|A friend is a gift you give yourself. - Robert Louis Stevenson|
No. 155, 16 August 1993
RUSSIA YELTSIN AGREES TO JOINT CONSTITUTIONAL SESSION. At the insistence of the members of the Council of the Heads of the Republics at their session in Petrozavodsk on 13-August, President Boris Yeltsin reluctantly agreed that there should be a joint session of his constitutional assembly and the parliament's Constitutional Commission in mid-September, the Russian and Western media reported. According to Leonid Smirnyagin, a member of the Presidential Council, Yeltsin insisted that the republics must submit their comments on the draft constitution by 15 September, otherwise it would be assumed they had none, and "we will adopt the constitution without you." Although a joint session might increase the chances of the draft constitution being adopted by the Congress, the chances of its adoption still do not look high. -Ann Sheehy YELTSIN SAYS RUSSIA WILL REMAIN ONE. In his speech to the Council, Yeltsin spelt out clearly that there could be no question of Russia disintegrating, the Russian and Western media reported. While stating that there could be no question at present of depriving the republics of their sovereign status, he said that this sovereignty was limited. If any republics, krais, or oblasts nurtured hopes of secession, they would not succeed, he added. Russia would be preserved as a single state either on the basis of a civilized constitutional process or on the basis of naked force and dictatorship. There was no third way, Yeltsin maintained. -Ann Sheehy REPUBLICS AGREE TO CREATION OF CONSULTATIVE FEDERATION COUNCIL. The Council of the Heads of the Republics agreed to the creation of the Federation Council proposed by Yeltsin. Earlier, the republics had been reluctant to see themselves put on the same level as the other subjects of the federation, and the Congress of People's Deputies had rejected the idea. It is thought that the idea may be more palatable to the Congress this time round as the new council will include one representative each of both the legislative and executive power from each subject of the federation. At the same time commentators see the new body as a counterweight to the Congress. -Ann Sheehy PARLIAMENTARY FACTIONS CALL FOR DIALOGUE WITH YELTSIN. Twelve of the fourteen factions of the Russian parliament issued a joint statement calling on President Yeltsin to renew dialogue with deputies, Moscow TV reported on 13 August. The statement said that Yeltsin was not honoring his promise to hold regular consultations with the parliament, and proposed that he meet faction representatives on 19-August. It also said that to call for early parliamentary elections, as Yeltsin had on 12 August, flouted the results of the April referendum whereby citizens had told the parliament and president to cooperate. The pro-Yeltsin Radical Democrats and Democratic Russia factions did not sign the statement, which was said to constitute parliament's response to Yeltsin's remarks, replacing the planned debate on the issue. -Wendy Slater KHASBULATOV CONTINUES ATTACKS. Parliamentary chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov continued attacking President Yeltsin's call for early parliamentary elections. Speaking to foreign correspondents on 14-August, Khasbulatov said that there would be no elections in the fall, Russian TV and ITAR-TASS reported. He implied that political issues, particularly the constitutional debate, were being unsuccessfully employed to distract the population from its economic and social concerns. He said that the presidency should be distanced from executive power, leaving the president only as head of state, but denied that the confrontation between president and parliament was the major problem, citing instead the "duality of executive power" resulting from Yeltsin's administration's having "replaced the constitutional government." -Wendy Slater FOREIGN MINISTRY DISMISSES US PEACEKEEPING IN REGION. The Russian Foreign Ministry issued a statement on 13 August denying that the United States will be playing a significant role in peacekeeping to quell conflicts in the former Soviet Union. According to MFA spokesman Mikhail Demurin, information circulating in the media to this effect misrepresented the actual state of affairs. In its statement on 13 August, Russia asserted a special interest in performing this role in the region, ITAR-TASS reported. In keeping with a Russian campaign in the spring of 1993 to gain international recognition as the region's official peacekeeper, the MFA statement also expressed Russia's desire for support for this function within the UN Security Council. The MFA statement of 13 August appears designed to quiet concerns in Russia that the United States may be stepping unwanted into what Russia considers its sphere of influence. In addition, the statement can be interpreted as a signal to Washington highlighting Russian sensitivities. -Suzanne Crow KOZYREV IN SWEDEN. Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev ended a two-day visit to Sweden on 15 August. ITAR-TASS reported on 14 August that the aim of the visit was to discuss regional and bilateral issues with Swedish leaders. However, the question of Baltic troop withdrawals and Russia's stance toward the Baltic states dominated the agenda. This reflects Sweden's growing concern for the plight of these states amid signs that Russia is moving increasingly toward heavy-handed approaches in relations with these countries. -Suzanne Crow KOZYREV CLAIMS NUCLEAR AGREEMENT NEAR. Reuters reported on 15 August that Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev claimed there had been a breakthrough in Russian-Ukrainian negotiations over the dismantling of nuclear weapons located in Ukraine. According to Kozyrev, an agreement could be signed within a few days. This unexpected statement comes after a week in which Russia and Ukraine exchanged harsh words over the ownership and fate of the weapons. Indeed, ITAR-TASS reported on 13 August that at the UN the Russian delegation was circulating a statement critical of Ukraine's position. Some progress was made when Ukrainian Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma discussed the issue in Moscow with President Yeltsin on 11 August, at which time Yeltsin agreed to pay for the nuclear materials in the warheads. Past Russian claims that an agreement was near have proven to be overly optimistic, however, and so far the Ukrainian government has not confirmed Kozyrev's statement. -John Lepingwell DISSATISFACTION AMONG DEFENSE ENTERPRISE MANAGERS. Defense enterprise directors, convening in Tula on 13 August, told Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Lobov that the defense industrial sector in the region was in dire straits, and demanded that the government play a more active role in resolving its financial difficulties, ITAR-TASS reported. Among the measures called for were: government controls on energy prices; clarification of the state procurement budget for 1994 and subsequent years; the promulgation of normative acts on the status of defense enterprises and their activities with respect to conversion; an easing of the government's tax policies; and the granting of credits for conversion. On the following day, defense enterprise directors meeting with Lobov in Rostov on the Don reportedly expressed their bewilderment over the government's policies and were especially critical of what they said was the Defense Ministry's failure to adopt a military doctrine and a procurement policy. They further complained that the Defense Ministry had allocated virtually nothing this year for conversion. Russian Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Soskovets, meeting with enterprise directors in Khabarovsk on 16-August, heard many of the same complaints, ITAR-TASS reported. -Stephen Foye IRAN TO RECEIVE THIRD RUSSIAN SUB. An Iranian Admiral has said that Iran will soon receive a third Russian-built Kilo-class submarine, AFP reported on 14-August. The Admiral was quoted as saying that the sub would soon "be posted to a surveillance position in Iranian territorial waters" in the Persian Gulf. Iran received its first submarine from Russia in November of 1992; it received the second sub in early August of this year. -Stephen Foye WIDESPREAD INCIDENCE OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES. Russian and Western agencies on 13 and 14-August, and Komsomolskaya pravda on 14 August reported widespread outbreaks of serious diseases in Russian cities. Russian TV on 14 August announced that 4,000 cases of diptheria had been reported in Russia this year, including 900 in Moscow. The authorities have appealed to citizens to get themselves inoculated against this disease. At least 125 cases of cholera have been diagnosed during the past month in Russia and in other former Soviet republics. Typhoid fever struck 106-people in Volgodonsk. Mosquitoes were said to be breeding in more than 10,000 reservoirs in the Moscow region and doctors were advising that precautions be taken against malaria. In addition, more than 60 people were admitted to hospital in the southern Altai region after eating meat infected with anthrax. Keith Bush TRAVEL AGENCY SUSPENDS TOURS TO RUSSIA. One of Britain's largest travel agencies, Thomson Holidays, announced on 14 August that it is suspending its package tours to Moscow and St. Petersburg from the end of August, Reuters reported. The reason given was the increased risk of diptheria in these cities. Tourists who have booked for the month of August would be offered a refund. If they insisted on going, they were advised to get inoculated. -Keith Bush TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA TAJIK-AFGHAN AGREEMENT. Western and Russian news agencies reported on 15 August that the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Tajikistan and Afghanistan ended several days of negotiations in Dushanbe with a communique in which the Afghan side promised to try to stop attacks on Tajikistan from its territory, and the Tajik side undertook not to allow attacks against Afghanistan except in self-defense. Delegations of government representatives from both sides are to deal with future problems on the Tajik-Afghan border, and a trilateral commission of Tajik, Afghan and UN representatives is to be formed to assist in the return of Tajik refugees from Afghanistan. The Afghan Foreign Minister promised to press for the return of four Russian border guards and an officer from Kazakhstan who were kidnapped on the Afghan border on 10 August. -Bess Brown CIS RUSSIA AND UKRAINE OPPOSE AIR STRIKES IN BOSNIA. Russian and Ukrainian officials on 13 August criticized US plans for air strikes against Bosnian Serb forces . Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Boris Kolokolov told the parliament that Russia "has been firmly adhering to the policy of settling [politically] the Bosnian crisis" and termed military action inadmissible under the current UN resolutions. Evgenii Ambartsumov, the chairman of the Russian parliament's Committee for International Affairs, warned that "Russia cannot remain indifferent to the destiny of this region." Meanwhile, a Ukrainian Foreign Ministry official, Volodymyr Furkalo, objected to air strikes on the grounds that limited military action would leave UN peacekeeping forces hostage to the warring sides. He said air strikes would have to be accompanied by large-scale ground operations. -Suzanne Crow CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE GENEVA PEACE TALKS EXPECTED TO CONTINUE. Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic said over the weekend that he will return to the negotiations scheduled to resume on 16-August. Although international media also reported that Serbian troops withdrew from Mts.-Bjelasnica and Igman, Bosnian government officials said the siege had actually been tightened by the deployment of fresh Serb troops and the redeployment of those withdrawn from the highlands. Izetbegovic said the first topic he will raise in Geneva is ending the siege to allow humanitarian aid to arrive. Newsday on 15 August quotes UNPROFOR's Gen. Vere Hayes as praising the "great good will" of the Serb commander Gen. Ratko Mladic for leaving the peaks. The general added: "there is still a military siege, but there has never been a humanitarian strangulation of Sarajevo." Some 300 French peacekeepers are to control the mountains. Meanwhile, Izetbegovic said ethnic partition of Bosnia should be accepted temporarily but expressed his hope that ethnic partition will not last. Elsewhere, UN and NATO commanders agreed on 14 August on a list of possible Serb targets for air strikes. Finally, the UN carried out its first major medical evacuation from Sarajevo on 15 August, affecting 39 seriously wounded people. The British government was criticized by the UN medical evacuation committee with turning the evacuation into a public relations show and treating sick and wounded children "like animals in a zoo." An official said the British government only wanted to bring children to Britain because of the "sad and quaint pictures they make on the TV back home," the Washington Post reports on 16 August. -Fabian Schmidt TUDJMAN: NO BOSNIAN MUSLIM STATE ON THE ADRIATIC. Hina on 15 August quotes Croatian President Franjo Tudjman as telling an audience in the port town of Ploce that the Bosnian Muslims might be granted a free trade zone there but that Croatia "cannot allow the extension of an Islamic state" to the coast. Tudjman had earlier raised several options for a Muslim outlet to the sea, one of which was widely interpreted as meaning to grant them Ploce outright. Meanwhile, news agencies report continued Croat-Muslim fighting over the weekend in central Bosnia, and the BBC's Serbian Service on 16 August quotes local observers as saying that the situation around Mostar in Herzegovina is "particularly dangerous." The broadcast adds that Muslims are accusing the Croat authorities of using forced civilian labor in war zones, while AFP on 13 August cited Red Cross officials as putting the number of Muslim prisoners in Croat hands at Mostar at 22,000. Such charges of abuse of civilians have been common on all sides throughout this brutal war, with Croats and Serbs accusing the Muslim authorities of using brutal press-gang tactics to recruit trench-diggers in Sarajevo and giving Serbs the riskiest jobs. Finally, the BBC's Serbian Service on 16 August quotes Bosnian Croat spokesmen as saying they will boycott the Geneva talks unless Muslim forces stop blocking a Croat aid convoy in central Bosnia. -Patrick Moore MILOSEVIC CRITICIZES ACADEMY "MEMORANDUM." New revelations surrounding a controversial memorandum of the Serbian Academy of Arts and Sciences (SANU) were made public in the latest issue of Vreme. The independent Belgrade weekly published a document in which Serbia's President Slobodan Milosevic criticizes the 1986 memorandum, which, many domestic and international observers believe, may have precipitated Yugoslavia's disintegration in 1991. Never before had Milosevic been associated with criticism of the document and never had he made an official public statement about it. The interior ministry document published by Vreme indicates, however, that he felt the memorandum posed a threat to Tito's communist system. At a closed meeting of the Federal Interior Ministry and the Institute for Security held in Belgrade on 4 June 1987, Milosevic, then head of Serbia's League of Communists, said: "the appearance of the memorandum . . . represents nothing else but the darkest nationalism. It means the liquidation of the current socialist system of our country, . . . in which no nation or nationality can survive." In late July of this year SANU's presidency decided to publish a critical edition of the memorandum, which Vreme suggests is being prepared to offer a ex post facto justification of the roles played by certain individuals currently in power, such as Mihailo Markovic, vice president of the ruling Socialist Party of Serbia. -Milan Andrejevich ALBANIAN MISCELLANY. Rilindja Demokratike reports on 15 August that Agriculture Minister Petrit Kalakula was removed from his post after barely five months in the cabinet. His removal was initiated by an allegedly profascist comment he made in the People's Assembly. Kalakula is considered an extremist among the members of the ruling Democratic Party, and his removal could mean the resurgence of the moderate faction. In other developments, an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 12 August that the US Ambassador to the UN Madeleine Albright has asked Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali to "urge all states to provide immediate technical, financial, and material assistance to Albania to mitigate the adverse impact of the Yugoslav sanctions." Albania's chrome and electricity exports have been particularly hard hit by the UN-imposed sanctions against the rump Yugoslavia. Rilindja also reports on 13 August that Antonio Napolitano, head of a committee set up by the CSCE and the EC to monitor the effects of the sanctions on neighboring countries, remarked in Tirana that Albania is faithfully carrying out the sanctions. In a related story, ATA on 12-August notes that a Serbian helicopter violated Albanian airspace near the northern city of Shkoder on 11 August. This incident follows the 6 August shooting of 2 Albanian soldiers and one civilian by Serbian forces just inside Albanian territory. -Robert Austin POLAND MARKS "MIRACLE ON VISTULA." Meetings with the armed forces were the order of the day on 14-15 August, as Poland celebrated the anniversary of its victory over the Red Army just outside Warsaw in 1920. Attending tank exercises organized to mark Polish Army Day on 14 August, President Lech Walesa appeared to court the military vote by pledging to be an "ally of and spokesman for" the armed forces. He expressed satisfaction that the army had not been drawn into "political scandals" and said it must be "above [political] divisions." Speaking to a sappers' unit in Gorzow Wielkopolski on 14 August, Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka stressed that "the armed forces should be apolitical" in the elections and added that instructions to this effect had been issued to the defense minister. Gazeta Wyborcza reports on 16 August that 18 military officers are running for office as part of Walesa's Nonparty Reform Bloc. Other military figures are candidates for the former communist Democratic Left Alliance, the leftist Union of Labor, the radical-populist Confederation for an Independent Poland, the libertarian Union of Real Politics, Party "X," and Self Defense. -Louisa Vinton HARSH RHETORIC IN POLISH ELECTION CAMPAIGN. Drawing parallels between the "Miracle on the Vistula" and its own struggle against "communist sources of evil," the Center Alliance (PC) presented its election program at a candidates' gathering in Warsaw on 15-August. Despite arduous negotiations and virtually identical goals, the PC failed to build a coalition with former Prime Minister Jan Olszewski's Coalition for the Republic. The two forces will thus compete for the anticommunist, antigovernment vote. Asserting that "recommunization" is the biggest threat to Poland, PC activists lashed out at the government, the president, and the two major governing parties, the Democratic Union (UD) and the Liberal Democratic Congress (KLD). Former Defense Minister Jan Parys charged that "the Suchocka government was formed, out of fear of the truth, to defend a network of communist agents," Polish TV reports. Parys called for the abolition of the privatization ministry and measures to protect the budget from "thieves." PC activist Adam Glapinski called the UD and KLD "wolves in sheep's clothing" and said they "must be removed from power once and for all" because "the economic policy conducted for the past four years, with a short break of a few months [when Olszewski was prime minister], is leading to the ruin of Poland." -Louisa Vinton KLAUS, STOIBER DISCUSS SUDETEN GERMANS. During a meeting between Bavarian Prime Minister Edmund Stoiber and Czech Premier Vaclav Klaus in the Southern Bavarian town of Frasdorf on 15 August, Stoiber told Klaus that he wants Sudeten Germans to be represented in talks on Sudeten German issues with the Czech Republic. Stoiber argued that persisting differences of views can only be solved through talks and mutual understanding. According to Czech and German media, Klaus repeated his stand that dialogue with Sudeten Germans should not be conducted by the Czech government but rather by various groups, organizations, and political parties. Klaus and Stoiber also discussed a number of other issues, such as the construction of an oil pipeline from Bavaria to the Czech Republic and problems of asylum seekers. -Jiri Pehe POSSIBLE CHANGES IN SLOVAK GOVERNMENT. The Bratislava daily Sme reported on 13-August that Premier Vladimir Meciar proposed changes in his cabinet that may result in the appointment of Finance Minister Julius Toth to the now vacabt post of deputy premier for economy and former deputy governor of the Slovak National Bank, Marian Jusko, to the post of finance minister. Jusko, who is not a member of Meciar's party, is a respected economist who also worked as acting deputy under former privatization minister Ivan Miklos. Concerning the failed coalition talks between the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia and the Slovak National Party, the paper says that Meciar's new strategy is "to look for potential allies" in parliament and reports that Meciar has been holding talks with certain SNP members to help them "get in line with his ideas." In a 12 August SNP press conference Deputy Chairman Peter Sokol said that although his party is ready to begin a new round of coalition talks with the MDS, "it will not be the SNP that will initiate the talks." -Sharon Fisher SLANDER CHARGES AGAINST HUNGARIAN ACADEMIC. The Prosecutor's Office in Gyšr announced that it will press charges against political scientist Laszlo Lengyel for insulting the authorities, MTI reports. Prime Minister Jozsef Antall initiated the investigation in early August because he felt that statements made by Lengyel concerning the government amounted to slander. Lengyel allegedly said at a conference that every minister and department head is corrupt, and that even ministers could be bought. Government spokeswoman Judit Juhasz argued in the daily Nepszabadsag of 5-August that the prime minister's intention is "to protect government officials from baseless accusations." Opposition politicians and media condemned Antall's move, charging that he is seeking to silence independent critical voices. If convicted, Lengyel would face a maximum sentence of three years in prison. -Edith Oltay ROMANIAN RAIL STRIKE CONTINUES DESPITE COURT DECISION. On 13 August the Supreme Court suspended for 80 days a strike by locomotive drivers that started on 11 August. The ruling was requested by the state railroad company in view of the huge damages caused by the strike, which crippled domestic and international rail service. But train drivers in key railroad yards announced that they would not obey the order to return to work and would go instead on a "total strike" affecting all transport activity. Railways director Aurel Dumitrescu told Radio Bucharest that the strike "endangers the country's infrastructure," while the Bulgarian railway chairman Atanas Tonev described the Romanian strike as "a financial tragedy" for Bulgaria, whose rail traffic has been entirely diverted through Romania following the embargo imposed by the UN on Serbia. In a communique issued after an emergency meeting, on 13 August the government's executive bureau expressed "surprise and concern" over the strikers' decision to step up their action. The statement, which called the union leaders' stance "irresponsible," warned that their decision violates provisions of the penal code and is punishable by severe jail sentences. On 14 and 15 August Transport Minister Paul Teodoru and Chamber of Deputies Chairman Adrian Nastase attended unofficial talks with the strike organizers in Brasov on 14 and 15 August. The negotiations failed to produce an agreement. -Dan Ionescu NEW CURRENCY REGULATIONS IN UKRAINE. As of 16 August the value of the karbovanets will no longer be set by the Central Bank, but will be determined in trading against other currencies on the Kiev currency exchange, an RFE/RL correspondent reports. In addition, a new rule requiring Ukrainian exporters to sell half of their hard currency earnings to the bank takes effect on 16 August, and private citizens can now buy and sell hard currency without restrictions. -Ustina Markus RUSSIA CUTS GAS TO BELARUS. Gazprom, Russia's state gas supplier, has cut deliveries to Belarus because of unpaid bills, Reuters reported on 15 August. Gas is only being supplied to homes, bakeries, dairies, and some other important enterprises from reserves in the republic. Belarus owes Russia 100 billion rubles ($100 million) for gas supplies. Ustina Markus LATVIAN PRESIDENT VISITS LITHUANIA. On 13-August Guntis Ulmanis made a one-day trip to Lithuania, Radio Lithuania reports. He held talks with President Algirdas Brazauskas on cooperation among the Baltic States and their relations with Russia. Ulmanis told a press briefing that the Baltic States should create a single energy system and gain independence from Russian supplies. He also met Prime Minister Alfonsas Slezevicius, parliament chairman Ceslovas Jursenas, and other officials. Slezevicius will travel to Riga on 16-August to continue talks with his Latvian counterpart Valdis Birkavs. Estonian Prime Minister Mart Laar declined the invitation to attend, suggesting that September would be a better date for a meeting to deal with a free trade agreement between the three states. -Saulius Girnius LATVIANS UNHAPPY OVER PLANS FOR LITHUANIAN OIL TERMINAL. Environmentalists and leaders from nearby coastal communities are unhappy over plans to build a petroleum terminal at Butinge, Lithuania, a few kilometers from the Latvian border. The terminal would handle about 12 million tons of petroleum and 5.2 million tons of petroleum products annually. Latvians are worried because the construction would threaten wildlife in the area and, given the northward flow of coastal waters in that area, the effluent from the terminals would be carried to Latvian territory where it could damage the environment and seep into the ground water. Latvia has offered Lithuania use the facilities at Ventspils, which could handle the additional transfer of petroleum and petroleum products, Diena reported on 12 August. -Dzintra Bungs NEW ENIP CHAIRMAN. On 14 August the board of Estonia's National Independence Party elected parliament deputy chairman Tunne Kelam as its chairman, Baltic media report. Peeter Tepp and Kaido Kalder were elected deputy board chairmen. The party chairman is Ants Erm. The board decided to propose Avo Kiir, a Lutheran pastor from Iisaku in northeastern Estonia, as defense minister to replace Hain Rebas who resigned on 4 August. -Saulius Girnius KOZYREV CHARGES NATIONALISM IN TROOP PULLOUT DEBATE. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev told the press in Stockholm on 14 August that interethnic tensions in the Baltic States have "a strong potential for violence and disruptions" and that Russia must wait before withdrawing its troops remaining there. Kozyrev also claimed that the policy of Estonia and "probably also" Latvia is to "squeeze out the Russian-speaking populations" and accused the two countries of aggressive nationalism. Kozyrev elaborated on these views in an article the International Herald Tribune of 14 August. On 13 August the Swedish and British prime ministers called on Russia to withdraw its troops from the Baltic States without linking the action to other issues. Swedish Foreign Minister Margaretha af Ugglas also demanded from Moscow a timetable for the withdrawal of its forces from Latvia. -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by VladimirSocor and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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