|A friend is a gift you give yourself. - Robert Louis Stevenson|
No. 159, 20 August 1993
RUSSIA COUP ANNIVERSARY DEMONSTRATIONS BEGIN. The first of the rallies scheduled to mark the second anniversary of the failed coup began late on 19 August, Russian and Western agencies reported. This first demonstration, organized by the Russian Communist Workers' Party, passed off without incident as about 2,000-people marched from theparliament to the former KGB headquarters. More demonstrations by opposition groups and also by supporters of President Boris Yeltsin are planned for 20 and 21 August. ITAR-TASS reported on 19-August that representatives of the opposition National Salvation Front, the pro-Yeltsin "Vivat Rossiya" organization, the Moscow city council, and the Mayor's office had signed a protocol agreeing on the schedule for the various marches and had promised to prevent any "excesses." -Wendy Slater NEW CALLS FOR EARLY ELECTIONS. Egor Gaidar, until December 1992 acting Prime Minister, said in an interview with Moskovskie novosti reported by ITAR-TASS on 19 August that fresh parliamentary elections were essential, but opposed presidential elections on the grounds that the April referendum had confirmed Yeltsin's mandate. Gaidar stressed that the new, pro-reform "Russia's Choice" political organization which he leads was not exclusively a pro-Yeltsin organization. Separately, the leader of the "Democratic Russia" parliamentary faction, Lev Ponomarev, called on 19 August for early parliamentary and presidential elections, ITAR-TASS reported. This, Ponomarev said, would strengthen Yeltsin's position. Parliamentary chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov, meanwhile, reiterated his opposition to parliamentary elections, Reuters reported on 19 August. -Wendy Slater TOKYO REACTS; CHERNOMYRDIN AGAIN SAYS NO DEAL ON KURILS. Japanese government officials have reacted with consternation to remarks made on 17 August by Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin that dismissed any sort of deal on the disputed Kuril Islands, world press agencies reported. Japanese officials pointed out that the Prime Minister's remarks contradicted assurances given by President Yeltsin during his visit to Japan in July that the territorial issue would be on the agenda during a planned return trip to Tokyo in October. While traveling in the Russian Far East on 18 and 19 August, moreover, Chernomyrdin continued to speak out against any deal on the islands, telling an audience in Vladivostok that "we will not give the Kuril Islands to anybody, nor will the [Russian] government discuss the issue with anyone." Chernomyrdin also insisted that his views represented the official position of his government. During a 19 August press conference, Yeltsin had played down Chernomyrdin's remarks and said that his visit to Japan would not be postponed. -Stephen Foye CHERNOMYRDIN SEES A WESTERN PLOT. In the course of a question and answer session with officials and executives in Vladivostok on 19 August, Prime Minister Chernomyrdin touched on the subject of Western aid and foreign trade, ITAR-TASS reported. He stated that his government "has no intention of going with an outstretched hand to ask for any kind of help. Russia wants equal cooperation on the world market in every direction, including the sale of arms. But those who run the world market are not one bit interested in seeing the country make progress . They want Russia finally to fall apart, but they will not live to see that." It will be recalled that one of Chernomyrdin's predecessors, Valentin Pavlov, also saw a Western hand behind the chaos and confusion in the domestic Soviet economy. -Keith Bush YELTSIN ON 1968 INVASION. ITAR-TASS reported on 19-August that Yeltsin will visit Poland, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia from 24 to 26 August. When asked by a Slovak journalist how Russia would approach the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia in the proposed Slovak-Russian friendship treaty, Yeltsin said that "Russia had nothing to do with this. We, like Slovakia, became victims of a totalitarian regime, and Russia suffered no less than Slovakia." He added that Russia condemns the action but cannot apologize for it, Reuters reported. Slovak Premier Vladimir Meciar has said that Russia need not apologize, although several political parties and newspapers have insisted that by leaving out an apology from the proposed treaty, Slovakia is sacrificing a sovereign prerogative. Meciar is planning a one-day trip to Moscow on 23 August, where he will discuss Russian indebtedness to Slovakia and increased cooperation of Slovak and Russian gas and oil industries. -Sharon Fisher GOVERNMENT APPEAL TO TRADE UNIONS. The presidium of the Russian government has issued an appeal to the country's trade unions and work collectives, asking them to contribute to the "consolidation of all social forces," Radio Rossii reported on 19 August. The appeal comes as a result of the increasingly confontational approach being taken by the trade union representatives on the tripartite commission for regulating labor relations. This commission was formed by a presidential decree to create a forum for "social partnership" and includes representatives of the government, employers, and employee organisations. In its appeal, the government notes that the demands of individual branch trade unionists have taken on a political character, and asks workers not to let themselves be dragged into political games. -Sheila Marnie ARMY, MVD FORCES FACE DIFFICULTIES. Deputy Defense Minister Valerii Mironov told reporters on 18-August that existing legislation offers servicemen poor protection against the consequences of force reductions, ITAR-TASS reported. Mironov said servicemen are now receiving only about one-third of the benefits mandated by law. Meanwhile, on 19-August, the commander of Interior Ministry Forces said that a recent parliamentary decision to increase the size of his forces by 28,000 men is likely to be complicated by enduring conscription difficulties. Lt. Gen. Anatolii Kulikov said that staffing levels among conscript soldiers were currently at 62%, and that the MVD forces were also 4,000 young officers short . The army and the Interior Ministry Forces receive draftees from the same conscript pool. -Stephen Foye TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA ARMENIA-AZERBAIJAN UPDATE. Armenian forces took the town of Dzhebrail, south of Nagorno-Karabakh and 14 kilometers from the Azerbaijani-Iranian frontier, during the night of 18-19 August, Western agencies reported. The International Red Cross in Geneva told an RFE/RL correspondent that an estimated 60,000 refugees from Fizuli and Dzhebrail had been displaced by the fighting. The English-language Iranian government newspaper Kayhan International, as quoted by IRNA, warned that Iran would retaliate against Armenia if its peace and border security were threatened; and it suggested joint Iranian-Turkish military action in support of Azerbaijan. After meeting in Moscow with his Armenian counterpart Vahan Papazyan, Turkish Foreign Minister Hikmet Cetin suggested that international peacekeepers should be sent to Azerbaijan if Armenian forces refuse to withdraw from the territory occupied in recent months.-In an interview given to RFE/RL, Cetin called on the Azerbaijani people to overcome internal divisions and to ounite against aggression by Karabakh Armenian forces. -Liz Fuller GORNO-BADAKHSHAN IN DANGER OF STARVATION. Chairman of Gorno-Badakhshan's legislature Balkhier Zamirov told ITAR-TASS on 19 August that the population of the autonomous oblast in the Pamirs faces starvation if the government of Tajikistan fails to ship more food to the region. Gorno-Badakhshan has received less than a quarter of the amount promised by the authorities in Dushanbe, Zamirov asserted, and only two to three months remain before roads linking the region with the rest of Tajikistan are closed by snow. A recent operation by Tajik government troops to dislodge armed opposition units from the main highway between Dushanbe and Gorno-Badakhshan was supposed to make food deliveries possible; Badakhshani authorities criticized Dushanbe for the attacks in which many civilian villagers were killed. -Bess Brown CIS EXPERTS DISCUSS CREATION OF CIS HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION. Experts met in the headquarters of the Commonwealth of Independent States in Minsk on 18-19 August to discuss setting up the CIS Human Rights Commission envisaged in Article 33 of the CIS Charter, Belinform-TASS reported. The draft statute on the commission was drawn up and presented by Russia, which from the beginning has been the driving force behind the creation of such a commission. The experts, in particular the Russian delegation, supported Armenia's proposal that fact-finding missions should be sent to the CIS countries, but a Russian foreign ministry official told Belinform the talks were difficult, as some participants regard human rights as an exclusively internal matter. -Ann Sheehy UKRAINE, MOLDOVA, BELARUS CONSULT. Delegations from the Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Moldovan Foreign Ministries conferred in Kiev to prepare for the impending 48th session of the UN General Assembly, Ukrainian television reported on 19 August. Details of the discussions were not reported. -Ustina Markus RUSSIAN MINISTER AGAIN CLAIMS NUCLEAR AGREEMENT NEAR . . . In an interview published in Nezavisimaya gazeta on 18 August, Russia's Minister for Atomic Energy, Viktor Mikhailov, noted that he had just returned from negotiations with Ukraine over dismantling nuclear weapons, and that he believed that this issue was "practically resolved and that in the near future a corresponding agreement will be signed." Mikhailov's comments echo those of Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev, which the Ukrainian government refuted earlier this week. Mikhailov also claimed that it would take Ukraine "decades" and billions of dollars to build a significant nuclear weapons capability, apparently discounting the fact that Ukraine already has on its territory a subtantial stockpile of fissile material. -John Lepingwell . . . BUT UKRAINE CLAIMS MINSK AGREEMENT INVALID . . . At the UN Conference on Disarmament Ukrainian and Russian delegations traded charges over who was violating existing accords on nuclear weapons. A statement released by the Ukrainian government on 19 August, and carried in full by ITAR-TASS, once again denied that Ukraine aspired to full operational control of the nuclear weapons on its territory and criticized Russia for violating the 1991 Minsk agreement on nuclear weapons by unilaterally trying to dissolve the CIS command. The statement noted that consequently the Minsk agreement "can no longer be considered in effect for Russia and Ukraine." It also noted that Russia had moved to take over special nuclear warhead storage and service areas, and that for more than half a year it had not provided parts needed to maintain the warheads.--John Lepingwell . . . AND REINTERPRETS START-1 AND LISBON PROTOCOL. The Ukrainian government statement noted that the fate of the weapons in Ukraine will be decided by the Ukrainian parliament. It also clearly and officially stated its interpretation of START-1 and the Lisbon protocol-that they require only a 36% reduction in the nuclear forces in Ukraine. This corresponds to earlier, unofficial Ukrainian statements to the effect that only 50-SS-19 ICBMs need to be dismantled under the terms of START-1. This interpretation is completely at variance with that of the US and Russia, which regard President Kravchuk's commitment (made at the same time as the Lisbon protocol) to eliminate all nuclear weapons as binding. The Lisbon protocol also contains a provision that Ukraine will rapidly join the nuclear non-proliferation treaty as a non-nuclear weapons state. -John Lepingwell CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE "IT'S MUCH WORSE THAN SARAJEVO." This is how the 20 August Los Angeles Times quotes an aid worker who has just returned from Mostar, where fighting between Croats and Muslims since May is "street to street-.-.-. building for building," as opposed to the more indiscriminate combat in the Bosnian capital. The aid worker added that Mostar is "like the pictures you saw from late-70's Beirut." Meanwhile, the BBC's Serbian Service says that the first relief convoy since 15 June has reached Mostar and delivered aid to the Croatian part of town. The mission plans to go on to the much more destitute Muslim section on 20 August. Croat officials, Hina adds, are demanding that Muslim forces stop blocking an 80-truck relief convoy headed from Split to central Bosnia, and that some means be found to evacuate patients from a Croatian hospital there. -Patrick Moore A "FINAL SETTLEMENT" FOR BOSNIA? SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TOLD NEWS AGENCIES AT THE GENEVA TALKS ON 19 AUGUST THAT THE MUSLIMS WILL BE OFFERED A TAKE-IT-OR-LEAVE-IT PROPOSAL ON 20 AUGUST. He said this will be "a very critical day," but added that "we have now all conditions which are needed for a final settlement." The Serbs have conceded a land corridor to the Muslims in eastern Bosnia, thereby raising the Muslims' share of the total land area from 30 to 32%, but the Muslims still insist on 40% as well as a series of political concessions amounting to a partial reversal of ethnic cleansing. Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic, for his part, spoke pessimistically to reporters and noted that any decision would have to be approved by the republic's parliament. Besides Milosevic and Izetbegovic, on hand are Croatian President Franjo Tudjman, Montenegro's Momir Bulatovic, Bosnian Croat leader Mate Boban, and his Serbian counterpart Radovan Karadzic. Elsewhere, Vecernji list and Borba on 20-August report on other ongoing talks aimed at hammering out a settlement between the Croatian government and the Serb rebels who control about 25% of the republic's territory. -Patrick Moore SUCHOCKA ON YELTSIN, CAMPAIGN. At her regular press conference on 19 August, Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka announced that a bilateral agreement on the construction of the Polish segment of a natural gas pipeline leading from Russia to Europe will be signed during Russian President Boris Yeltsin's coming two-day visit to Poland. Suchocka called the pipeline deal "the investment of the century" with huge potential profits for Poland, PAP reports. Suchocka added that the location of a contested Russian military mission will also be discussed during Yeltsin's visit. Turning to domestic matters, Suchocka noted that the government has prepared draft legislation designed to create an apolitical civil service, in which all but the highest ministerial posts would be exempt from personnel changes with any change in government. Responding to charges that the government's diligence in recent weeks is designed to help her own party, the Democratic Union, in the elections, Suchocka stressed that she has not yet entered the election campaign, has not appeared in any election advertising, and wears no party insignia. Her campaign will begin in September, she said. -Louisa Vinton SOLIDARITY DEMANDS TALKS WITH GOVERNMENT. Accusing the Polish authorities of treating workers in a fashion amounting to a "political provocation," Solidarity's national leadership on 19 August demanded that the government open negotiations immediately. Solidarity chairman Marian Krzaklewski said that if the government fails to react, the union will again convene its national strike committee. This strike committee was set up before the no-confidence vote in the government, but the union is believed to be too weak to follow through with its threat of a general strike. The union also resolved to stage a demonstration against "thieving forms of privatization" in Walbrzych on 23 August. Krzaklewski criticized President Lech Walesa for failing to follow through with a pledge to mediate in disputes with the government. "When the president realized that the union was going to run an independent campaign and not join his BBWR, he lost interest in the agreed topics for negotiation," Krzaklewski said. The union removed from leadership posts a number of figures who are running for the Sejm on the Democratic Union and BBWR tickets, PAP reports. -Louisa Vinton TWO RIGHT-WING ORGANIZATIONS JOIN FORCES IN HUNGARY. On 19 August Hungarian Path Circles and the Party of Hungarian Justice and Life issued a common eight-point program, MTI reports. The program demands justice and law and order as well as equal opportunities for all Hungarians in all walks of life. The state should be concerned primarily with the national well-being in all areas but especially in education. The program demands a fair system of taxation and that those guilty of crimes in the past be brought to justice. The two organizations further agreed to support rescheduling Hungary's foreign debt and to demand the protection of workers' interests during privatization. The program calls for a new constitution and a new government structure and better environmental protection. -Judith Pataki SLOVAK-HUNGARIAN NEGOTIATIONS. On 19 August Ivan Baba, deputy state secretary of the Hungarian Foreign Ministry, and Marian Krasnohorska, director of the bilateral cooperation department of the Slovak Foreign Ministry, held talks in Bratislava on ethnic minorities, the 1945 Benes decrees, border crossings, environmental protection, and military relationships, TASR reports. In a press conference following the talks, Baba said Hungary "has no territorial demands toward Slovakia" and is willing to include a statement of mutual respect for the existing border in the prepared agreement. Although the Slovak team said there is "no possibility of the total abolition of the Benes decrees," politicians are "willing to discuss particular items." Baba stated the Hungarian side is willing to discuss a Slovak-Hungarian readmission treaty on the return of illegal immigrants. Concerning ethnic minority issues, these problems "are to be solved by the Slovak government and parliament." -Sharon Fisher HUNGARIAN OPPOSITION LEADER WRITES TO SLOVAKS. On 19 August Ivan Peto, the chairman of the opposition Alliance of Free Democrats, addressed a letter to Slovak Deputy Prime Minister Roman Kovac, National Council Chairman Ivan Gasparovic, and Chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee of the National Council, Ivan Laluha. MTI reports that Peto met with all three during his March visit to Bratislava. In his letter Peto stressed that his party has supported Slovak admission to the Council of Europe and that representatives of his party are glad to see that Slovakia is ready to improve its minority policy. On the other hand, Peto expressed concern about the recent removal of Hungarian language signs by the Transportation Ministry in some communities inhabited mainly by Hungarians. At a press conference of the Hungarian Civic Party of Slovakia, meanwhile, its chairman, Laszlo Nagy, called the removal of the signs "state banditism." -Judith Pataki and Sharon Fisher ROMANIAN NATIONALIST PARTY OPPOSES MINORITY SIGNS. On 19 August the Party of Romanian National Unity protested a draft law forwarded to the government by the Council of National Minorities one day earlier. Speaking on Radio Bucharest Cluj mayor and PNRU chairman Gheorghe Funar called the bill, which allows bilingual road signs in areas where minorities make up a substantial proportion of the population, unconstitutional. The PRNU is calling for the immediate disbanding of the council and the setting up of a parliamentary commission to investigate deputies who are in the council. It also accuses the coordinator of the council, Victor Hrebenciuc of "artificially fomenting interethnic conflicts" and demands his dismissal. Finally, Funar, who has banned bilingual signs in Cluj, said with heavy irony that Romania would consider adopting a law along the lines proposed in the draft law-but only if democratic European countries and the USA would do so first. Meanwhile, Funar says, "Romanians have learned the lessons of the interethnic war in the former federative state of Yugoslavia." -Michael Shafir MINISTER SAYS DELAY IN MFN TALKS HURTS ROMANIA. Misu Negritoiu, the minister of state for economic reform, said in an interview with Reuters on 19 August that time is running out for Romania after a delay in talks with the IMF. Negritoiu admitted that the government underestimated the importance of the budget, which had been "patterned on Romania's classical industrial [ a euphemism for Ceausescu-times] model." Talks with the IMF earlier this year snagged on Romania's failure to meet IMF requirements on the budget deficit, interest rates, and industrial reform. A new round of talks is scheduled for next month, but Romania's chances to obtain low credits for this year are not good, despite the government's recent adjustment of the budget deficit to just over 4% of GDP, a figure within IMF and World Bank standards. -Michael Shafir "BULGARIAN SOCIALISTS OBSTRUCTING LAND REFORM." On 19 August a presidential adviser accused the Bulgarian Socialist Party of trying to pressure former workers of state farms into joining cooperatives instead of setting up their own businesses, BTA reports. Speaking to reporters at a presidential briefing, Georgi Spasov said some 900 cooperatives have been established at the initiative of local BSP activists but that a group of Socialist deputies is directing the campaign. Spasov warned that cooperatives represent an inefficient form of organization and that their appearance might block the entire land reform. He noted that if a cooperative goes bankrupt its members are likely to lose the land they otherwise could have claimed for themselves. Spasov said the BSP by sustaining collective forms of ownership is hoping to reinforce its position in the countryside. Quoting Minister of Agriculture Georgi Tanev, Zemya of 20 August says 18% of the farm land has so far been reprivatized. -Kjell Engelbrekt TIRANA JAILS ARE GETTING CROWDED. Local sources confirm that Ramiz Alia, former Albanian president and Party of Labor general secretary, has been jailed. Alia has been under house arrest since last September with little talk of a trial. Zeri i Popullit, the Socialist Party daily, also confirms that former politburo members Foto Cami, Besnik Bekteshi, Vangjel Cerrava, and Pali Miska have also been arrested. It now appears that Alia will probably be tried alongside Socialist leader Fatos Nano for abuse of office and misuse of funds, all relating to a scandal involving humanitarian aid from Italy. Nano was recently disciplined for violating prison rules. Gazeta Shqiptare reports on 18 August that a copy of Zeri i Popullit was found in his cell; for this infraction Nano was reportedly denied visitors for 10 days. -Robert Austin and Louis Zanga MOLDOVA PROTESTS RUSSIAN MILITARY MOVES. On 19 August Moldova's Foreign Ministry handed the Russian Embassy in Chisinau a protest note over the landing in Tiraspol of two Russian Army helicopters not belonging to Russia's 14th Army in Moldova on a flight not cleared with the Moldovan authorities. The note termed the action "a planned move, destabilizing the situation in eastern Moldova," and aiming to illegally transfer arms to the Dniester secessionists, Basapress reported. At a meeting on 18 August of the tripartite Joint Control Commission, which nominally oversees the mainly Russian peacekeeping forces in the disengagement zone in eastern Moldova, the Moldovan delegation protested against the admission of "Dniester republic" soldiers into barracks of Russian military units in Bendery, in violation of the ceasefire agreement. The note termed these cases "further proof of Russian Army support for the secessionist forces," Moldovapres reports. -Vladimir Socor NATO OFFERS MOLDOVA CLOSER COOPERATION. A delegation from NATO, led by Field Marshal Sir Richard Frederick Vincent, Chairman of NATO's Military Committee, completed a two-day visit to Moldova, Chisinau media reported on 19 August. The delegation proposed cooperation between NATO and Moldova in jointly working out conflict resolution, crisis management, and peacekeeping concepts, advance training of Moldovan officers, military consulting, and other forms of cooperation to be specified during a forthcoming visit to NATO headquarters by a Moldovan military delegation. The NATO delegation further noted the need to "overcome information blockages" regarding the situation in Moldova. The Moldovan side stressed that the stabilization of the situation in eastern Moldova requires cessation of Russia's military and financial assistance to the "Dniester republic" and the withdrawal of Russia's army from Moldova. -Vladimir Socor RUSSIAN FORCES TO STAY IN KLAIPEDA TILL OCTOBER. On 19 August Maj. Gen. Aleksandr Pustatov, the commander of Russia's Third Coastal Defense Division, told Radio Lithuania that he has received orders from Defense Minister Pavel Grachev to form a 40-member operations group to remain in Klaipeda until 15 October. The remaining 1,500 troops and their equipment will leave the port city before the 31 August deadline. Pustatov said that the group would remain to complete the documentation transferring the division's facilities to Lithuania and calculating environmental damages. The group intends to remain in a wing of the division's premises, where they recently equipped a radio station to maintain direct contact with naval headquarters in Kaliningrad. -Saulius Girnius VELLISTE SANGUINE ABOUT TROOP PULLOUT. Estonian Foreign Minister Trivimi Velliste told Postimees that, despite recent harsh statements from Moscow, he is confident that Russia will withdraw its troops from Estonia by the end of 1993. Velliste said that while he condemns such statements, his principal concern is to get the Russian forces out of Estonia: "it's not that important for us what kind of statements Russian politicians make." Currently there are about 4,500-Russian servicemen in Estonia, and their number appears to be decreasing, BNS reported on 19 August. -Dzintra Bungs SHUSHKEVICH, YELTSIN MEET. Russian President Boris Yeltsin met with Belarusian Supreme Soviet Chairman Stanislau Shushkevich in Moscow on 19 August, ITAR-TASS and Postfaktumradie reported. Their discussions focused on the 7 September meeting of CIS heads of state, the 28 August meeting of CIS government heads in Minsk, bilateral relations, and, above all, the problem of energy supplies from Russia. Ustina Markus BRAZAUSKAS, YELTSIN TO MEET. On 19 August it was announced that President Algirdas Brazauskas will meet with Boris Yeltsin in Moscow on 23 August, Radio Lithuania reports. He will be accompanied by Foreign Minister Povilas Gylys, National Defense Minister Audrius Butkevicius, and Virgilijus Bulovas, the head of the Lithuanian delegation for talks with Russia. The meeting has aroused considerable opposition in Lithuania. Some delegation members, dissatisfied with their effective removal from the negotiations, considered resigning, but a majority did not approve the motion. The delegation urged Lithuania to refrain from talks with Russia until it stops exerting pressure by suspending its troop withdrawal. On 20 August eight opposition parties issued a declaration saying that Brazauskas should not sign any agreement with Yeltsin that was not coordinated with them. -Saulius Girnius UKRAINE, POLAND DISCUSS BORDERS. On 19 August Ukrainian Radio reported that the first meeting of a Polish-Ukrainian working group on border controls has been held in Lviv. The delegations noted that controls are inefficient on both sides, creating lengthy traffic delays. A number of propositions to help ease the traffic at entry points were discussed. -Ustina Markus KARBOVANETS PLUMMETS. With the value of the Ukrainian karbovanets now being left up to traders on the currency exchange, its value has plunged against the dollar. Last week the karbovanets stood at nearly 6,000-to the dollar at the Central Bank's set rate, but on 19-August it was trading at 19,000 to the dollar. Ukrainian exporters, however, are required by a new law to sell half of their hard currency earnings to the Central Bank at a fixed rate of some 6,000 karbovantsy per dollar, Reuters reported. ITAR-TASS says the government has announced that the introduction of the hryvnya is not immediately possible because the government cannot set up a hard currency fund to stabilize the new national currency. -Ustina Markus [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Vladimir Socor and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.RFE/RL Daily Report
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