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No. 152, 11 August 1993
RUSSIA SECURITY COUNCIL SECRETARY RESIGNS. Evgenii Shaposhnikov, former USSR Defense Minister and subsequently Commander-in-Chief of the CIS Joint Armed Forces, has offered to resign from his current post as chief of the Russian Security Council, Reuters reported on 10-August. Shaposhnikov gave no reasons for his action, nor was it clear whether President Boris Yeltsin had accepted the resignation. Shaposhnikov has been a close political ally of the president since he sided with Yeltsin during the August 1991 coup, but his appointment as Secretary of the Security Council in mid-June ran into stiff opposition in the parliament. At the end of June a plenary session of the parliament refused to confirm his appointment, and the vitriolic nature of the questioning that took place led Shaposhnikov to demand a public apology. At the same time, a broader discussion has taken place in Russia over the role of the Security Council itself. There are indications that its duties are likely to be circumscribed or eliminated altogether. -Stephen Foye KHASBULATOV SEEKS SUPPORT OF ARMED FORCES. Parliamentary Speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov made a strong pitch for the support of the Russian armed forces while accusing the executive branch of "the deliberate destruction" of the military, ITAR-TASS reported on 10-August. "Only a strong, modernly-equipped and adequately-financed army is capable of securing the integrity of a traditional superpower," he told participants at a conference in Moscow on social problems in the military. In his speech, Khasbulatov implied that the parliament was under threat and that it required the closest possible ties with the military. In an interview on Russian television, he also accused those who "toady" and "act as flunkies to the West" of seeking to denigrate the victories of the Soviet side during WW-II. Khasbulatov has spoken to several military and veterans' groups in recent weeks in a bid to strengthen the parliament's standing among the armed forces. In July the legislature also approved a greatly increased defense allocation in the 1993 budget. -Dominic Gualtieri YELTSIN AWARE OF ARMY'S SOCIAL PROBLEMS. Addressing the same meeting, Deputy Defense Minister Konstantin Kobets said on 10 August that Yeltsin pays close attention to the problems faced by military personnel and that, as a result, he has signed some thirty decrees over the last eighteen months aimed at improving conditions in the army, ITAR-TASS reported. Kobets, who has also been a Yeltsin ally since the August coup, cautioned, however, that the President cannot always ensure that his directives are carried out. His remarks appeared aimed at shielding Yeltsin from criticism over continuing social problems in the army. Kobets also emphasized that everything possible was being done to support Russian border forces in Tajikistan, and he reiterated that Defense Minister Pavel Grachev was now overseeing border defense matters there. -Stephen Foye MEETING HELD ON MILITARY PROCUREMENT. First Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Soskovets on 10-August chaired a meeting devoted to discussion of Russia's long-term arms procurement policy and to the 1994 defense procurement budget. Participants reportedly approved a long term draft plan for defense procurement that was presented by First Deputy Defense Minister Andrei Kokoshin. It will be presented to the government for consideration later this autumn. Concern was also expressed over low wages within the defense production sector, which were said to be less than one-half of those in analogous civilian industries. A proposal that would raise minimum wages in the defense sector was also approved. -Stephen Foye NEW PRESIDENTIAL DECREE ON PRIVATIZATION. The battle of privatization decrees continues. On 8 May, President Yeltsin signed a decree aimed at expediting the privatization process. This was suspended on 20-July by parliament, which referred it to the Constitutional Court. On 26 July, Yeltsin countered the suspension with another decree that reinstated and expanded the privatization rights of citizens. This was overridden by parliament on 7 August. Now, on 10 August, according to ITAR-TASS, the president has signed a new decree "On the Defense of Citizens' Rights to Participate in Privatization." This obliges the government to use "all its constitutional powers" to implement citizens' rights to buy state property by ensuring that enough property is available for privatization and that enough shares are offered for sale to citizens in exchange for privatization vouchers. Meanwhile, despite the legislative standoff, the process of privatization goes forward at a rapid pace. -Keith Bush DELAYS IN WORLD BANK AND EX-IM BANK LOANS. Russian government and World Bank officials had been due to sign a $610 million World Bank loan on 10-August in Moscow to finance the purchase of technology, the renovation of existing oil wells and pipelines, and the drilling of new wells, in Western Siberia. But, at the last moment, the Russian side postponed the signing, The Journal of Commerce reported on 11 August. The delay was attributed to a technicality: the Ministry of Energy needed a permit from the government before it could accept the loan. In Washington, a delay was announced in extending the US Export-Import Bank's proposed $2 billion oil and gas financing package covering sales of American oil and gas equipment to Russia. The deal cannot go through until the World Bank approves a negative pledge clause waiver, and the World Bank's board recessed for the summer without acting on the waiver. -Keith Bush MINISTRY OF FINANCE FORESEES STRONG RUBLE. The Ministry of Finance issued a press-release on 10-August affirming its faith in the continued strength of the ruble vis-a-vis international currencies. The ministry expects the exchange rate to hold around the level of 1000 rubles to the dollar until the end of the year. With a persistent brisk domestic inflation rate, the ministry is anticipating significant appreciation of the ruble in real terms and a narrowing gap between the ruble market exchange rate and its purchasing power parity with international currencies. The press release also noted that, at the current exchange rate, the ratio of the value of domestic hard currency reserves to ruble money supply had grown to 1:3 and of reserves to cash rubles to 3:4. -Erik Whitlock RUSSIA SEEKS TO AVOID FORCE. Foreign Ministry Spokesman Grigorii Karasin said the recent developments in the Yugoslav conflict on the ground and in meetings in Geneva and Brussels show the situation has taken a dangerous turn. Speaking at a 10 August briefing, Karasin said Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev would be in contact with US officials and representatives of the warring sides in former Yugoslavia to express Russia's preference for a quick political settlement of the conflict and to reiterate Russia's opposition to resorting to forceful methods, ITAR-TASS reported. -Suzanne Crow FOREIGN MINISTRY ON TIES WITH CHINA, JAPAN. Foreign Ministry spokesman Grigorii Karasin told reporters on 10 August that Russia's growing trade in military technology with China, which he pegged at $1.8 billion for 1992, was not aimed at any third country, ITAR-TASS reported. The Chinese armed forces Chief of Staff, Zhang Wannian, is currently in Moscow for talks with Russian First Deputy Defense Minister Andrei Kokoshin and General Staff Chief Mikhail Kolesnikov on increasing Russian-Chinese cooperation in this area. Turning to Japan, Karasin also emphasized that the installation of a new government in Tokyo would not affect Russia's relations with Japan. "We consistently favor constructive and comprehensive development of relations with Japan up to the level of genuine partnership," he was quoted as saying, adding that he hoped that the new Japanese Foreign Minister would pay a visit to Moscow. Stephen Foye TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA ABKHAZ UPDATE. At a meeting on 10 August in the Abkhaz coastal town of Pitsunda, the Joint Commission for the Settlement of the Abkhaz Conflict reached an agreement concerning the disengagement of the armed formations of the warring parties, and the withdrawal of troops from the zone of conflict, ITAR-TASS quoted the Russian representative at the talks and Chairman of the Russian State Committee for Emergency Situations Sergei Shoigu as stating. Participants agreed on midnight of the 16 August as the deadline for the withdrawal of all armed formations from Abkhaz territory. Shoigu added that the failure of the UN to send the full complement of observers it had approved was making the settlement of the conflict more difficult. Meanwhile, the advance team of nine UN observers has arrived in the Abkhaz capital Sukhumi to help monitor the ceasefire agreement of 27 July, and will meet on 11 August with the Commission's working group for military questions and security to work out a concrete plan for implementing the new agreement. -Catherine Dale CIA DIRECTOR WOOLSEY CLAIMS BODY IN TBILISI. CIA Director James Woolsey traveled to Tbilisi on 10-August to retrieve the body of CIA official Fred Woodruff who was killed late on 8 August while riding in a car driven by Georgian government official Eldar Guguladze near Tbilisi, the Washington Post reported. The Post article states that the Clinton administration last spring authorized the dispatch of special US Army personnel to train Georgian security officials to protect Georgian Parliamentary Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze against terrorist attacks, but US officials have not stated whether Woodruff took part in this program. The Los Angeles Times quoted Chief of the Georgian news agency Gruzinform Vakhtang Abashidze as stating that Woodruff "was invited to come over to Georgia in order to render assistance in the training of Georgian security forces and in the personal security of Shevardnadze." -Catherine Dale NAZARBAEV MEETS WITH HEADS OF RUSSIAN OBLASTS. Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev met with the heads of administration of Samara, Saratov and Orenburg Oblasts-three of the Russian oblasts bordering Kazakhstan-to ask for greater economic cooperation between regions on both sides of the Russian-Kazakhstan border, ITAR-TASS reported on 10 August. Nazarbaev explained the bilateral agreements on economic cooperation that he and Russian President Boris Yeltsin had signed at the time of the recent meeting of Central Asian leaders with Yeltsin on the situation in Tajikistan and also called attention to the terms of the declaration on border inviolability signed by the summit participants, adding that Kazakhstan will not tolerate any attempt to set its Kazakh and non-Kazakh populations against each other. -Bess Brown CIS UKRAINE CRITICIZES RUSSIAN CONTROL OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS. The head of the directorate for arms control and disarmament of the Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Kostyantyn Hryshchenko, has denounced Russia's assumption of control over all former Soviet nuclear weapons. According to an UKRINFORM report of 10 August, Hryshchenko noted that Ukraine was entitled to ownership of the weapons under international law and CIS agreements, and that it had ceded control over the weapons to the CIS command. The CIS command was de facto dissolved when its commander Marshal Shaposhnikov resigned in June, but the CIS member states have not formally decided on its fate. Hryshchenko noted that "only those who adopted the decision [on CIS nuclear weapons control] can repeal it, and not just one side." Reuters reported on 11 August, however, that Colonel General Ivan Bizhan had told BBC-TV's Newsnight that Ukraine had the ability to block the transmission of launch codes to the ICBMs. -John Lepingwell CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE SERBS CONSOLIDATE HOLD AROUND SARAJEVO. International media on 11 August quote French UN troops as describing Serb claims that they are withdrawing from Mts. Igman and Bjelasnica as "a farce" or "a troop rotation." AFP on 10 August reports that "Serb units only pretend to move when UN monitors approach." The Washington Post of 11 August says that some UN observers feel that Bosnian Serb commander Ratko Mladic "believes there is no need for him to cooperate with the UN peace-keeping force-.-.-. because he does not take seriously the threats of Western military intervention." Fresh Serb units could be used to take those parts of Mt. Igman not yet in Serbian hands. Reuters meanwhile quoted Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic on 10 August as saying that his troops will complete their withdrawal within 24 hours, and Borba of 11 August speculates on a falling-out between him and Mladic. -Patrick Moore RESUMPTION OF GENEVA PEACE TALKS "UNCERTAIN." The standoff at Sarajevo has led to the cancellation of the Geneva peace talks, international media report on 10 and 11-August. Indirectly endorsing Bosnian Muslim demands, mediators Lord Owen and Thorvald Stoltenberg said on 10 August that they will not reconvene the talks until Serbian troops withdraw. Meanwhile, Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic said that NATO would risk a full-scale war if it attacked Serbian troops. -Fabian Schmidt SERBS SHELL MASLENICA BRIDGE. Hina reports on 11 August that Serb gunners repeatedly hit the pontoon structure the previous day and into the night, but adds that damage was limited. Vjesnik notes on 11 August that the Council for Defense and National Security chaired by President Franjo Tudjman met the previous day. That body promised a tough response to the Serb attacks and said that Croatia would refuse to renew UNPROFOR's mandate if those forces fail to implement a cease-fire and take control of Serb heavy weapons in the occupied parts of Croatia. -Patrick Moore SECURITY COUNCIL WANTS CSCE MONITORS TO RETURN. That high UN body called on rump Yugoslavia to allow CSCE monitors to stay in Kosovo, the Sandjak, and Vojvodina, agencies reported on 10 August. In the mostly Albanian-inhabited province of Kosovo a growing number of police raids was reported in late July and August, while on 6 August three people were reportedly killed in border incidents between Albania and Kosovo. Hungary has expressed concern about the situation in Vojvodina, which has a large Magyar minority. The monitors were expelled by the Serbian government at the end of July because Serbia wants to force its readmission to the Helsinki process. -Fabian Schmidt SLOVENIAN ARMS SCANDAL-.-.-. The latest edition of Mladina charges that the Defense Ministry and other government leaders took part in decisions that led to the sale and transport of weapons through Slovenia. In July some 150 tons of arms hidden in humanitarian aid containers were discovered at Maribor airport. The arms originated in Saudi Arabia, the Ljubljana weekly writes, alleging that Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic personally arranged the delivery of the arms. Mladina contends that "Operation Arms Provision" was approved by top officials, such as President Milan Kucan, Prime Minister Janez Drnovsek, Interior Minister Igor Bavcar, and Defense Minister Janez Jansa. There have been no denials by officials to Mladina's latest claims. -Milan Andrejevich .-.-. AND YET ANOTHER SCANDAL IN CROATIA. Although this republic has been independent for just over two years, it has already had more than its share of incidents of possible wrongdoing in high places. The ruling center-right party, which contains many members of the former communist nomenklatura, is widely believed to have manipulated complex privatization laws to enrich its loyalists. President Franjo Tudjman, moreover, has been widely criticized for spending money on the trappings of office, such as an airplane and an expanded office complex, at a time when the treasury is supposedly bare, when the country has a war and a major refugee crisis on its hands, and when more and more Croats are having trouble making ends meet. Now Globus reports on 6 August that an Italian luxury yacht is being refitted for Tudjman's use and raises three questions about the matter: will the ship belong to the Croatian Navy for the use of any president or will it become Tudjman's personal property?; where will the costs, now projected between $500,000 and one million, finally end?; and why the intense secrecy about the project, especially on the part of navy commander Adm. Sveto Letica? Patrick Moore ALBANIAN COURT UPHOLDS ARREST OF NANO. According to Rilindja Demokratike on 11-August, Albania's Constitutional Court has upheld the decision to arrest Fatos Nano, leader of the Socialist Party. The court rejected an appeal from representatives of Nano's party to have the arrest declared illegal and "anticonstitutional." -Robert Austin BULGARIAN INTERIOR MINISTRY TO RECRUIT SECRET INFORMERS. According to Standart, on 10-August "Order No. 6," a regulation permitting the Ministry of the Interior to employ secret informers, went into effect. The ministry maintains that all information gathered will be used to help safeguard national security, in the war on crime, and against sabotage and terrorism, Trud reports. A secret informant will not be allowed to disclose to anyone, including a court of law, any details about his work or his identity as an agent. Any Bulgarian citizen may apply for employment as an agent, but successful applicants will be drawn from a pool carefully screened by police authorities. Order No.-6 received government approval on 12 July. -Stan Markotich CZECH MILITARY SCREENING UNDERWAY. At a press conference on 10 August reported by CTK, First Deputy Defense Minister Jiri Pospisil announced that by 1 August 1,620 men-or 6.6% of professional soldiers in the Czech armed forces-had undergone screening designed to reveal links with the former communist regime and evaluate the performance and potential of the officers. Of those screened, 97 requested to leave the armed forces. On 17 May 1993, Czech Defense Minister Antonin Baudys ordered the screening of all professional soldiers as part of the creation of the new Czech Army. High ranking officials have been evaluated first, especially those serving the defense minister or comprising the general staff. All generals and officers (24,568) will be screened, except those who request to leave the armed forces. Pospisil observed that the screening is subject to exaggerated expectations from two sides: on the one hand the Ministry of Defense is being accused of conducting a witch hunt, while on the other, many are concerned that the screening procedure will not be successful in completely cleansing the armed forces of officers tainted by the former regime. Pospisil concluded that both sides attach too much importance to the screening procedure.- Milada Vachudova ZERO GROWTH EXPECTED IN THE CZECH ECONOMY. During a press conference on 9-August reported by Czech and international media, Finance Minister Ivan Kocarnik said that the government has revised its earlier figures, which forecast 1% to 3% growth in 1993. In the first half of 1993 the economy declined a further 1%; it has been contracting since 1990, with the exception of modest growth in the third and fourth quarters of 1992. Kocarnik said "the government's estimate now is for zero to 1% growth this year and 2-3% growth in 1994." Kocarnik explained that the continuing recession has been caused by the Czech Republic's Western trading partners, especially Germany, and by the drop in trade with Slovakia following the split. Kocarnik, however, praised the government's austerity program, estimating that "we will end the year in balance at the central level and with a slight surplus in local budgets." At the end of July, the government's budget surplus totaled 5.6 billion koruny ($193 million). Kocarnik indicated that the government will relax its strict budgetary stance in response to growing pressure from business and other groups, but stressed that "I personally would oppose a government policy that would produce a budget deficit above 1% or 1.5% maximum" of GDP. Kocarnik also predicted inflation will reach 15% to 17% this year, but will "drop to a single digit next year. Unemployment is expected to rise from the current 2.6% to above 5% by the end of 1994. -Milada Vachudova FOREIGN INVESTMENT GROWS, PRODUCTIVITY SHRINKS IN SLOVAKIA. At a 10 August press conference, the Slovak Statistical Office reported that foreign investment reached 9.2-billion koruny ($320.4 million) by the end of June, an increase of 2.6 billion koruny ($75.4 million) since December 1992, TASR reports. Foreigners have invested in 3,948 Slovak firms, 1,123 more than in December. Part of this increase stems from Czech investments, which since the split are considered foreign; the Czech Republic is now the fourth biggest foreign investor, behind Austria, Germany, and the US. The capital city, Bratislava, attracted 56% of foreign investment in the first half of the year. For the first five months of 1993 Slovakia had an overall trade surplus of 2.9 billion koruny and a surplus of 5.3 billion koruny with the Czech Republic. Recent figures show a gradual decline in productivity and a slight increase in the average wage. -Sharon Fisher DEADLINE PASSES FOR POLISH ELECTION CANDIDATES. The Polish national election commission announced early on 11 August that 8,259 candidates on 802 different regional lists had met the midnight deadline to register for the Sejm elections. The count is not yet complete; many parties submitted lists at the last minute. There are 460 seats in the Sejm, so nearly 20-candidates will compete for each seat. Parties with fewer than 15 deputies in the disbanded Sejm had to gather 3,000 signatures in 26 districts to register their candidates nationwide. Among those meeting this obligation were: President Lech Walesa's Nonparty Reform Bloc, former Prime Minister Jan Olszewski's Coalition for the Republic, the Union of Labor, Party "X," and the Real Politics Union. The fate of the radical Self Defense union remains unclear; it submitted its petitions just before midnight. Gazeta Wyborcza estimates that 14-16 parties and coalitions will compete nationwide. -Louisa Vinton POLAND'S TRADE DEFICIT GROWS. The director of the foreign department at the Polish National Bank, Wlodzimierz Kicinski, reported on 10 August that Poland's balance of payments deficit had grown by $445 million in June to reach a total of over $1.6 billion for the first half of 1993. The negative trade balance rose to $1.1 billion at the end of June 1993. Kicinski said the rise in the deficit was due to a huge increase in imports prompted by fear that the introduction of the VAT in July would raise costs. That impulse to import is expected to die out in coming months. Exports continue to be strong and rose by 10% in June to $1.2-billion for the month, Kicinski said. PAP carried the report. -Louisa Vinton HUNGARIAN-AMERICAN FUND PRESIDENT QUITS. Alexander Tomlinson resigned on 10-August, charging that congressional interference make it "impossible to run the fund on the basis of independent business judgment," Western agencies report. The fund, the first of its kind, was established by Congress four years ago and provided with $60 million to help emerging private enterprise in Hungary. Tomlinson's resignation comes after congressional allegations that the fund mismanaged its money and violated guidelines. -Edith Oltay ROMANIAN MINERS' STRIKE MAY END; MORE STRIKES LOOM. Cabinet spokeswoman Doina Jalea said on 10 August that the coal miners strike in the Jiu Valley might end soon. In a statement broadcast on national TV on 10 August, Industry Minister Dumitru Popescu confirmed progress in negotiations over substantial pay rises, but he suggested that more talks are still needed. The next round is scheduled to take place in Bucharest on 11 August. In the meantime, the strikers disregarded a call from union leader Miron Cosma to resume work on 10 August and gathered instead at the mine company's headquarters in Petrosani as they have every day since the strike began on 2 August. In a separate development, several trade unions, including the Federation of Free Unions of Road Construction and Repair Workers, the Prahova county branch of the Fratia confederation, and the locomotive drivers' union, threatened to stage strikes if their salary claims were not met. -Dan Ionescu MOLDOVA'S PARLIAMENT: NO LONGER ALIVE BUT NOT YET FULLY DEAD. At its session on 10 August, parliament failed to dissolve itself and call multiparty elections, as the majority leaders had intended. The majority was abandoned by some backbenchers reluctant to part with their seats and also by the Russian deputies' group, which demanded that parliament continue its work to vote again on ratifying Moldova's selective accession to the CIS (which gained a plurality of the votes but fell barely short of the required absolute majority on 4 August). A depleted majority walked out, announcing that it will not return to this parliament. Parliament Chairman Petru Lucinschi, who had supported dissolution, called for one last session in September to pass an electoral law and set an early date for elections. The pro-Romanian minority, which wields de facto veto power in the present parliament but expects severe losses from new elections, denounced the proposals as an attempt to restore communism through a dictatorship of President Mircea Snegur. The parliament remains formally alive but well short of a quorum. The outcome should clear the way for the plan of Snegur's Social-Democrat advisers to convene a constituent assembly. Vladimir Socor NEW BELARUS CURRENCY ON 15 AUGUST. The changeover to a national currency appears to have been speeded up in Belarus this week. A representative of the Belarus National Bank told Belinform that the zaichik will be the only legal tender by the end of the week, Radiefakt reports. The decision awaits formal approval by the Council of Ministers and the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet. According to Belapan, the move is being made because the Russian Central Bank is not supplying Belarus with enough rubles. The Russian ruble to zaichik exchange rate will be 1:2 for cash transactions and one ruble to 2.52 zaichiki for bank transfers. -Ustina Markus ESTONIA EXTENDS REGISTRATION FOR LOCAL ELECTIONS. On 10 August an extraordinary session of parliament decided to extend from 12 to 20 August the deadline for registering for local municipal and regional elections on 17 October, BNS reports. State Secretary Ulo Kaevats said that extending the deadline to October, as the councils of the Russian populated cities of Sillamae and Narva had requested, was rejected, since this would upset the election schedule. All permanent residents will be allowed to vote, but only Estonian citizens can run as candidates. An appeal by the councils to allow noncitizens who have lived in the election district more than 10 years was not approved. -Saulius Girnius ESTONIA TAKES OVER PALDISKI PORTS. On August 10 the Estonian military took over the two ports at the former Soviet military base at Paldiski. The Russian police suspended its activity in Paldiski and its military patrols were also withdrawn from the streets. The base, however, is still manned by about 1,000 Russian naval officers and noncommissioned officers. Access to Paldiski will be restricted until Russia has dismantled and removed the nuclear reactors in the former training center for submarine crews, BNS reports. Dzintra Bungs LOANS TO REPAY LITHUANIA'S ENERGY DEBT. On 10 August Bank of Lithuania Chairman Romualdas Visokavicius told a press conference that one of the largest German banks has agreed to grant a six-month loan of $28 million to pay Lithuania's debts to Russia for nuclear fuel cassettes, Radio Lithuania reports. The loan is not tied to funds from the IMF or other international financial organizations. Visokavicius also said that the $45-million debt for Russian natural gas will be paid off by using part of the $60-million credit from the EC. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Ann Sheehy and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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