|If there is technological advance without social advance, there is, almost automatically, an increase in human misery. - Michael Harrington|
No. 153, 12 August 1993
RUSSIA YELTSIN CALLS FOR EARLY PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS. President Boris Yeltsin said during his meeting with representatives of Russian state television companies and leaders of the mass media on 12 August that new parliamentary elections "should take place in the fall of this year," ITAR-TASS reported. He added that "should parliament fail to adopt such a decision, the president will take it." He emphasized that he regards new parliamentary elections as one of the principal ways out of the present political crisis. In an article in Nezavisimaya gazeta on 11 August, chief editor Vitalii Tretyakov called for early parliamentary and presidential elections. He suggested that parliamentary elections be held this fall and presidential elections in spring 1994. -Alexander Rahr YELTSIN'S SPOKESMAN CONDEMNS KHASBULATOV. Presidential spokesman Vyacheslav Kostikov said in a statement on 11 August that the actions of the parliament and its speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov had "become openly provocative." Referring to Khasbulatov's speech at the conference on social problems in the military on 10 August, in which he had called for close ties between the parliament and the military, Kostikov said that the speaker's comments demonstrated "not only the extent of his political extremism, but also a maniacally unbalanced personality, whose outbursts are becoming ever more dangerous for society," ITAR-TASS reported. Kostikov called on parliament to consider its attitude to its speaker, and draw the necessary conclusions. Khasbulatov's spokesman retorted that Kostikov's remarks were "rude and groundless attacks," ITAR-TASS reported on 11 August. -Wendy Slater MORE ON SHAPOSHNIKOV RESIGNATION. In the 12 August Izvestiya, Marshal Evgenii Shaposhnikov explained his recent unexpected resignation as secretary of the Security Council. As was suspected, Shaposhnikov cited the bitter opposition his nomination aroused in parliament and the constitutional ambiguity that surrounds the Security Council's future as two important reasons for his decision. He also suggested that the appointment of an active officer to such a key political post might be illegal. The Izvestiya piece said, however, that Shaposhnikov had not met with Yeltsin at all since 30 June, and suggested that his resignation letter had already been prepared some three weeks earlier. It also said that Shaposhnikov objected to the fact that the Security Council was prohibited from meeting in the president's absence and that he was upset by the continuing failure of the executive and legislative branches to work together toward fashioning a concept of national security. Finally, the newspaper noted that Shaposhnikov's wife is an Ossetian and that many of her relatives live in the North Caucasus; it suggested that the Marshal had been subjected to charges of a conflict of interest in managing Russian policy toward that troubled area. Shaposhnikov was himself quoted by ITAR-TASS as saying that he had resigned for personal reasons. -Stephen Foye STEPASHIN CALLS FOR DEFENSE OF NATIONAL INTERESTS. In a lengthy article published in Krasnaya zvezda of 11 August, the chairman of the Supreme Soviet's Committee on Defense and State Security, Sergei Stepashin, has outlined a national security concept emphasizing a stronger defense of Russia's interests. Stepashin, considered a centrist, argues for the maintenance of state power within Russia, and particularly the prevention (or perhaps suppression) of "islands of independence" within Russia, such as Chechnya. He also criticizes what he calls the "syndrome of post-Soviet repentance" and the basing of Russian foreign policy on "general human values" which has resulted in a neglect of Russian interests. While Stepashin does not explicitly call for a more confrontational policy, his realist emphasis on Russian interests and the primacy of geopolitics reflects a preference for a more coordinated and tougher security policy both within Russia's borders and without. -John Lepingwell YELTSIN CHAIRS COMMISSION ON CRIME. On 11-August, President Yeltsin chaired a meeting of the Security Council's Interdepartmental Commission on the Struggle against Crime and Corruption, ITAR-TASS reported. According to the presidential press service, the meeting heard reports on the crime prevention effort from Deputy Interior Minister Evgenii Abramov and Acting Security Minister Nikolai Golushko. The commission concluded that, despite the efforts of law enforcement agencies, crime was continuing to grow significantly. Abramov told Rossiskie Vesti that crime and corruption were now posing a threat to the country's national security. -Dominic Gualtieri CONTRADICTORY STATEMENTS ON DEBT REPAYMENT. Finance Minister Boris Fedorov told a news conference in Moscow on 11 August that Russia is determined to repay the external debt of the former Soviet Union that Russia has assumed, an RFE/RL correspondent reported. "My personal position," said Fedorov, "is that nonpayment of debt is the fate of weak states which cannot do anything with their own economies." This runs counter to the statement made by Konstantin Kagalovsky, Russia's representative at the International Monetary Fund. On 6 August, Kagalovsky told Reuters that Russia plans to ask for much or most of its debt to governments and banks to be forgiven. Fedorov's assertion will also be queried by many observers who doubt that Russia will be in a position in the foreseeable future fully to service interest payments, let alone principal. Fedorov added that Russia's position on the debt is a long-term issue and "has not been formulated." Keith Bush MORE ON RUSSIAN MID-YEAR TRADE FIGURES. The mid-year total volume of Russian trade with other countries decreased from $35 billion dollars in 1992 to $27 billion dollars this year, according to statistics reported in Ekonomika i zhizn (#32). This overall decrease came entirely from a drop in imports from $17.2-billion last year to $8.8 billion this year. The value of exports increased from $17.7 billion to $18.2 billion. Russia has maintained its overall exports with increased shipments of energy and lumber products abroad. No source for the figures was given, and it was not clear whether volumes of trade with nations of the former Soviet Union were included. -Erik Whitlock PARLIAMENT'S JOINT SITTING TO AMEND CONSTITUTION? PARLIAMENT IS TO HOLD A JOINT SITTING ON 12-13 AUGUST, VITALII SYROVATKO, SECRETARY OF THE PARLIAMENTARY PRESIDIUM TOLD ITAR-TASS ON 11 AUGUST. Among the topics under discussion will be amendments to the law on the Council of Ministers that will increase parliament's power over appointments and dismissals [see Daily Report no. 145]. Syrovatko also confirmed Radio Rossii's report of 9 August that the parliamentary Constitutional Commission will submit amendments to the current constitution to the parliament. The amendments would apparently increase the powers of the regions in economic matters, giving them equal rights to the constituent republics of the Russian Federation, as well as alter the status of the president to make him more a head of state and "free him from his duties as head of the executive." -Wendy Slater COMMUNIST PARTY CLAIMS 600,000 MEMBERS. The Chairman of the Executive Committee of Russia's Communist Party (RCP), Gennadii Zyuganov, claims that the party's membership has reached 600,000, ITAR-TASS reported on 12 August. The Communist Party was banned by President Boris Yeltsin following the August 1991 coup but was allowed to re-emerge following a decision by the Constitutional Court in December 1992. Zyuganov said that the RCP had re-established local organizations in every region and that an all-Russian assembly of worker-communists would be held on 11-September. -Dominic Gualtieri SAVINGS TO BE INDEXED? THE DEPUTY CHAIRMAN OF THE CENTRAL BANK, ALEKSANDR KHANDRUEV, SPEAKING ON RUSSIAN TELEVISION ON 11 AUGUST, CLAIMED THAT THE COUNTRY IS NOT IN A POSITION FULLY TO INDEX ALL SAVINGS, BUT THAT A DECISION HAS BEEN TAKEN TO ALLOCATE 1.1 trillion rubles to compensate citizens with savings deposits for the effect of inflation. Savings have been rendered almost worthless by the high inflation rates that followed price liberalization in 1992. This measure would, however, imply that savings would be increased by three times, whereas prices have increased by approximately 80-times since the beginning of 1992. In another interview, Khandruev stated that a decision on the indexation of wages and savings is being prepared and would be published in the near future. -Sheila Marnie CHINESE MILITARY CHIEF IN MOSCOW. The chief of the Chinese General Staff, General Zhang Wannian, met on 11 August with his Russian counterpart, Col. Gen. Mikhail Kolesnikov, and with First Deputy Defense Minister Andrei Kokoshin. ITAR-TASS quoted Kokoshin as saying that Beijing was interested in increasing its military-technical cooperation with Russia. While no agreements were reported to have been signed during Zhang's visit, Kokoshin said that Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev would visit China in the fall and that a number of defense-related documents were expected to be signed at that time. -Stephen Foye KOZYREV ASKS FOR POSITIVE SERB STEPS. In a telephone conversation with rump Yugoslav Foreign Minister Vladislav Jonanic on 11 August, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev told his counterpart that Serbia needs to take urgent and convincing steps to assist in the peace process. ITAR-TASS reported that both ministers emphasized Serbian actions taken in this direction would be the result of goodwill on Serbia's part and not due to the pressure of military threats. Kozyrev indicated that Russia would reward Serbia for such goodwill gestures by pressing for the lifting of international sanctions against the rump Yugoslavia and by promoting the idea of sending humanitarian aid there. -Suzanne Crow TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA SHEVARDNADZE'S SECURITY CHIEF SUSPENDED. Georgian Parliamentary Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze's chief of security, Eldar Gogoladze, was suspended on 11 August pending the outcome of an investigation of the murder of US CIA official Fred Woodruff, AFP reported. Gogoladze, who works for the Georgian Ministry of Information and Intelligence, was driving the car in which Woodruff was killed late on 8-August near Tbilisi. US Embassy officials in Tbilisi stated on 11 August that Georgian investigators had detained three individuals for questioning in connection with the murder, Western agencies reported. -Catherine Dale BORDER GUARDS KIDNAPPED. Four Russian border guards and a border guards officer from Kazakhstan were abducted from the Tajik-Afghan border on 10-August by an armed group and taken into Afghanistan, Russian and Western agencies reported on 11 August. Kazakhstan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs has appealed to its opposite number in Kabul for help in freeing the officer from the Kazakhstani battalion stationed on the border as part of the security measures agreed on earlier in the year to stop armed groups of the Tajik opposition and their Afghan supporters who cross the border to attack troops of the Tajik government. The Afghan Foreign Minister, negotiating with Tajik government officials in Dushanbe, is reported to have sent part of his delegation to try to secure the release of the kidnapped border guards. -Bess Brown CIS AGREEMENT ON RUSSIAN OIL AND GAS DELIVERIES TO UKRAINE. Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin and his Ukrainian counterpart, Leonid Kuchma, signed a draft agreement in Moscow on 11-August on the supply of Russian oil and gas to Ukraine, Russian TV and ITAR-TASS reported. Ukraine will pay for Russian oil and gas in hard currency at prices that will gradually be brought up to world levels by early 1994. Ukraine may deliver agricultural produce in part-payment. It will be encouraged to invest in Siberian oil and gas production ventures, and may process a larger share of the Russian crude oil delivered. The volume of deliveries will apparently remain the 30 million tons of oil and 60 billion cubic meters of gas stipulated in the agreement for 1993. Any re-export of Russian oil will require Moscow's permission. -Keith Bush CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIA UPDATE. Bosnian Serb forces appear to be withdrawing from their positions on Mts. Igman and Bjelasnica overlooking Sarajevo, international media report. Mediators Lord Owen and Thorvald Stoltenberg gave Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic a deadline of midmorning, 12 August, to quit the mountains. Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic threatened to quit the Geneva peace talks if the troops fail to withdraw completely, and promised that his troops will not enter these areas. Karadzic promised that his troops will leave on schedule if the UN takes control of the area. A UN spokesman on 11 August denied news reports that Owen has backed Serb proposals for dividing Sarajevo, but he said the mediators have attempted to bridge the gap between Bosnian government insistence on a unified Sarajevo and a Serb demand to split the city into two parts. If the Serbs received the key suburbs they claim, Muslims would have access to their parts of the city only by transiting through Serb territory. On 11 August Bosnian Foreign Minster Haris Silajdzic said, "creating a new Berlin Wall in Europe is not an option as far as we are concerned." Muslims want Sarajevo to become an open, demilitarized city as the capital of a "union of republics," but Serbs reject this idea. In central Bosnia fighting first eased after a series of territorial gains by Bosnian forces, then picked up again, Reuters reports on 12 August. Commanders of all three factions agreed to yet another cease-fire in Sarajevo. -Fabian Schmidt UKRAINIAN OFFICER KILLED IN BOSNIA. An officer working with UNPROFOR was killed and two other Ukrainian soldiers seriously wounded when a land mine exploded in Zepa, a Muslim enclave in Bosnia, Reuters reported on 11 August. This was the fifth Ukrainian fatality since the country began participating in the peacekeeping forces in July 1992. -Ustina Markus BULGARIAN, ROMANIAN, GREEK MILITARY MEETINGS. On 11 August the chief of the general staff of the Bulgarian army, Gen. Lyuben Petrov, returned to Bulgaria from a three-day visit to Romania, where he discussed military cooperation and security measures with Romanian Chief of Staff Lt. Gen. Dumitru Cioflina, BTA reports. Petrov noted that significant progress had been made towards the "withdrawal of military presence from our common border" and the creation of nonmilitary areas along the border. Meanwhile, on 11 August a Greek military delegation headed by the chief of staff of the air force arrived in Sofia on an official visit aimed at forging cooperation between the air forces of the two countries. -Stan Markotich ROMANIAN MINERS END STRIKE; RAIL DRIVERS START ONE. Radio Bucharest reported on 11 August that coal miners from the Jiu Valley resumed normal activity as of 6:00 a.m. after a nine-day strike. The move came after the mine company agreed to raise the miners' average monthly salary to 166,000 lei (some $220). But Industry Minister Dumitru Popescu said in an interview with Radio Bucharest that the labor conflict has not been solved and warned against making "pledges without cover." He said that only 40% of the 91 billion lei supplementary allotment from the budget can be used for pay raises, the rest being earmarked for restructuring the industry and improving the infrastructure in the region. At 7:00 a.m. on the same day, train drivers started their own country-wide strike to press for the introduction of a higher pay scale based on seniority. The scale would bring the average salary from a current 180,000 lei to 207,000 lei. Top officials harshly criticized the drivers' claims, pointing to the fact that drivers' salaries are already among the highest in the country. Labor and Social Protection Minister Dan Mircea Popescu even spoke of "trade union terrorism" aimed at provoking "major social tension" in Romania. The strike, which blocked most of the rail traffic throughout the country, was described as illegal by railway officials, who insisted that the law provides for essential traffic to be kept going even in case of a strike. -Dan Ionescu REGISTRATION COMPLETED FOR POLISH ELECTIONS. The national election commission reported on 11 August that a total of 34 different election committees have registered for the Sejm elections on 19 September. The high thresholds in the new election law-5% for parties and 8% for coalitions-worked to limit the number of parties running. In the 1991 elections, 111 committees registered candidates. The number of candidates is up: at least 8,524 candidates are running for 460 Sejm seats this year, while 6,980 competed in 1991. The 34-committees include: 15 registered political parties, 10 social organizations, 3 coalitions, and 6 voters' groups. Only 14 committees are registered in all or nearly all of the nation's 52 election districts; the elections are likely to be fought out among these parties. Ethnic minorities registered 7 committees, 6 for ethnic Germans and one for Belarusians. The new election law allows ethnic minority organizations to exempt themselves from either the 5% national threshold or the 7% threshold for seats from the national list. PAP reported on 9 August that a total of 683 candidates had registered for the Senate elections. -Louisa Vinton POLISH POLICE MOVE AGAINST "SELF DEFENSE." In the troubled town of Praszka, near Czestochowa, police removed 40 demonstrators from the town hall on 11 August. Led by Antoni Arndt, a candidate for the Sejm from the anarchic Self Defense union, the demonstrators had occupied the building and chained the front door shut. Police moved in through a rear entrance. Most of the demonstrators had to be carried out. Praszka was the site of earlier protests by Self Defense on behalf of the unemployed; on 3 August, the mayor was evicted from the town hall and carted around the square in a wheelbarrow. The government sent in its own representative to take over town management after the local council resigned on 4 August. Deputy Prosecutor-General Stanislaw Iwanicki told Polish TV on 11 August that the "prosecutor's office will halt the dismantling of state structures by Self Defense activists." The justice minister has set up a special group of prosecutors to investigate illegal acts by Self Defense, PAP reports. A similar investigation led the Warsaw voivodship court to rule in April that the union's statutes violated the constitution, but Self Defense has appealed that ruling. Some political parties have called on the government to delegalize the union. -Louisa Vinton PEPSI TO INVEST IN POLAND. PepsiCo Inc. announced on 10 August that it will invest $500 million in the next five years, Reuters reports. This would be the second-largest pledged foreign investment in Poland. Pepsi plans to build a national network of fast-food restaurants, featuring Kentucky Fried Chicken, Pizza Hut, and Taco Bell. "Poland represents one of our company's biggest and most exciting growth opportunities in Central and Eastern Europe," Pepsi CEO Wayne Calloway told a press conference in Warsaw. Pepsi bought a 40% share in the Wedel chocolate factory for $25 million in 1991. Coca-Cola announced a $250-million investment plan for Poland in March 1993. The two companies are battling for control of the soft drink, snack food, and fast food market in Poland. The Wall Street Journal predicts on 11 August that the number of US fast food restaurants in Poland will grow from 17 this year to 300 in 1998. -Louisa Vinton CONTROVERSY AROUND HORTHY'S REBURIAL CONTINUES. The planned reburial of Admiral Miklos Horthy, who led Hungary between 1919 and 1944, continues to spark controversy in Hungary, MTI and Radio Budapest reported on 11 August. The Alliance of Free Democrats, the largest opposition party, has called on government officials not to attend so as not to "raise anxieties within the country and in neighboring states." The parties of the governing coalition have, on the hand, stressed the right of government members to attend the ceremony as private citizens. Interior Minister Peter Boross told Radio Budapest that he will probably attend if invited, but emphasized that the presence of government officials would not mean an official endorsement of the reburial. The same view was echoed by the coalition Christian-Democratic People's Party, whose presidium rejected allegations in the opposition media that attendance by government members would amount to Horthy's political rehabilitation or indicate that the government is inclined to follow Horthy's policy. Boross argued that, in contrast to communist leader Janos Kadar, "Horthy did not invite foreign troops to Hungary,-.-.-. and there is no doubt that his views represented Hungarian interests." -Edith Oltay MOST CZECH POLITICAL CASES REHABILITATED. Czech courts have now rehabilitated 95.7% out of those considered unjustly persecuted during the preceding communist regime. It is estimated that over 251,000 people were wrongly convicted between 25 February 1948 and 31 December 1989. According to figures released by the Prosecutor General's Office and reported by CTK, 198,009 of the 205,912 reported cases were automatically rehabilitated under the law passed in July 1990; nearly 3,000 were rehabilitated on appeal. In 1,253 cases alleged political offenses were hidden behind common criminal or economic charges; such instances have posed a greater challenge to the justice system. Some rehabilitation requests remain unresolved due to a dearth of high court judges. -Milada Vachudova CZECH UNEMPLOYMENT UP SLIGHTLY. The Czech Statistical Office has released figures, reported by CTK, showing unemployment reached 2.82% in July, as compared with 2.63% in June and 2.58% in May. Many consider the unusually low unemployment rate to be a negative sign, indicating that significant parts of the economy have yet to be restructured. A 0.25% unemployment rate is reported in Prague, where there is a chronic labor shortage, in part because workers cannot easily move to the capital due to a housing shortage. -Milada Vachudova CZECH, SLOVAK TRADE FIGURES DIVERGE. Official trade statistics released by the two governments, reported by CTK and TASR, reveal that Czech exports have increased while Slovak exports have declined. The Slovak Statistics Bureau reports that exports during the first five months of this year declined by 9% compared with last year, while imports increased by more than 12%. These figures exclude trade with the Czech Republic. The Czech Statistical Office reports that exports during the first six months of the year grew by nearly 8% compared with last year, while imports increased by more than 16%. These figures exclude trade with Slovakia. Both countries report a trade surplus, although the Czech surplus is significantly larger than that of Slovakia. According to Slovak figures, the Czech Republic was Slovakia's largest export market; moreover, Slovakia has had a consistent trade surplus with the Czech Republic. Czech figures indicate that Slovakia was the Czech Republic's second largest trading partner after Germany. -Milada Vachudova SLOVAKIA, AUSTRIA SIGN MILITARY AGREEMENT. Austrian Minister for National Defense Werner Fasslabend, on a two-day official visit in Slovakia, signed an agreement on military cooperation on 11 August with his Slovak counterpart Imrich Andrejcak. The treaty specifies cooperation in education and air defense, among other areas, TASR reports. Andrejcak said Slovakia plans to conclude similar agreements with other neighboring countries but stressed that Slovakia will not join any military association other than NATO. Premier Vladimir Meciar also met with Fasslabend and said that while the CSCE "has already used all of its possibilities," NATO is "the only functioning security institution in Europe." -Sharon Fisher MECIAR SAYS RUSSIA NEED NOT APOLOGIZE FOR 1968. In the text of the "Great Presidential Agreement," which will be the basis for Slovakia's future cooperation with Russia, Slovakia will not ask for an apology for the 1968 occupation of Czechoslovakia. In an 11 August press conference the premier said that if Russia would have to apologize, then so must other Warsaw Pact states, for example Hungary. -Sharon Fisher MECIAR OFFERS VIEWS ON COALITION, ECONOMY, MINORITIES. In an 11 August press conference the Slovak premier said that his party, the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, is not presently negotiating a coalition agreement with the Slovak National Party and that "it's now the SNP's turn to act." Concerning an announcement by the Finance Ministry that the state budget deficit reached nearly 17.5 billion koruny by 9-August, Meciar said he "does not know anything about it." Meciar also said that while he supports bilingual road signs, he is opposed to two names for one town. "Bratislava will remain Bratislava. It will never be Pozsony, as the Hungarians call it." Meanwhile, Transportation Ministry spokesman Ivan Vaclavik announced on 11 August that the country's ban on bilingual signs applies to all regions of Slovakia, not just those with ethnic Hungarians. He said road signs must be written in Slovak since these names are on international maps. According to Vaclavik, "district road signs should not contain anything that may divert the attention of drivers," TASR reports. Coexistence Movement Chairman Miklos Duray threatened to bring the matter up in the Council of Europe. -Sharon Fisher NEW RULES ON HARD CURRENCY EARNINGS IN UKRAINE. On 11 August the Central Bank in Kiev announced new regulations on mandatory sales of hard currency earnings, Reuters reports. Under the new banking rules, companies are required to exchange half of their hard currency earnings into the Ukrainian currency, the karbovanets, at a fixed rate of exchange. Previously companies had to exchange only 15% of hard currency earnings into karbovantsi and at a market exchange rate. -Ustina Markus FLOODS THREATEN BELARUSIAN AGRICULTURE. Severe flooding in southern Belarus is threatening a quarter of the country's grain harvest and half of its potato yield, Reuters reported on 11 August. Deputy Minister of Agriculture Aleksandr Staravoitau estimated the damage at 15 billion Belarus rubles (about $30-million). A further consequence of the disaster has been the flooding of nuclear waste deposits along the Pripyat River in Belarus close to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Details on radiation levels have not been made public. -Ustina Markus ESTONIAN COURT INVALIDATES NARVA REFERENDUM. On 11 August, 13 judges of the Estonian Supreme Court voted unanimously to declare null and void the 16-17 July referendum on local autonomy held in Narva, Reuters reports. On 30 June Chancellor of Justice Erik-Juhan Truvali ruled that the referendum should be called off since it contradicts the Constitution and appealed to the court for a ruling, which can not be reversed. Narva officials had said that they would abide by the ruling, but now some of them are considering an appeal to the International Court of Justice in the Hague. It is expected that the Estonian court will next invalidate a similar referendum held in Sillamae on 17 July. -Saulius Girnius SWEDISH FOREIGN MINISTER VISITS LATVIA. In Riga Swedish Foreign Minister Margareta af Ugglas reiterated her country's support for the prompt withdrawal of Russian troops from Latvia and suggested the establishment of a CSCE office in Riga. Her Latvian counterpart, Georgs Andrejevs, agreed and stressed the important role of the CSCE in European security issues. During her meetings with Latvian officials, Ugglas also discussed cooperation on customs and border controls, especially ways of stemming the flow of illegal immigrants who use Latvia as a transit country to Scandinavia, Diena reported on 11 August. -Dzintra Bungs HAS THE LATS BECOME CONVERTIBLE? BANK OF LATVIA DIRECTOR EINARS REPSE TOLD THE BUDGET AND FINANCE COMMITTEE OF PARLIAMENT THAT, SINCE IT WAS INTRODUCED IN THE SPRING, THE LATS HAS BECOME A STABLE CURRENCY CONVERTIBLE TO ANY OTHER HARD CURRENCY. Baltic media reported on 8 August that the lats has been recognized by the International Standards Organization. Repse also said that money deposited in foreign banks is gradually returning to Latvia, BNS reported on 11 August.-Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Ann Sheehy and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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