|Discovery consists of seeing what everybody has seen and thinking what nobody has thought. - Albert Szent-Gyorgyi|
No. 154, 13 August 1993
RUSSIA PARLIAMENT INCREASES ITS POWERS OVER GOVERNMENT APPOINTMENTS. The joint sitting of the chambers of parliament on 12 August, attended by only some 150 of the total 250-deputies, voted to introduce changes to the Law on the Council of Ministers. The amendments, introduced by the leader of the opposition Russian Unity bloc and chairman of the Constitutional Legislation Committee, Vladimir Isakov, were passed by 153 votes to 4. They stipulate that parliament must confirm the president's nominations to the posts of Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Interior, Defense, and Security, if the current incumbent is dismissed. Until parliament approves a candidate, ministerial duties are to be performed by a deputy minister. The amendments follow the dismissal of Security Minister Viktor Barannikov, which was opposed by the parliament, but they have to be approved by President Boris Yeltsin before they can become law. -Wendy Slater YELTSIN PROPOSES CREATION OF FEDERATION COUNCIL. Opening a session of the Council of the Heads of Republics in the Karelian capital, Petrozavodsk, on 13 August, Yeltsin proposed the creation of a Federation Council that would be made up of two representatives of each of the 88 (sic) subjects of the federation, ITAR-TASS reported. Yeltsin suggested that the Council of the Heads of the Republics approve the creation of the new council by presidential decree. He said that the council would be able legitimately to solve many questions; no one would be able to dismiss it as "some kind of assembly," since it would be an organ of power. A proposal that a Federation Council be set up embracing all the subjects of the federation (and not just the heads of the republics) had been made earlier in the year and rejected by the Congress of People's Deputies. In fact, a body with the same name was created by the Russian parliament in 1990 to draw up the federal treaty and, as far as is known, has never been abolished. -Ann Sheehy KOSTIKOV CALLS SESSION A BREAKTHROUGH. At the session, which was attended by the heads of all the republics except Chechnya and by the leaders of eight regional and interregional associations, Yeltsin also said that the constitutional assembly should reconvene in September, and that the fate of the new constitution depended in large part on the position adopted by the Council of the Heads of the Republics. If difficulties arose over its adoption, Yeltsin said he did not exclude the possibility of the adoption of a "constitution of the transitional period" that would enable new elections to be held. Speaking to journalists after the session ended, Yeltsin's press secretary Vyacheslav Kostikov described the session as "a breakthrough." Categorizing the overgenerous interpretations of some nationalistically-minded leaders of the republics as "geopolitical nonsense," he maintained that Yeltsin had gently but firmly issued a warning to such leaders, and that the Federation Council would act as a bridge between the republics and the krais and oblasts. -Ann Sheehy KHASBULATOV ADDRESSES RUSSIAN CITIZENS. Parliamentary chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov made a 15minute speech on Moscow TV on 12 August in reply to President Yeltsin's speech earlier that day to media representatives, in which he had called for autumn elections and rejected the parliament's new budget. Khasbulatov warned that "provocations are being prepared to start from 20 August [the second anniversary of the coup]." He claimed that Yeltsin and his entourage were making "threats . . . against the parliament and against the peaceful and quiet life of the people." He defended the work of the parliament as "peaceful and constructive," in particular claiming that budget amendments had been necessary because "we cannot leave millions of people and very important branches of the economy without the means of existence simply for the sake of artificially reducing the deficit." Lastly, Khasbulatov called for watchfulness, because "adventurers cannot be allowed to throw the country into chaos." Wendy Slater YELTSIN ADDRESSES PROBLEMS OF THE MEDIA. On 12 August, Russian television newscasts reported on the conference of leaders of the Russian media that opened in Moscow earlier that day. According to the reports, the participants, in particular the heads of local television companies, criticized both the parliament and the Russian Minister of the Media and Information Mikhail Fedotov, who is known to be one of Yeltsin's most ardent supporters. The speakers urged that Fedotov be replaced by Yeltsin's life-long friend, Mikhail Poltoranin. Some of them were said to have gone so far as to threaten Yeltsin that the media would support the opposition during the forthcoming election campaign should the government fail to meet their financial demands. In his address to the gathering, Yeltsin said that he would veto the decision of the parliament to set up an oversight commission to ensure equal access to the country's radio and TV airwaves for all political factions represented in the parliament or local legislatures. Julia Wishnevsky SECURITY COUNCIL TO HAVE BEEN STRENGTHENED? KOMMERSANT-DAILY REPORTED ON 10-AUGUST THAT BORIS YELTSIN RECENTLY SIGNED A DECREE AND A PACKET OF RELATED DIRECTIVES THAT WOULD WIDEN THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL AND GREATLY EXPAND THE SIZE OF THE APPARATUS THAT SUPPORTS IT. The article, which was published on the day that Evgenii Shaposhnikov announced his resignation as Secretary of the Security Council, adds to the confusion surrounding Shaposhnikov's decision. It reports that, in an exclusive interview, Shaposhnikov outlined the Security Council's new tasks, and said that one of its priorities would be to draft a concept on Russian national security policy. He also reportedly expressed confidence that the Security Council would receive sufficient budgeting and appeared indifferent to the opposition that his original appointment had aroused in parliament. These last remarks appear to contradict sentiments attributed to Shaposhnikov by Izvestiya on 12-August. Kommersant-Daily suggested, finally, that the restructuring and strengthening of the Security Council might have been part of a radical shake-up planned for the entire presidential apparatus. -Stephen Foye FARMERS HOLD PROTEST MEETINGS. At rallies organized by the Union of Agro-Industrial Complex Workers, thousands of farmers demonstrated on 12-August in cities throughout the federation to mark the Day of the Protection of the Russian Farmer, an RFE/RL correspondent and ITAR-TASS reported. Among the demands made by the demonstrators were increased subsidies for the agricultural sector, higher purchase prices for agricultural produce, restrictions on the sale of land, and the possibility of purchasing shares in processing factories. Farmers in Krasnoyarsk withheld milk deliveries to dairies, and their colleagues in Kursk warned of future strike action. -Keith Bush KOZYREV VS. PARLIAMENT ON ROCKET SALE TO INDIA. On 12 August Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev, rebutting criticism voiced in parliament, defended the Foreign Ministry's role in scuttling the sale of rocket technology to India, Russian television reported. The deal had been opposed by the US. Kozyrev spoke strongly of the need to limit proliferation of rocket technology and nuclear weapons, particularly in or near zones of conflict. He suggested that the transfer of rocket technology by Russia to India could have led the US to sell similar technology to Pakistan, and said that Russia's interests were best served by maintaining the status quo in that region. In the wake of Moscow's actions, Indian authorities have suggested that they will limit arms purchases from Russia. Meanwhile, on 12 August Radio Rossii reported that parliament intends to set up a commission to evaluate the work of the Foreign Ministry. Deputies were reportedly especially dissatisfied with the ministry's policies vis-a-vis India and Sevastopol. -Stephen Foye TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA SHEVARDNADZE APPEALS FOR MORE UN OBSERVERS. Speaking by telephone with UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros Ghali late on 11 August, Georgian Parliamentary Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze appealed for the dispatch of more UN observers to the conflict zone in Abkhazia to monitor the 27 July ceasefire agreement, ITAR-TASS reported. While he evaluated positively Russia's role in achieving a ceasefire, Shevardnadze underlined the importance of international participation to settle the conflict. Meeting in the Abkhaz capital Sukhumi late on 11 August, the trilateral Working Group for Military Issues and Security, part of the Joint Commission for the Settlement of the Abkhaz Conflict, approved a plan for troop disengagement formulated by the Commission leadership on 10 August, ITAR-TASS reported. In addition, the Working Group agreed to create reinforced temporary control groups, each of which would include one representative of each side, two signallers, and up to ten guards, and which would be stationed throughout the conflict zone. -Catherine Dale GEORGIAN OFFICIAL DENIES GOGOLADZE'S SUSPENSION. In a telephone interview with an RFE/RL correspondent in Moscow on 12 August, Georgian Deputy General Prosecutor Vakhtang Gvaramia denied reports that Eldar Gogoladze had been suspended from his position as head of security for Shevardnadze. Western agencies reported on 11 August that Gogoladze had been suspended pending the outcome of the investigation of the murder of US official Fred Woodruff on 8 August near Tbilisi. Gogoladze had been driving the car in which Woodruff was killed. In addition, Gvaramia labeled as "misinformation" unverified reports that the bullet that killed Woodruff was fired from inside the car. -Catherine Dale "DEMOCRATIC GEORGIA" MOVEMENT FORMING. On the initiative of journalists and of member of parliament Valeria Kvaratskhelia, the Democratic Georgia movement has begun to take shape in Tbilisi, ITAR-TASS reported 11 August. Observers said that the movement, which backs Georgian Parliamentary Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze but emphasizes particularly the need for law and order, has the potential to become the largest public organization in the country since a number of regional organizations have already pledged their loyalty. Kvaratskhelia earlier headed the Democratic Reforms Movement, which stood in opposition to ex-President Zviad Gamsakhurdia. In a recent statement, Democratic Georgia spoke out against the uncontrolled increase of criminal elements and called on Shevardnadze to declare a state of emergency throughout Georgia. -Catherine Dale CIS UKRAINIAN NUCLEAR WEAPONS UPDATE. UNIAN reported on 12 August that Boris Yeltsin promised Leonid Kuchma during their 11 August meeting that Russia would pay Ukraine for nuclear weapons transferred to Russia. Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin reportedly instructed the cabinet to prepare a decision on this issue. Ukrainian television on 11-August quoted Kuchma as denying that Ukraine had asserted operational control over the weapons, and stating that the government had no plans to do so, although the defense ministry might. On 12 August Izvestiya reported that a spokesman for the Ukrainian Foreign Ministry had reasserted its view that SS-24 ICBMS are not covered under START-1. However, in its 2 August issue, Aviation Week and Space Technology claimed Ukrainian Defense Minister Konstantin Morozov told US officials during his visit to Washington in July that while up to 20 SS-19s would be dismantled this fall, SS-24 dismantling would not begin until after START-1 ratification, suggesting that he considered the SS-24s to be covered by the treaty. The magazine also reported that US funds for Ukrainian nuclear weapons dismantling have been released even though START-1 has not yet been ratified. -John Lepingwell CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CONFUSION ABOUT SERBIAN WITHDRAWAL NEAR SARAJEVO. Serbian forces besieging Sarajevo allowed a deadline set by UN peace negotiators Thorvald Stoltenberg and Lord Owen to pass on 12 August without complying with demands that Serbian troops be withdrawn from Mts. Bjelasnica and Igman. A UN spokesman reported that a "sizeable" force "in the thousands" remained on the mountains, international media report. Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic said several times on 12 August that his forces had in fact left the positions. UN commander Vere Hayes will climb the two mountains on 13 August to determine wether the Serbs have indeed withdrawn. Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic otherwise threatened to quit the Geneva peace talks which are to resume on 13 August. Hayes will decide wether the Serbs have to withdraw further, while Karadzic said his forces will abide by Hayes' decision. Tanjug on 12 August quoted Bosnian Serb chief of staff General Manojlo Milovanovic as saying his forces would be withdrawn if UNPROFOR declares a neutral zone and stops Muslim forces from retaking the territory. Bosnian Vice President Ejup Ganic charged the Serbs with using the UN peacekeepers as a shield against possible NATO airstrikes. He added that the UN forces know about alleged Serb rockets on one of the mountains but are keeping them a secret. Finally, the Islamic Conference called for immediate airstrikes against the Serbs, while UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali said that preparations for airstrikes are continuing on the ground. -Fabian Schmidt CROATIAN FOREIGN MINISTER TALKS ABOUT IMAGE PROBLEMS. The 13 August issue of the independent weekly Globus runs an interview with Foreign Minister Mate Granic. The chief diplomat recognizes that Croatia often has a bad image abroad, particularly in America, but feels that the worst of that is over now that the Muslims have gone on the offensive in central Bosnia and are no longer perceived around the world as innocent sufferers. Granic also denied some views held in his own party and in the media it controls that Croatia is somehow the victim of an international conspiracy. He said that he wants to live in a Croatia that is a pleasant place, not one that sees itself as an object of international hostility much as the Serbs regard Serbia. Turning to Bosnia, Granic said that Croatia will go along with whatever the Bosnians want for their own future, but added that there has been so much bad blood between Croats and Muslims this year that he cannot see the Croats as accepting the Muslim proposal for a joint state. As to the future of the mandate of UNPROFOR, Granic warned that the UN must restore free communications by the end of September for the mandate to be renewed. Such communications would include the Maslenica bridge, the Zemunik airport serving Zadar, the highway to Slavonski Brod, and water and oil pipelines. Meanwhile, Vjesnik on 12 August and Vecernji list on the 13th report continued Serb shelling of the Maslenica pontoon bridge. -Patrick Moore DEVELOPMENTS IN MACEDONIA. MILS reports on 12 August that the Macedonian Ambassador to Turkey, Trajan Petrovski, met with the President of Turkey's National Assembly. The visit was designed to improve links between the two countries' parliaments. In local developments, MILS reports on 12 August that Albanians continue to enter Macedonian territory illegally. The report alleged that some of the would-be migrants have engaged in theft and smuggling, while others are simply looking for better economic opportunities. The majority are from Albania, but smaller numbers came from Kosovo. Macedonia has an Albanian minority which Macedonia estimates at 20%, while Albanian minority leaders suggest a figure of 40-50%. Macedonia has passed a restrictive citizenship law to prevent the watering down of its population by a possible flood of Albanian refugees. -Robert Austin REACTIONS TO MECIAR'S STATEMENTS ON SLOVAK-RUSSIAN TREATY. Several newspapers and political parties responded to Premier Vladimir Meciar's 11 August announcement that Russia need not apologize for the 1968 occupation of Czechoslovakia in the new Slovak-Russian friendship agreement. In a 12 August press conference of the Christian Democratic Party, Deputy Chairman Emil Konarik said "if Slovakia leaves this question unsettled, this would mean a quiet agreement with the occupation." Slovak daily Sme wrote on 12 August that Meciar's reasoning for not requiring an apology is faulty. Meciar said that if an apology is required from Russia, it must also be required from other Warsaw Pact nations; however, according to Sme, the other countries have already apologized to former Czechoslovakia. Meanwhile, Slovak daily Praca wrote on 12 August that Slovakia should sign an agreement "even if it does not include an apology," since it would mean the "development of mutually advantageous economic projects" and would "guarantee the stability of borders in Central Europe." -Sharon Fisher SLOVAKIA, UKRAINE SIGN REPATRIATION AGREEMENT. On 12 August Slovak Interior Minister Jozef Tuchyna and Ukrainian Deputy Chairman of Border Protection ratified an agreement to cooperate on border issues, including the repatriation of illegal immigrants, TASR reports. The agreement follows Germany's asylum law which went into effect on 1 July, causing fears in East Central Europe of an inflow of refugees. According to Tuchyna, Slovakia has already signed similar agreements with the Czech Republic, Austria and Poland and is preparing one with Hungary. -Sharon Fisher SIGN DISPUTE LEADS TO BLOCKADE OF SLOVAK VILLAGE. In the village of Marcelova in western Slovakia, a road blockade began on 11 August following instructions from village mayor Laszlo Sooky. The reason for the blockade is the removal of road signs in Hungarian language, despite the fact that 90% of the village's inhabitants are ethnic Hungarians, TASR reports. The roads are now being controlled by city police, and Sooky said "only those willing to sign a petition in favor of the actions are permitted into the village." -Sharon Fisher HUNGARY'S TRADE WITH FORMER SOVIET BLOC COUNTRIES. Lajos Berenyi, deputy state secretary in the Ministry for International Economic Relations, told MTI on 12 August that Hungary's trade with former Soviet bloc countries has been developing favorably despite the region's deep economic recession. He reported that in the first half of the year Hungary's trade turnover with former Soviet bloc countries amounted to $2.5 billion or 25% of the country's total foreign trade turnover. During this period, imports grew by 5% while exports fell by 18%. Trade turnover with CIS states amounted to $1.5 billion, in which Russia's share was 80% to 85%. Trade turnover with the Czech Republic and Slovakia amounted to $180-million and $160-million respectively, with Poland to $150 million, which is a 10% drop compared to the same period last year. Trade with Romania totaled $100 million, with Slovenia and Croatia it was $100 million each. Trade with rump Yugoslavia has practically ceased, and trade with Bulgaria and Albania fell significantly. -Edith Oltay NARVA, SILLAMAE ACCEPT COURT RULING OVER REFERENDUM. Baltic media reported on 12 August that both Narva and SIllamae city councils have announced that they would obey the Estonian court ruling which declared invalid the referenda over territorial autonomy that were held in the two towns in July. The majority of inhabitants of both towns is Russian and they endorsed the cities autonomy within Estonia. -Dzintra Bungs RUSSIAN TROOP WITHDRAWAL FROM LITHUANIA. On 12 August Lithuanian National Defense Minister Audrius Butkevicius and Col. Stasys Knezys, chief of staff of Lithuania's armed forces, told a press conference that the Russian troops in Lithuania are scheduled to complete their departure 3 days ahead of schedule, on 28 August, Radio Lithuania reports. When asked about the comments of Viktor Isakov, the head of Russia's troop withdrawal delegation, that the withdrawal might be suspended if no agreement is signed, Butkevicius noted that Isakov is not in command of the Russian army and has no authority to suspend the departure. -Saulius Girnius LITHUANIAN PREMIER ON AGRICULTURE. On 12-August Adolfas Slezevicius said that due to the government's having funds to purchase only between 150,000 and 200,000 tons of grain Lithuanian farms will have to find purchasers for their produce independently, Radio Lithuania reports. He announced the abolishment of the 10% export duty on grain and raised the import duties on meat to 30% to prevent an influx of cheaper foreign meat. Agriculture Minister Rimantas Karazija said that this year's grain harvest should be about 2 million tons although excessive rain is hindering harvesting and some potatoes are already rotting in the fields. -Saulius Girnius YELTSIN TO VISIT POLAND IN AUGUST. A spokesman for the Russian president confirmed on 11 August that Boris Yeltsin will make a state visit to Poland at the end of August. Gazeta Wyborcza quoted unofficial sources as saying the visit will take place on 24-26-August. Yeltsin and Polish President Lech Walesa are expected to sign several bilateral trade agreements, including one on the construction of a pipeline to convey Russian natural gas to Western Europe. An agreement on the construction of cemeteries for the victims of the Katyn massacre may also be reached. There was much press speculation in Warsaw that Yeltsin, not wishing to postpone the Poland trip indefinitely, pushed it forward in order to get foreign travel out of the way before the political battles expected in September. -Louisa Vinton POLISH UNEMPLOYMENT UP, FIRMS HEALTHIER. The Polish jobless rate rose to 15.2% (2,811,831 people) in July, Deputy Minister Michal Boni announced on 12-August. Boni attributed the steep monthly rise in July (4.1%) to the registration of new school graduates. Asked about the town of Praszka, the site of recent protests by the Self Defense union, Boni said that the jobless rate there is no worse than the national average and thus Praszka does not qualify for special benefits. Finance ministry officials announced that the introduction of the VAT had caused only a 1.7% increase in prices in July. Prices rose a total of 1.8% in the month. A delayed VAT-related increase of 1% is predicted for August. The Main Statistical Office reported on 12 August that the financial situation of industrial firms continues to improve. Industry Minister Waclaw Niewiarowski told a press conference, however, that the industrial growth rate of 4.2% in 1992 does not constitute an economic recovery, as production still remains 30% below 1989 levels. Niewiarowski has recently been flogging his ministry's plans for a more interventionist "industrial policy." These were drawn up a year ago but have yet to win approval from the cabinet, PAP reports. Meanwhile, a tug-of-war within the cabinet and between the government and the coal industry over coal price hikes continues. A moratorium on price increases is in force until the end of August, but coal firms announced on 12 August that they plan to raise prices for industrial customers by 30% to "rescue mining." -Louisa Vinton STRIKE PARALYSES ROMANIAN RAILWAYS. Radio Bucharest reported on 12 August that the strike started by train drivers on the previous day brought rail traffic to a virtual still stand across the country. Most of the domestic traffic was canceled, while international passenger and freight trains were left stranded at the border. Romania's most circulated daily Evenimentul zilei spoke of a state of "national chaos." The strike, which was branded illegal by senior Romanian officials, appears to inflict serious damage on an already fragile economy. Romania's Transport Minister Paul Teodoru put the daily losses from the strike at eight to ten billion lei ($9.9 to 12.5 million). He also said that the strikers broke a rule under which one-third of the traffic should be maintained during a stoppage in order to ensure essential transport. On 12 August Romania's Supreme Court is scheduled to hold an emergency hearing on a government request to order the rail drivers back to work. -Dan Ionescu PATRIARCH OF CONSTANTINOPLE VISITS ROMANIA. The main spiritual leader of the Orthodox church, Bartholomew I, Patriarch of Constantinople, arrived on 12 August in Bucharest for a week-long visit to Romania. Bartholomew's tour is expected to help the Romanian Orthodox Church improve its image, which still suffers from perceptions that it collaborated with the former communist regime and was heavily infiltrated by secret police. Bartholomew, who was elected patriarch in 1991, is scheduled to meet Romanian state officials, including President Ion Iliescu, as well as church and political leaders. Bartholomew is based in Istanbul, a city with few Christian residents today. He is currently touring the Orthodox-dominated South-Eastern Europe, including Serbia and Bulgaria. -Dan Ionescu ROMANIA MOVES ON MOLDOVA. In a statement broadcast on 12 August, Romanian President Ion Iliescu urged the government to send fuel and vehicles to the Republic of Moldova to complete crop harvesting and transport; and to process a part of Moldova's "abundant crops" in Romanian plants. The fuel and transport would be financed from "parts" of the Romanian government's "substantial" Fund for Integration with Moldova, he said, without mentioning that it totals only $ 7 million. Iliescu pegged his plan to the Moldovan parliament's failure to ratify participation in the CIS. His gesture is designed to be seen as offering Moldova an alternative to the CIS; and (inconsistently) to address Romania's food deficit and exorbitant food prices by means of Moldovan produce. Iliescu stressed that Romania respects Moldova's independence. But on 11-August, a Romanian Foreign Ministry statement read on radio and TV (for maximum impact in Moldova where both are easily received) endorsed the efforts of the pro-Romanian opposition in Moldova's parliament to block the majority's plan to legally dissolve parliament and hold Moldova's first multi-party elections, which the pro-Romanian groups are expected to heavily lose. -Vladimir Socor MOLDOVA'S NATIONALITY POLICY: A UKRAINIAN VIEW. Ukraine's Ambassador to Moldova, Vitalii Boiko, told Basapress on 12 August that "Moldova has created the prerequisites for the observance and fulfillment of the rights of national minorities. The existing legislation enables them to develop their culture and traditions. Moldovan-Ukrainian agreements on cultural, scientific, and economic cooperation strengthen the foundations of the relations between our countries. Moldova has opened schools and gymnasiums with instruction in Ukrainian, and organizes days of Ukrainian culture. Understandably, however, after only two years [of independence] Moldova does not yet have the means to fully provide all the national minorities with schools in their respective languages." [Most of Moldova's Ukrainians and other ethnic communities still receive their education in Russian-language schools]. -Vladimir Socor CALLS FOR AN EMERGENCY SUPREME SOVIET SESSION IN BELARUS. A number of political parties, unions and social organizations have been calling for the convening of a special session of the Supreme Soviet due to the worsening economic situation in Belarus, Belarusian radio reported on 11 August. The next session is due to meet only at the end of the year. Parliamentary deputy Henadz Kazlau has been collecting signatures for the emergency session. Amongst the major issues the session is meant to address is the country's monetary system. Reuters reported on 12-August that the Belarusian ruble fell by 18% against the dollar on the Minsk currency exchange. The country is to go over to its own currency before the end of the month. -Ustina Markus CRIME RATE RISES IN UKRAINIAN MILITARY. A report in the Ukrainian newspaper Nezavisimost of 11-August reports statistics presented by the Deputy General Procurator of the Ukrainian Armed Forces, Vasily Kravchenko, showing significant growth in crime rates. According to Kravchenko, the military crime rate and the incidence of dedovshchina (hazing and harassment) both increased by 40% over the first half of last year. Three deaths due to dedovschina and forty suicides were also reported. Theft was up 71% and there were 7000 cases of desertion. These statistics suggest that morale in the Ukrainian military continues to decline rapidly, and that corruption is consequently becoming increasingly widespread. -John Lepingwell [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Ann Sheehy and Jan B. deWeydenthal THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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