|The greatest of faults, I should say, is to be conscious of none. - Thomas Carlyle 1975-1881|
No. 158, 18 August 1993
RUSSIA KHASBULATOV SPEAKS AT MEETING OF LOCAL SOVIETS. Parliament Chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov, opening a meeting of local soviet representatives on 17-August, called for more consultation over Russian government policy. He said that there were some positive elements in the government's economic program, but damned its budget policy as "destroying the country," and criticized the Finance Ministry for "obediently carrying out the demands of the IMF," ITAR-TASS reported. However, journalists were subsequently barred from the meeting and, reportedly, Khasbulatov followed these relatively conciliatory remarks with a strong attack on President Boris Yeltsin, calling for early presidential elections and attempting to rally support against Yeltsin's proposal for a Federation Council which could become the upper chamber of parliament. -Wendy Slater WARNINGS OF CONFRONTATION AT COUP ANNIVERSARY DEMONSTRATIONS. Rival demonstrations by hardline opposition groups and pro-Yeltsin parties to mark the second anniversary of the failed August coup will apparently go ahead outside the Russian parliament's building on 20 August, AFP and ITAR-TASS reported on 17 August. The Moscow mayor's office has granted permission for the demonstrations, despite fears that they could provoke violence. The anniversary will also be used by various political parties and the country's top leadership to publicize their views. Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi, meanwhile, warned on 17-August that Yeltsin's advisors were "persistently pushing the president towards coercive action," Reuters reported. He called for vigilance and restraint, saying that "there must be no pretext to . . . introduce a state of emergency." -Wendy Slater RYABOV PREDICTS EARLY ELECTIONS. The parliament's deputy chairman, Nikolai Ryabov, predicts that parliamentary and presidential elections will be held either this autumn or in the spring of 1994 but he warns that any vote must be preceded by constitutional changes to reorganize the Russian government. In a lengthy interview on Russian TV on 16 August, Ryabov also endorsed the recent decision to create a Federation Council made up of regional representatives and to resume work at the Constitutional Assembly. Ryabov suggested that the efforts of regional leaders will be needed to convince the next Congress of People's Deputies in November to agree to adopt a new constitution. Ryabov, who has split with Parliament Chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov over the latter's opposition to President Yeltsin, denied that he was seeking Khasbulatov' s job but he insisted that new laws were needed to regulate the powers of the parliamentary speaker and the legislature's presidium. -Dominic Gualtieri THE "UNSTABLE EQUILIBRIUM" OF THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY. The analysis by the Ministry of the Economy of the economic results of the first half of 1993 is carried by the July "Vash Partner" supplement to Ekonomika i zhizn, while the Russian Goskomstat report on the first seven months of the year is summarized by ITAR-TASS of 17 August. Both studies confirm that the Russian economy remains in what the Ministry calls "a condition of unstable equilibrium." The output decline for practically all major indicators (apart from the production of natural gas) continues, although the drop is less precipitous than during the first half of 1992. The state of the fuel and energy complex gives reason for "special concern," and the conversion of the defense industry complex has shown little progress. Indeed, its production of civilian goods was down by 14% when compared with the corresponding period of 1992. -Keith Bush BREAD ALLOWANCE FOR POOR RUSSIANS. The retail price of bread is to rise by an as yet unannounced amount, following increases in the prices paid for grain to farmers and the doubling of prices paid for grain by flour-milling enterprises. According to Reuters of 17-August, a bread allowance to offset this increase will be paid to poorer citizens, with the amount to be set later in the week. As of 1 August, the purchase price paid by the government for standard wheat rose to 70,000 rubles a ton. The price of wheat delivered to flour mills was doubled to 24,000 rubles a ton on 17 August. This leaves a subsidy of 46,000 rubles a ton for bread grain, although the Russian government has assured foreign creditors that it intends to reduce its subsidy bill. -Keith Bush DROP IN NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED. The number of registered unemployed fell further in July to 988,600, Reuters reported on 17 August. Seasonal factors are said to be behind the decline. In particular it is claimed that many people are on summer holidays, and do not bother to register as unemployed with the state employment service. The number of job vacancies is also reported to have increased over the past month. According to Russian TV on 16 August, a total of 10 billion rubles was spent on unemployment benefits in the first half of 1993. -Sheila Marnie RUSSIA CALLS FOR END TO WEAPONS GRADE URANIUM PRODUCTION. At the UN Conference on Disarmament in Geneva on 17 August, the Russian delegate, Valerii Zemskov, proposed that all further production of highly enriched weapons grade uranium be halted, ITAR-TASS and AFP reported. The envoy also suggested that all such material be placed under the control of the International Atomic Energy Agency; and reiterated Russia's interest in negotiating a comprehensive nuclear test ban. If Russia implements the START treaties and dismantles the resulting surplus warheads, it will have an inventory of several hundred tons of weapons-grade uranium, which it is planning to sell to the US to be diluted for use as nuclear reactor fuel. -John Lepingwell RUSSIA MAY JOIN MTCR. Zemskov further stated that Moscow was seriously considering joining the 1986 Missile and Technology Control Regime (MTCR), but said that in return Russia expected Western nations to lift what he called "discriminatory" trade restrictions on Russia originally leveled against the USSR by the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (COCOM). According to Reuters, Zemskov described the COCOM restrictions as unfairly impeding "Russia's access to the world market of space services." Zemskov's remarks come in the wake of Moscow's decision-made at the behest of Washington-to cancel a sale of rocket technology to India. That decision has drawn the fire of Russian conservatives, who charge the government with selling out Russian interests. Moscow appears to be demanding the quid pro quo on COCOM at least in part to rebut these charges. -Stephen Foye KURIL ISLANDS DISPUTE HEATS UP. Relations between Japan and Russia appeared to take a step backward on 17 August following remarks by Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin and presidential spokesman Anatolii Krasikov. Chernomyrdin told Japanese reporters during a trip to the four disputed Kuril Islands that Russia would never give up the islands and that discussion of their fate was a non-issue. Commenting in Moscow, Krasikov said that Chernomyrdin's remarks would not affect Boris Yeltsin's tentatively planned trip to Tokyo in October. Krasikov did suggest, however, that Moscow would no longer honor a 1956 Russo-Japanese communique that had called for the return of two of the disputed islands to Japan. Meanwhile, a senior Russian Foreign Ministry official in Tokyo said that the Prime Minister had long been a conservative and that his views represented the feelings of only a portion of the Russian people, Kyodo and Reuters reported. -Stephen Foye SAKHA, TATARSTAN PRESIDENTS ON ELECTIONS, FEDERATION COUNCIL. In an interview reported in Nezavisimaya gazeta of 17 August, the president of Sakha (Yakutia), Mikhail Nikolaev, said he was in favor of early parliamentary elections, but that laws on elections and on the system of federal power would have to be passed first so that people would know what kind of parliament they were voting for. Nikolaev also stated that it would be a good idea if the Russian parliament endorsed Yeltsin's decree creating the Federation Council, a view shared by Tatarstan president Mintimer Shaimiev, who was also interviewed by Nezavisimaya gazeta. (Such endorsement would certainly enhance the status of the Council.) Shaimiev was not in favor of early elections, however, saying he did not think the population would go to the polls in sufficient numbers at this juncture. Shaimiev also said that he disagreed with the view that the Federation Council would be a cudgel for Yeltsin to threaten the parliament with; no one would be able to dictate their will to the Council, he maintained. -Ann Sheehy TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA SHEVARDNADZE IN ASHGABAT, BAKU. A Georgian delegation headed by parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze signed a series of bilateral agreements on economic and cultural cooperation with the Turkmen government in Ashgabat on 17 August, ITAR-TASS reported. Specifically, it was agreed that Georgia should immediately begin payment of half the 69 billion rubles it owes Turkmenistan for supplies of natural gas. On his return journey Shevardnadze made a stopover in Baku, where he discussed the conflicts in Abkhazia and Nagorno-Karabakh with Azerbaijan parliament chairman Geidar Aliev, ITAR-TASS reported. -Liz Fuller GERMANY REJECTS SHEVARDNADZE'S REQUEST FOR PEACEKEEPING TROOPS. The German government has turned down a request by Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze to send 2,000 peacekeeeping troops to Abkhazia under the auspices of the UN, Reuters and the Sueddeutsche Zeitung reported on 17 August. Georgia has addressed a similar request to the Ukrainian government. -Liz Fuller WOODRUFF'S KILLER ARRESTED. Georgian First Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs Mikhail Osadze told Georgian Radio on 17 August that a young man has been arrested for the murder near Tbilisi on 8 August of CIA official Fred Woodruff, Reuters reported. Osadze said that the murder was "a chance killing", and the perpetrator, who has not been named, was not aware of the identity of his victim. -Liz Fuller TURKEY, RUSSIA CONDEMN ARMENIAN ADVANCE. On 17 August Turkish Prime Minister Tansu Ciller issued a warning to Armenia to desist from what she termed unlawful and inhuman aggression in Azerbaijan or bear the consequences, Reuters reported. Turkey has consistently rejected the Armenian government's claims that it has minimal influence over the actions of the acting government of the self-proclaimed Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. Speaking in Moscow on 17 August, Russia's chief negotiator for Nagorno-Karabakh, Vladimir Kazimirov, argued that Russia should act more decisively to bring about a permanent cessation of hostilities in the region, according to ITAR-TASS. Azerbaijan's Ambassador to the UN has asked the Security Council to impose sanctions on Armenia, an RFE/RL correspondent reported. Meanwhile on 17 August Armenian forces advanced to within a mile of the town of Dzhebrail, south of Nagorno-Karabakh. -Liz Fuller TAJIKISTAN UPDATE. Russian news agencies reported on 17 August that negotiations were continuing over the release of four Russian border guards and an officer from Kazakhstan who were captured on the Tajik-Afghan border on 10 August. Procedural issues were reported to be delaying the release of the five men. The same day a Russian Interagency Working Group on Tajikistan held its first meeting. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev was quoted by ITAR-TASS as calling for the drawing up of an action plan to protect Russia's security. A six-fold increase in the price of bread in Tajikistan went into effect on 16 July and was explained in the official daily Narodnaya gazeta (quoted by Reuters) the following day as necessary to compensate for economic problems caused by the civil war. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE IZETBEGOVIC SEES LITTLE PROGRESS IN GENEVA. Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic has criticized a tentative agreement among Bosnia's warring factions to demilitarize Sarajevo and put it under UN control, because the plan doesn't guarantee an end to the Serb siege, international media report on 17 and 18 August. Each delegation presented its map on 17-August. Major disagreements between the Muslims and Serbs over eastern Bosnia and between Muslims and Croats over central Bosnia remain. Izetbegovic said: "We discussed the maps all day today, for 10 hours, but I don't see any progress." The Muslims say that the Serbs shouldn't be allowed to keep areas where they conducted what the Muslims call the worst atrocities and ethnic cleansing campaigns, including Foca, Zvornik, and Visegrad. A meeting between Izetbegovic and Bosnian Croat leader Mate Boban was dominated by the continued fighting between their forces in central Bosnia. After a joint meeting of all sides and the mediators Lord Owen and Thorvald Stoltenberg, their spokesman said that "the parties got down to serious discussion, and we went some way to regaining the atmosphere we had before these talks were suspended." -Fabian Schmidt OTHER DEVELOPMENTS. On 17 August Reuters reported that Bosnian Croat forces have charged Muslims with the massacre of 43 civilians in north-central Bosnia. A spokesman added that "international organizations have no idea of what is gong on in the towns and villages of central Bosnia. That's the darkest of the dark areas in Bosnia." No journalists have been able to reach the area to check on the validity of the charges. Meanwhile, fighting continues in the Mostar area, and UN officials said they are concerned about 35,000 Muslims cut off in the town without access to aid shipments. Finally, Borba of 18 August quotes the head of the rump Yugoslav National Bank as saying that six zeros will soon be dropped from the dinar currency. He admitted that the measure would not come to grips with the causes of hyperinflation, but said that it could have some psychological effect. Most outside observers, however, feel that the government of President Slobodan Milosevic and its neocommunist economic policies are at the root of Serbia's economic woes. -Patrick Moore UN CONCERNED ABOUT VOJVODINA HUNGARIANS. The UN Human Rights Panel has raised questions about rump Yugoslavia's treatment of ethnic Hungarians in Serbia's Vojvodina province, Western news agencies report. Special rapporteur Theodor Van Boven expressed concern at what he called the forced ethnic segregation of Hungarians and Croats in Vojvodina and accused Serbian authorities of harassing those minorities. One expert pointed out that in areas in Vojvodina where Serbs constitute 15% of the population, the directors of all state enterprises are Serbs. According to official estimates, some 350,000 Hungarians live in Vojvodina; MTI on 12 May gave a figure of 30, 000 for those who have fled to Hungary to escape harassment and being drafted into the Yugoslav army. -Edith Oltay KOSOVO UPDATE. The Tirana edition of the exile Kosovo newspaper Rilindja reports on 18-August about major police raids in Pristina on 17 August. From the early morning all entrances to the city as well as key intersections were reportedly controlled by the police before police raided two markets and arrested several people. Radio Tirana reported on 14-August that 600-Serbian policemen and soldiers surrounded Mitrovice and raided two markets there, too. The police raided offices of the Kosovo Democratic League in Pristina, arrested several people and confiscated foodstuffs that were destined for poor families. The office of the National Unity Party in Pristina was raided, too, and four people were arrested. From 14-18 August Rilindja reports further beatings and arrests in Gjilan, Kamenice, Ferizaj, Gjakovo, Rahovec, Prizren, Podujevo, and Skenderaj. -Fabian Schmidt MACEDONIA TIGHTENS BORDER WITH RUMP YUGOSLAVIA. Reuters reports on 17-August that the Republic of Macedonia will begin imposing tighter controls on its border with Serbia. Passports will now be required to enter Macedonia; in the past identification papers sufficed. The official explanation for the move is to limit Albanian refugees from Kosovo and "to keep a lid on black marketeers." The former is clearly the more important consideration, as Skopje feels threatened by the prospect of thousands of Muslim Albanians flooding the country and upsetting what is an already precarious relationship with Macedonia's own large ethnic Albanian community. -Robert Austin MECIAR REMAINS FIRM ON SLOVAK-RUSSIAN TREATY. In a 17 August interview with TASR, Slovak Premier Vladimir Meciar said "it is impossible" that the new Slovak-Russian treaty contain an apology for Russia's 1968 occupation of Czechoslovakia, since "today's Russia is not a successor to the former Soviet leadership who were responsible for [the invasion]." Although the Christian Democratic Movement on 14-August called for a special session of parliament to discuss the issue, Meciar said this request is "premature," since the agreement has not yet been finalized. Many have also criticized clause No. 4 of the proposed treaty, which states that neither side can use its territory for an act of aggression against the other and neither can provide military or any other assistance to an aggressor. Arpad Duka Zolyomi, deputy chairman of the Coexistence Party, claimed that this treaty could "prevent Slovakia from entering the military structures in Western Europe," TASR reports on 17-August. According to Smena on 17 August, this clause is "risky" since it does not take into account the present instability in Russia. Some ethnic Hungarian politicians accused CDM chairman Jan Carnogursky of opposing the treaty because of his fears that it could weaken the position of Slovakia in a conflict with Hungary. -Sharon Fisher CSURKA ON 1994 ELECTIONS. Hungarian Road Circles chairman Istvan Csurka told a meeting in Tokaj on 17-August that the 1994 parliamentary elections and election campaign are an attempt to preserve the current balance of power and amount to a "deception of the nation," MTI reports. He said that political and economic power is still in the hands of the representatives of the old order and a strong government is needed to put an end to this. Csurka said that the Hungarian Justice and Life party, which is closely associated with Csurka and the circles, aims at breaking the power of the old elite through legal means. He warned that if the current parliamentary parties stay in power, one can expect legislation that would allow immigration of foreigners and the sale of Hungarian land to foreigners. Csurka said that Hungary needs a "healthy" prime minister to solve its problems and a strong state that will introduce an honest taxation system, protect Hungarian entrepreneurs and goods, and put an end to unemployment. -Edith Oltay UPDATE ON ROMANIAN RAIL STRIKE. On 17 August the government ordered striking railway workers to return to work within three hours or be fired. The government also ordered the strikers to leave the railway depots and instructed police to enforce the order if asked to do so by railway administrators. It also called on retired locomotive drivers to offer their services to run the trains. By late evening, Radio Bucharest quoted government secretary Viorel Hrebenciuc as saying that work has resumed in 50 of 58-main railway depots. In Brasov 242 strikers first refused to resume work and went on a hunger strike, but a Reuters correspondent reports that work has now resumed there and the hunger strikers are no longer present at the depot. There were also reports of trouble in Iasi. Earlier, President Ion Iliescu went on radio and TV and again appealed to striking train drivers to return to work immediately. Ion Vlad, the vice president of the Free Union of Engine Drivers, told Reuters that the strike is over and that it is natural that work be resumed after threats "of police, gendarmes, and cancellation of labor contracts." Government sources quoted by Reuters say the strike has caused losses to the economy of at least 150 billion lei ($187 million) in domestic currency, plus $130 million in hard currency. -Michael Shafir BEROV SAYS ANTIGOVERNMENT ATTACKS ORCHESTRATED. At a press conference on 17 August Bulgarian Prime Minister Lyuben Berov claimed that antigovernment criticism over the past few weeks is part of a coordinated campaign to remove the cabinet. Berov told BTA that, following the failure of the Union of Democratic Forces to topple his government earlier this summer, the trade unions are now the chief instigators for his dismissal. He said there is no other explanation why the trade unions suddenly began blocking reform policies and demanded to receive the property of the former communist unions no later than 1-September. Berov also called on Anastasia Moser, leader of the Bulgarian Agrarian National Union, and presidential adviser Georgi Spasov, to prove allegations that the government has consistently appointed excommunists to lead the reprivatization of Bulgarian farm land. -Kjell Engelbrekt POLISH GOVERNMENT STRESSES LAW AND ORDER. Responding to a series of recent assaults on government officials and offices by radical political groups, the government ordered cabinet ministers and regional governors to guarantee the strict enforcement of civil rights, public safety, and financial obligations to the state. Police and other state officials who fail to protect the public order will face disciplinary action, the government instructed. Justice Minister Jan Piatkowski warned that all violations of the law will be severely punished. "The government cannot sit quietly by and wait until, as the leader of the [Self Defense] union has threatened at several press conferences, their people come to government headquarters and begin carting ministers around in wheelbarrows," Piatkowski said. Gazeta Wyborcza reports that the cabinet resolved to adopt a hard line only after two hours of debate. Internal Affairs Minister Andrzej Milczanowski was reported to favor a softer approach to Self Defense and other anarchic groups, but Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka apparently insisted on a forceful measures. The government also approved a list of 195 firms for the first round of the Polish version of "mass privatization." -Louisa Vinton BALCEROWICZ WITHDRAWS EBRD CANDIDACY. Former Polish Deputy Prime Minister and Finance Minister Leszek Balcerowicz formally withdrew his candidacy to head the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) on 17 August, PAP reports. Balcerowicz's withdrawal leaves French national bank chief Jacques de Larosiere as the only candidate. The EC countries settled on de Larosiere as part of an unwritten agreement granting control over the EBRD presidency to France. Balcerowicz commented that his nomination had been intended to "end the old division between East and West." Both the New York Times (24 July) and The Economist (7 August) endorsed Balcerowicz as the best candidate for the EBRD. -Louisa Vinton RUSSIA SUSPENDS ARMY PULLOUT FROM LITHUANIA. On 17 August Lithuanian President Algirdas Brazauskas said that he has been told by an important official in the Russian Defense Ministry that Russia is suspending its withdrawal of troops from Lithuania, the RFE/RL Lithuanian Service reports. The move was prompted by the failure to sign a formal withdrawal agreement and Lithuania's continued demands for compensation for damages since 1940. On 18 August on Radio Lithuania Brazauskas said that neither he nor the Foreign Ministry has received any official note on the suspension. He has spoken with Russian President Boris Yeltsin that morning, he said, and they agreed to meet soon. National Defense Minister Audrius Butkevicius told a press conference that Russian Chief of the General Staff Col. Gen Mikhail Kolesnikov told him that a note on the suspension had been sent to the troops in Lithuania. -Saulius Girnius SHUSHKEVICH TO MEET YELTSIN. Supreme Soviet Chairman Stanislau Shushkevich has cut short his vacation and is traveling to Moscow on 18 August to meet with Russian President Boris Yeltsin, ITAR-TASS reports. Among the issues to be discussed are bilateral economic relations and the upcoming meetings of CIS heads of state and government on 27-August and 1-September. The Belarusian economy has been edging towards collapse under Russian pressure to exclude it from the ruble zone. The country owes over 100-billion rubles for natural gas and with a shortage of Russian rubles, is having serious difficulties paying its bills, Belarus TV reported on 16 August. Gazprom, the Russian gas company, has decreased gas deliveries to Belarus, making it impossible for Belarusian enterprises to function fully. -Ustina Markus NATO OFFICIALS IN MOLDOVA . . . For the second time in two months a NATO delegation is visiting Moldova. Led by Field Marshal Sir Charles Vincent, chairman of the NATO Military Committee, the group held talks on 17 August with government and military leaders, Basapress reports. The Moldovans asked for political support from NATO and its member states in securing the withdrawal of Russia's 14th Army and also for assistance in the consolidation of an independent and neutral Moldova. According to Reuters and Basapress, Vincent pointed out that NATO is interested in the stability of the region and seeks closer cooperation with Moldova, adding that Moldova needs a military capability sufficient to uphold its neutrality. -Vladimir Socor . . . AND UKRAINE. US Admiral Paul David Miller, the commander of NATO forces in the Atlantic, arrived in Odessa on 17 August for a working visit, Radio Ukraine reports. Miller met with the commander of the Odessa Military District, Col. Gen. Vitalii Rodezsky and naval forces commander Vice Admiral Boris Kozhin. From Odessa Miller is scheduled to proceed to Kiev. Asked about the possibility of Ukraine joining NATO, ITAR-TASS quoted Miller as saying that this is a matter for the politicians. An invitation to join would probably come slowly, he said, and would depend on how security relations develop. Ustina Markus GERMAN AID TO UKRAINE FOR NUCLEAR DISMANTLING. During his visit to Ukraine, German Defense Minister Volker Ruehe confirmed that Germany will offer financial assistance for dismantling the nuclear weapons located in Ukraine, according to Reuters and Ukrainian Radio reports on 17 August. The aid offer is conditional, however, on Ukraine ratifying START-1 and acceding to the nonproliferation treaty. US aid, previously also conditioned on START-1 ratification, has recently been released despite the continuing delays in the ratification process. -John Lepingwell SWEDISH, GERMAN SUPPLIES FOR LATVIAN DEFENSE FORCES. Diena reported on 15-and 16-August that Sweden has given Latvia armored and regular transport vehicles, fire trucks, winter uniforms, tents, medical supplies, and 1,000 army bicycles. More equipment is to be shipped in the future, as Sweden updates the equipment of its armed forces. Germany has now outfitted two military ships that it had given Latvia with modern communications systems. The same kind of communications equipment will also be installed on two vessels that Germany gave to Estonia and the one to Lithuania. -Dzintra Bungs LITHUANIA TO INTRODUCE VISAS FOR CIS COUNTRIES. Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius said that one of the remaining obstacles in signing a free-trade agreement among the Baltic States will be removed. Beginning on 1 October citizens of CIS countries will be issued Lithuanian entry visas on the border; Lithuanian diplomatic missions will issue them beginning 1 November, the RFE/RL Lithuanian Service reports. Estonian Prime Minister Mart Laar later told the press that there is a real possibility that a trilateral free-trade agreement might be signed on 13-September at a meeting of the Baltic premiers. -Saulius Girnius NEW STATE MINISTERS IN LATVIA. Parliament has endorsed two new ministers of state, Latvijas Jaunatne reported on 13 August. Vilis Kristopans, responsible for national income, will work with the Ministry of Finance, while Druvis Skulte, responsible for privatization, will work with the Ministry of Economics. The position of a state minister for national income is new and was not originally proposed by Prime Minister Valdis Birkavs when he nominated the members of his cabinet in July. -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Vladimir Socor and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.RFE/RL Daily Report
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