oil or gas will help us." -Ustina Markus UKRAINIAN LEADER WARY OF PROPOSED NEW ECONOMIC UNION. In his keynote address before the country's other leaders at a meeting in Kiev on 21-August to mark the second anniversary of Ukraine's declaration of independence, Parliamentary speaker Ivan Plyushch declared that the republic remains opposed to any "attempts to transform the Commonwealth of Independent States into a new supra state." According to Radio Ukraine, he warned that the proposed new economic union of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine "is an attempt to restore not only a single economic space, but also a single citizenship, and a single state administration," and would be "absolutely unacceptable" in this form for his country. Meanwhile, a roundtable of Communist and pro-Communist parties and groups, which was held in Kiev on 20 August, urged that Ukraine form an economic union with its two neighboring Slavic states, Ukrainian TV reported. -Bohdan Nahaylo CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE IZETBEGOVIC REJECTS PEACE PLAN. International media report on 22 and 23 August that Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic has called a meeting of Bosnian legislators and other officials for 27 August in Zenica to discuss the package announced in Geneva on 20 August, but added that he will advise that the plan be rejected and renegotiated. Serb and Croat leaders who have accepted the deal, have, however, joined international negotiators in describing the offer as take-it-or-leave-it. The Serbs have also warned the Muslims that they stand to get less land in the future if they reject the current package now. The plan calls for: a new constitutional system of three loosely linked ethnically based republics; a cease-fire to be followed by withdrawals and then by total demilitarization; a renewal of humanitarian efforts, including the return to their homes of people driven out in ethnic cleansing; and access to the sea for Bosnia via Croatia. The Serbs will have to give up some of their conquests under the deal, but the Muslims say it still effectively sanctions the results of ethnic cleansing. -Patrick Moore STARVATION IMMINENT IN MOSTAR. UN officials told international media on 22 August that people are likely to begin dying of hunger in the embattled Herzegovinian city by the end of the week unless Croat forces let aid convoys through. A symbolic delivery was made on 21-August, but subsequent attempts to bring in massive aid were blocked. Some 55,000 people are trapped in Mostar, including 30,000 Muslims, and CNN notes on 23-August that the UN is now considering trying to approach the area via Serb-held territory. Elsewhere, in another humanitarian mission, some 21 Jews left Sarajevo for Israel and other destinations on 21-August, Reuters said. The Bosnian capital's once-thriving, mainly Sephardic, community has been reduced to less than 1,000 by the Holocaust and by evacuations during the current conflict. Meanwhile, the BBC on 23 August reports intensified combat between Serbs and Muslims near Maglaj and between Croats and Muslims in central Bosnia and around Mostar in an apparent scramble to consolidate positions. Hina adds on 22 August that Krajina Serb forces renewed shelling near Sinj and Drnis in the Dalmatian hinterland. -Patrick Moore BORDER INCIDENT BETWEEN ALBANIA AND KOSOVO. The government of rump Yugoslavia accused Albania of responsibility for a border incident in which a Serbian border guard was killed, Tanjug reported on 20 August. Tirana rejected the accusations as "slander and lies," a government spokesman said on 22-August. He said the accusations were "Serb propaganda" aimed at increasing tension in the Balkans. On 20 August Albania called again for international intervention in Kosovo to prevent the expansion of the Balkan conflict. The Democratic League of Kosovo leader Ibrahim Rugova urged making Kosovo an international protectorate in order to help reach a political solution of the Kosovo problem, Rilindija reports on 20 August. Rugova was detained by Serbian police on 20 August, ATA adds. Elsewhere, Western news agencies noted over the weekend that the UN sub-commission on human rights called on Serbian authorities to immediately halt discrimination, including "arbitrary detentions, torture and massive expulsions from work," and demanded that the government allow international mediators to investigate the reported violations. Meanwhile, UNESCO called for a new round of negotiations between the Serbs and Albanians on the schooling problem. The Serbs effectively abolished Albanian-language instruction in 1990, but since then the Albanians have built up an underground school system, Borba reports on 20-August. -Fabian Schmidt ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO DO NOT WANT PASSPORTS. The decision of the Macedonian foreign ministry to require passports on the border with rump Yugoslavia has provoked discontent and protests among the Albanians in Kosovo, Borba reports on 19 August. In an official announcement, the LDK warns that the new rule could cut personal and family ties between the Albanians in Kosovo and Macedonia and cause new tensions in the region because the Serbian government does not issue passports to every Albanian. But Borba says that about half of the Albanians do not have passports because their political leaders advised them not to apply for the document, lest the Serb authorities use this as a means to encourage Albanians to leave the country. Until 23 August the border could be crossed with Yugoslav identity cards. -Fabian Schmidt BULGARIA REITERATES COMMITMENT TO RESOLUTION 820. On 20 August Prime Minister Lyuben Berov rejected speculations that Bulgaria was considering the possibility of ignoring the United Nations embargo against rump Yugoslavia because of lost trade revenues, BTA reports. After a meeting with Western ambassadors, Berov said Bulgaria has neither the intention nor the capability to defy UN decisions. He nevertheless declared that the government has not given up the idea of a transport corridor through Serbia to Western markets, arguing that resolution 820 would allow for such exceptions. Berov said several Western countries have promised to try and help alleviate Bulgaria's increasingly precarious trade and transport situation. Meanwhile, presidential spokesman Ivaylo Trifonov told private Darik Radio that the issue of compensation will be the top priority of the Bulgarian delegation when the next session of the UN General Assembly begins in late September. -Kjell Engelbrekt BILINGUAL ROAD SIGNS CONTROVERSY IN ROMANIA. The extreme nationalist Greater Romania Party has joined the Party of Romanian National Unity in castigating the draft law on bilingual road signs. The party's leader, Corneliu Vadim Tudor, demanded at a press conference held on 20 August the immediate dismissal of the governmental coordinator of the Council for National Minorities, where the draft originated. Radio Bucharest reported that Tudor accused Viorel Hrebenciuc of "high treason" and threatened that unless he was dismissed, his party would withdraw any support from the government and organize nationwide protest meetings and demonstrations. On the other hand, presidential spokesman Traian Chebeleu said at a press conference on the same day that the government will not decide on the draft according to "party considerations," but in line with "the national interest" which requires "interethnic harmony." -Michael Shafir HUNGARIAN PRIME MINISTER ON HORTHY. In an interview with the television program "A Het" (the week) Prime Minister Jozsef Antall discussed Admiral Miklos Horthy's role during World War II, MTI reported on 22 August. Antall said that Horthy had faced a "most cunning and best trained" enemy in Nazi Germany, and Hungary would probably have gotten entangled in the war even if Horthy had not entered it in 1941. Antall said that if a resistance movement against Hitler had been organized as early as 1942 and 1943, millions of Hungarians would have perished, Jews would have been eradicated, and Hungary would have been economically ruined. Horthy had tried to avoid this as no statesman wants to sacrifice his country, Antall stressed. Addressing Horthy's attempt to break away from Nazi Germany on 15 October 1944, Antall spoke of the dilemma Horthy had faced as he, an anti-communist, had to turn to the Soviet Union for an armistice instead of the Western powers. Antall praised Horthy for attaining in autumn 1944 the release of Hungarian politicians imprisoned by the Gestapo. Horthy is to be reburied in Hungary on 4 September. Several government members are expected to attend the reburial as private persons. -Edith Oltay RUSSIA BREAKS OFF TROOP WITHDRAWAL TALKS WITH LITHUANIA. On 22 August the Russian Foreign Ministry issued a statement saying that it was breaking off troop withdrawal talks with Lithuania, which had rejected its proposed document setting out the legal framework for the withdrawal, Radio Lithuania reports. The statement said that the Russian troops would eventually leave in accordance with the norms of international law, but within a timetable suitable for Russia, about which Lithuania would be informed. It also noted that in the event of provocations or any other reckless action against Russian servicemen, their families, or other Russian citizens, Russia would respond "quickly, practically, and decisively." Presidential press spokesman Nerijus Maliukevicius denied Russian media reports that Lithuania was demanding $146 billion compensation for damages since 1940, noting that Lithuania had not officially proposed any specific figure, but sought the compensation as a matter of principle. -Saulius Girnius MAYOROV: RUSSIAN TROOP PULLOUTS NOT LIKELY BY 1994. The commander of Russia's Northwestern Group of Forces, Col. Gen. Leonid Mayorov, told the press in Riga that owing to delays in reaching agreements on details concerning the pullout of Russian troops from the Baltic States, it would be nearly impossible for Russia to meet the pledge to complete the pullout of its forces from the Baltics by the end of 1994. He stressed that the withdrawal of Russian troops from Eastern Europe had taken place only after treaties had been signed with the affected states. Mayorov claimed that Lithuania had unilaterally added to the draft treaty new demands for financial compensation, which had caught the Russian side by surprise; for this reason, he blamed Lithuania for the current stalemate and the suspension of troop withdrawal from that country, Russian and Baltic media reported on 21 August. -Dzintra Bungs BRAZAUSKAS-YELTSIN MEETING CANCELLED. On 22 August Lithuanian President Algirdas Brazauskas called off his meeting with Boris Yeltsin in Moscow, scheduled for 23-August, Radio Lithuania reports. He made the decision after receiving reports on unsuccessful preparatory talks from Lithuanian officials who met in Moscow on 21 August with Russian First Deputy Foreign Minister Vitalii Churkin. In a televised speech Brazauskas said he would soon invite an international organization or another country to act as mediator on Russian troop withdrawal and compensation questions. He regretted that Russia was not complying with its international obligations, but maintained that the two countries "must preserve friendly, good-neighborly relations in all aspects." He suggested that Lithuania should reconsider its strong demands for financial compensation. -Saulius Girnius POLISH POSTCOMMUNIST PARTIES GAIN IN POLLS. With less than a month to go until the Polish elections, the latest opinion poll on voter preferences, from mid-August, shows the former official Polish Peasant Party leading the pack with 16% (12% in July) and the former communist Democratic Left Alliance close behind with 14% (10% in July). The Democratic Union remained stable at 13%, but dropped from first to third place as the two postcommunist parties advanced. President Lech Walesa's Nonparty Reform Bloc (BBWR) dropped from 11% in July to only 6% in August. The leftist Union of Labor had 6%; the radical-populist Confederation for an Independent Poland, 5%. The remaining parties-Solidarity, Party X, the Liberal Democratic Congress, and both the Catholic and anticommunist right-wing coalitions-all polled below the 5% threshold. 23% of the respondents remained undecided. Turnout was estimated at 46%. The poll was conducted by the Center for Public Opinion Research (CBOS) and reported by PAP. -Louisa Vinton DEMOCRATIC LEFT TRIUMPHS IN POLISH "PRIMARY." The former communist Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) scored a clear victory in a "primary" election held on 22-August in the Polish town of Wrzesnia. Organized by the liberal weekly Wprost and the Pentor polling organization, the "primary" invited the town's 30,000 residents to cast mock ballots for fifteen parties competing nationwide in the 19 September elections. The town was chosen because the balloting there in the 1991 elections roughly matched the results nationwide. Of the 4,014 ballots cast on 22-August, 34% went to the SLD, 17% to the Democratic Union, 14% to the Union of Labor, 10% to the Liberal Democratic Congress, 8%-to the libertarian Union of Real Politics, and 6% to Party X. The other parties, including Walesa's BBWR, Solidarity, and the Polish Peasant Party, were well below the 5% threshold. Several right-wing parties questioned the results and lodged protests because they had not agreed to participate in the "primary." The Wrzesnia results differ dramatically from all opinion polls conducted so far but are still likely to be a shock for the governing parties. -Louisa Vinton COMMEMORATIONS OF THE PRAGUE SPRING. Low-key gatherings and speeches by leading politicians marked the 25th anniversary of the Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia on 21 August 1968. In Prague, a memorial plaque was placed at the offices of Czech Radio, where 18 people died in 1968 at a rally protesting the invasion. Similar ceremonies were held in Prostejov and the Moravian capital of Brno. Several thousand people attended an anniversary gathering in Wenceslas Square in Prague. In a speech on Czech Radio and Television on 20 August, President Vaclav Havel said that "the brave uprising of our society at that time remains living proof of the beneficent powers that lie dormant in it." Also on 20-August, General Staff Chief Jiri Nekvasil apologized in the name of the Czech armed forces for what he called the "misuse of the army against anti-communist demonstrations in Czechoslovakia in 1969." The Czechoslovak army did not intervene in the 1968 invasion; however, it sent about 20,000 troops to quell demonstrations in several Czechoslovak towns a year later, on 21 August 1969. On 20 August a national gathering commemorating the 25th anniversary of the 1968 Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia took place in Bratislava's Slovak National Uprising Square. The gathering was attended by Movement for a Democratic Slovakia Deputy Chairman Roman Kovac, Slovak National Party Deputy Chairman Anton Hrnko and Party of the Democratic Left Deputy Chairman Alzbeta Borzova, TASR reports. On 21 August another event took place in Bratislava organized by the Slovak Social Democratic Party, of which Prague Spring leader Alexander Dubcek was a member until his death last November. The event was attended by former Prime Minister Oldrich Cernik and Former Foreign Minister Jiri Hajek. -Jiri Pehe and Sharon Fisher SLOVAK-RUSSIAN TREATY REVISED. TASR reports that the Slovak-Russian Treaty was approved by representatives of Slovak political parties on 22 August, after the controversial Article 4 was omitted. The preamble condemns totalitarianism as well as the 1968 Soviet invasion and occupation of Czechoslovakia. The treaty is expected to be signed by Russian President Boris Yeltsin during his 26 August visit to Slovakia. -Sharon Fisher UKRAINIAN LEADER CALLS FOR EARLY ELECTIONS. In his address on 21 August in connection with the second anniversary of the declaration of Ukrainian independence, which was reported by Ukrainian and western media, Parliamentary Speaker Ivan Plyushch gave a sober appraisal of the difficult economic and political situation in which the new state now finds itself. He said that the last two years had been "marked by a series of missed opportunities" and proposed, as a way around the present political impasse, that when parliament reconvenes on 26 August it adopt a new electoral law and agree to hold local elections later this year and parliamentary elections next March. Significantly, Plyushch stressed that the decision to hold a referendum on 26 September on confidence in the parliament and president had been made "under pressure from the miners" and that "now it has become apparent that this was not the best decision." The Speaker also rejected criticism of delays in the parliament's ratification of the START-1 treaty, saying that the Supreme Council had first to ensure that "the interests of safeguarding Ukraine's security" were met. -Bohdan Nahaylo UKRAINIAN NAVY TO BE CREATED IN FIVE YEARS. The Ukrainian Defense Minister, Konstantin Morozov, had ordered his staff to study the problem of building a Ukrainian navy within the next five years, an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 21 August. According to Morozov, the navy should be constructed on the basis of Ukraine's share of the Black Sea Fleet, with additional ships to be built. He proposed that each oblast in Ukraine finance the construction of one vessel for the navy. In other naval news, Reuters reported on 20-August that six women have been accepted into Ukraine's new naval academy. Women currently serve in some positions in the army in both Ukraine and Russia, but until now have been denied positions in the navy. -Ustina Markus [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Ustina Markus and Michael Shafir THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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