|We have to understand the world can only be grasped by action, not by comtemplation. The hand is more important than the eye....The hand is the cutting edge of the mind. - J. Bronowski|
No. 151, 10 August 1993
RUSSIA SERVICEMEN NOT GETTING PAID. Deputy Defense Minister Konstantin Kobets said on 9-August that the Ministry of Finance owes the Defense Ministry more than 1.5 trillion rubles and that, as a result of the funding shortfall, more than 60% of all servicemen were not paid in July and many received no pay in June. He said that the shortfall also meant that the Defense Ministry had been unable to fund a number of the benefits to servicemen promised in recently passed defense legislation and that many military bases faced serious shortages of food, fuel, and other necessities. Kobets claimed that these problems have raised tensions within the army and that some soldiers were refusing to carry out their duties as a result. His remarks, made during a conference devoted to social problems in the army, were reported by ITAR-TASS on 9 August. -Stephen Foye FOREIGN TRADE PERFORMANCE. The Russian trade balance improved considerably in the first half of 1993, according to various Russian news agencies on 6-August. Exports inched up and imports fell sharply from last year's levels to result in a $9 billion surplus. Sergei Glaziev, Minister of Foreign Economic Relations, also disclosed that Russian enterprises had added $5.5-billion to their hard currency reserves over the last half year and that, together with commercial banks, Russian businesses' hard-currency reserves at the end of June totaled $18-20 billion dollars. Glaziev noted that Russia could use these reserves to reduce borrowing from the West and to increase domestic investment activity. -Erik Whitlock WAGE INCREASES KEEP UP WITH PRICES? ACCORDING TO A STUDY CARRIED OUT BY TWO ECONOMISTS AT THE IMF, REAL AVERAGE WAGES AT THE BEGINNING OF 1993 WERE SIMILAR TO THOSE IN 1987, IMPLYING THAT THE MAJORITY OF THE RUSSIAN POPULATION HAVE NOT SUFFERED A SIGNIFICANT DROP IN ITS STANDARD OF LIVING DESPITE THE 1992 PRICE LIBERALIZATION. From 1987 to 1992 wages increased to a far greater extent than prices, and when prices were liberalized at the beginning of 1992 real wages initially fell below the 1987 level. Since then the real average wage has crept back up. The authors of the study admit, however, that they do not cover non-wage income-in the form of services, products, and subsidies-which has traditionally been important at large state enterprises. This non-wage income has probably not kept up with money wage growth. According to the study, pensions increased by about eight times in 1992, and wages about 11 times, suggesting that pensioners have suffered a relative drop in their standard of living. -Sheila Marnie and Robert Lyle ROLE OF INVESTMENT FUNDS IN PRIVATIZATION. Maksim Boycko, an adviser to the State Committee for the Management of State Property (GKI) told a news conference on 26-July that there were about 550-voucher and investment funds operating in Russia, Russian TV reported. More than one half of these had been set up during the first three months of 1993. They had acquired some 25 million vouchers, of which one third had been invested in privatizing enterprises with more than 12-million shareholders. -Keith Bush GENERAL STAFFER TO HEAD BORDER FORCES. ITAR-TASS reported on 7 August that the first Deputy Chief of the Russian Armed Forces General Staff, Colonel General Andrei Nikolaev, has been named commander of Russia's Border Forces and a Deputy Minister of Security. Nikolaev replaces Vladimir Shlyakhtin, who was relieved of his duties by President Boris Yeltsin on 26 July following an attack by Tajik anti-government rebels and Afghan forces on border posts manned by Russian forces. Nikolaev was born in 1949 and had served since December 1992 as General Staff First Deputy Chief. His appointment would appear to strengthen the army's influence within the Border Forces, which are formally subordinated to the Ministry of Security. On 26 July Yeltsin and the Russian Security Council had tasked Defense Minister Pavel Grachev with coordinating operations on the border with Afghanistan. -Stephen Foye JAPANESE FOREIGN MINISTER ON RELATIONS WITH MOSCOW. Signaling what may be a softening in Tokyo's position vis-a-vis Moscow, Japan's newly named Foreign Minister Tsumoto Hata said on 9 August that Japan would give priority to working for economic and political stability in Russia. According to Reuters, Hata said that Japan would "welcome the promised visit to Japan by President Yeltsin," adding that the two sides "must resolve the [Kuril Islands] territorial dispute in the context of an economically and politically stable Russia." The territorial issue has been a stumbling block to the signing of a peace treaty and to improved relations between the two countries. Japan has to date tended to link economic aid for Russia to its resolution. -Stephen Foye RUSSIA AND KUWAIT TO SIGN DEFENSE AGREEMENT. A Russian embassy source said on 8 August that Kuwait's Defense Minister will visit Russia on 23 September in order to sign a defense agreement under which Russia will help guarantee Kuwait's security, Reuters reported. The agreement would be the fourth that Kuwait has signed with permanent members of the UN Security Council since the Gulf War in 1991. The same source said that the agreement provided for military and technical cooperation, but gave no further details. Russia has reportedly also offered to sell weaponry to Kuwait. According to Reuters, Kuwait is expected to spend approximately $12 billion on arms over the next decade. In February of this year Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev visited Kuwait, where he signed a preliminary memorandum of understanding on the agreement to be concluded in September. -Stephen Foye PROTEST ACTION OF TEREK COSSACKS. The Terek Cossacks blocked road and rail traffic in the vicinity of Mineralnye Vody for two and a half hours on 7 August to protest the failure of the Russian federal authorities to protect the Slav and Cossack population of the North Caucasus, ITAR-TASS and Ekho Moskvy reported. The Cossacks backed up their action with a list of proposals sent to Yeltsin, and the Russian parliament and government, the most important of which were that the North Caucasus should be declared an area of social disaster, that the age-old Cossack lands in various North Caucasian republics and territories should be reunited, and that Yeltsin's decree of several months' ago on creating Cossacks units to guard the southern frontier be implemented. They also demanded that those guilty of deaths among the civilian population be called to criminal account, and that a state-financed program for refugees be drawn up. -Ann Sheehy ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT AGAINST CHECHEN PRESIDENT. Gunmen attempted to assassinate Chechen President Dzhokhar Dudaev in the early hours of 8-August, Russian and Western agencies reported. Grenade launchers were fired into his office in Groznyi where he was working at about 4.30 a.m. Dudaev, who was not hurt, said afterwards that no threats or terrorist acts would deflect him from the path he had chosen. ITAR-TASS said Chechen law-enforcement officials believed the attack was carried out by supporters of Beslan Gantemirov, the former chairman of the Groznyi municipal assembly, who was wounded in April when Dudaev supporters tried to expel the opposition from municipal buildings. -Ann Sheehy TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA US DIPLOMAT KILLED NEAR TBILISI. US diplomat Fred Woodruff was shot and killed on 8 August while riding in a car with Eldar Guguladze, Georgian Parliamentary Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze's security chief, near the village of Natakhtari outside Tbilisi, Western agencies reported. Reports differed on whether Guguladze was injured, but the Georgian Interior Ministry claimed he was unhurt. US Embassy officials originally identified Woodruff as a Foreign Affairs Officer posted temporarily to the embassy's political section in Tbilisi, but senior US administration officials later identified Woodruff as an agent of the Central Intelligence Agency, the New York Times reported. A special operational group consisting of representatives from Georgia's Prosecutor's Department, Interior Ministry, and intelligence service has been formed to investigate the incident. US State Department Spokesman Michael McCurry says the US investigation will focus on whether Woodruff was the real target of the attack. Shevardnadze expressed his sincere condolences, and said that the attack could demonstrate the need for "extraordinary measures" to secure order in crisis-ridden Georgia, Reuters reported. -Catherine Dale AFGHAN FOREIGN MINISTER IN DUSHANBE. Western and Russian agencies reported on 10-August that Afghanistan's Foreign Minister Amin Asalla is in Dushanbe for talks with the government of Tajikistan on ending the fighting on the Tajik-Afghan border and on the repatriation of the thousands of Tajik refugees who fled to Afghanistan after Tajikistan's present government took power in December 1992. A spokesman of the Afghan Foreign Ministry said that the minister would urge the Tajik authorities to negotiate with the leaders of the Tajik opposition who have taken refuge in Afghanistan; the Dushanbe government has consistently refused to negotiate with opposition leaders; Tajik Foreign Minister Rashid Alimov told foreign correspondents on 8 August that the government was talking to representatives of the refugees. -Bess Brown UZBEK OPPOSITION FIGURES SENTENCED, AMNESTIED. RFE/RL learned on 6 August that six Uzbek opposition figures were sentenced to three years of imprisonment, but then were immediately amnestied. The trial of the six men, Bobur Shakirov, Khazratkul Khudaiberdiev, Salavat Umarzakov, Olim Karimov, Orif Otanazarov, and Abdulaziz Makhmudov began on 1 July. They were charged with organizing activities that were deemed to be particularly dangerous to Uzbekistan, including planning to create an alternative parliament (Milli Mejlis). The six men say the charges are fabricated. The amnesty was announced by President Islam Karimov to celebrate the anniversary of Uzbek independence and covers all sentences of three years or less. -Yalcin Tokgozoglu. AZERBAIJANI-WESTERN OIL TALKS RESUMED. Russian agencies reported on 9 August that Azerbaijani officials have reopened talks with Western oil firms about a scheme to develop three oilfields on the Caspian Sea shelf. The negotiations were suspended on 24 June after Azerbaijan's new leadership questioned the benefit of the deal to their country. The reopening of negotiations was announced to government officials and oil company representatives by Heidar Aliev Azerbaijan's Acting President, who reiterated that the deal should give priority to Azerbaijan's interests. -Bess Brown CIS SUSPENSION OF RUSSIAN OIL DELIVERIES TO UKRAINE, AZERBAIJAN. Starting on 30-July, Russia cut off oil shipments to Ukraine because of arrears in payments for past deliveries, UNIAN reported on 2-August, although subsequent reports indicated that supplies had been cut to one-tenth of the normal volume. A Ukrainian official told Reuters on 7 August that Ukraine owed Russia about 250 billion rubles for oil deliveries. Russian TV on 9 August reported that shipments had been resumed on 8 August after agreement had been reached on backpayments and unit prices. ITAR-TASS on 7 August said that Russia had suspended oil shipments to Azerbaijan because of Baku's failure to deliver barter goods to the value of $10-million as promised. -Keith Bush CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE "A BIZARRE SERIES OF MANEUVERS AND COUNTER-MANEUVERS" OUTSIDE SARAJEVO. This is how the 10 August Washington Post sums up the situation the previous day surrounding the Serbs' promised withdrawal from Mts. Igman and Bjelasnica. French troops described how Serbs left Bjelasnica only to return within the hour, and how Serbs quickly replaced the mines the French had removed from Igman. One French officer said: "the Serbs are not withdrawing and have no intention of withdrawing. This is a joke-.-.-. and the joke is on us." Some international media speculated that the Serbs are interested in having the UN troops in the area as a "human shield" in the event of NATO air attacks on Serb positions, while other media point out that UN troops serve to deny Muslims access to the mountains while freeing up Serb forces for combat elsewhere. Meanwhile in Mostar, some 500-international peace activists succeeded in reaching the embattled town where few foreigners have been allowed over the past two months. News agencies also report that a convoy of seven Polish trucks is still trying to reach Sarajevo, while the BBC's Serbian Service on 9 August noted that the rock group U2 managed to hold a well-received concert in the besieged capital the previous weekend. Finally, Hina says that Serbs shelled the Maslenica pontoon bridge on 8 and 9 August, hindering the engineers who are trying to refloat and repair the structure. -Patrick Moore WILL IZETBEGOVIC RETURN TO THE GENEVA NEGOTIATIONS? IN GENEVA BOSNIAN PRESIDENT ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC SAID ON 9 AUGUST THAT HE WILL NOT TALK TO THE SERBS UNLESS THEY WITHDREW FROM BOTH THE MOUNTAINS OVERLOOKING SARAJEVO, INTERNATIONAL MEDIA REPORT. Meanwhile NATO ambassadors endorsed a conditional plan for air attacks on Bosnian Serbs besieging Sarajevo, but did not agree on what would trigger a strike. The execution of such strikes would require approval by UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali and NATO ambassadors. NATO sources said that if air strikes are decided upon, no particular Serbian action would be needed to provoke the strikes: "We will simply tell the Serbians, enough is enough," said an official. NATO Secretary Manfred Woerner hailed the agreement as "a very important step forward" in converting NATO from an organization conceived solely as a defensive alliance into one capable of acting militarily beyond the borders of its members. -Fabian Schmidt SERBIA HOLDS UP HUNGARIAN BARGES. Gyorgy Jakab, the deputy general director of the MAHART barge company, told MTI and Radio Budapest on 9-August that since the weekend the Serbian authorities have been holding up three of his vessels carrying iron ore on the Danube from Ukraine to Hungary. The Serbian Environmental Ministry reportedly held up the barges to conduct an environmental check of the cargo, but it is unprecedented that an examination should take so long, Jakab complained. Hungary's UN mission has briefed the leader of the UN sanctions committee about the incident, and MAHART in a protest note to the Serbian authorities called the incident a violation of international accords governing Danube traffic. Hungary honors the UN trade sanctions against rump Yugoslavia. -Edith Oltay KOSOVO UPDATE. Borba reports on 10 August that the public prosecutor of Pristina has launched an inquiry in the district court against members of the National Movement for the Liberation of Kosovo and the Peoples Movement for a Republic of Kosovo. The two groups, whose existence is alleged by the Serbian police, are charged with preparing an armed rebellion to annex the Albanian-inhabited parts of Kosovo, Montenegro, and Macedonia to Albania, or else to form a separate state. According to Borba the recent police raids turned up vast quantities of weapons and propaganda material. The Kosovar-exile newspaper Rilindja reports that in brutal raids following attacks on Serb police hundreds of Albanians have been arrested on an arbitrary basis since the latest series of shootings began on 23 July. -Fabian Schmidt ALBANIAN MISCELLANY. According to a 10 August article in Rilindja, new light has been shed on the 6-August border incidents with Serbia in which two Albanian soldiers and one villager were shot. Albania maintains that its border guards were fired upon by Yugoslav forces inside Albanian territory, and an EC observer team has now supported this position. Reuters also reports on 9 August that the EC team found traces of blood on Albanian territory, which proves that "the wounded persons were on the Albanian side of the border when the incidents happened." In domestic developments, a scandal involving misappropriation of Italian aid to Albania in 1991 continues to gather momentum. Against the backdrop of a recent wave of arrests, Gazeta Shqiptare reports on 8 August that a former Deputy Foreign Affairs Minister, Sokrat Plaka, has also been arrested. The charge is misuse of office and abuse of Italian humanitarian aid. He joins Socialist Party leader Fatos Nano and a host of other "former communist" leaders awaiting trial. -Robert Austin UPHEAVAL IN POLISH AGRICULTURE MINISTRY. Acting Agriculture Minister Jacek Janiszewski announced on 9 August that he has suspended the Agriculture Restructuring and Debt-Relief Foundation. The foundation was set up by the state in 1992 to assist farmers who had fallen into debt because of hyperinflation and high interest rates. The prosecutor's office will be called in to investigate possible criminal violations, Janiszewski said. He charged his predecessor at the agriculture ministry-Peasant Alliance leader Gabriel Janowski, who served in both of the last two governments before defecting from the current coalition-with catering to 4,000 indebted farmers while neglecting the needs of Poland's 2.5 million healthy farms. Through lack of oversight, three trillion zloty ($180 million) were distributed to undeserving farmers, at times on the basis of nepotism or cronyism. "The foundation's activities are an extreme example of the errors arising from the concentration of power in one person's hands," Janiszewski said. Speaking on Polish TV, Janowski denied Janiszewski's charges. Gazeta Wyborcza commented on 10 August that the debt-relief foundation seemed a sadly wasted effort that served only to assist the creation of the anarchic Self Defense union. -Louisa Vinton RACZYNSKI BURIED IN POZNAN. Count Edward Raczynski was buried at his family estate near Poznan on 9 August, PAP reports. President Lech Walesa and Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka attended the ceremonies. Thousands of Poles filed past the casket on 8-August. Raczynski was Poland's ambassador to Britain from 1934 to 1945 and foreign minister in the wartime exile government. He served as president of the government in exile from 1979 to 1986. He died at the age of 101 in London on 30 July. Speaking at the funeral, Suchocka recalled that Raczynski had given her a message to all Poles earlier this year: "Don't waste independence." Walesa said that Raczynski had at last returned "from the longest of his official missions" to the free and sovereign fatherland he had always served. Noting that Raczynski came from an era when "the old-fashioned concept of decency had a different meaning than today," Nowa Europa commented irreverently that "funerals have become the hit of the current political season." The remains of two other figures from the interwar and wartime years who died abroad, Gen. Wladyslaw Sikorski and President Ignacy Moscicki, are to return to Poland before the September elections. -Louisa Vinton OPEN LETTER TO SLOVAK PREMIER. Vojtech Bugar, chairman of the Hungarian Christian Democratic Movement in Slovakia, sent a letter to Premier Vladimir Meciar on 9 August regarding minority rights, TASR reports. Complaining that town name signs in Hungarian language "are once again being removed," Bugar expressed "dissatisfaction" with Minister of Transport and Communications Roman Hofbauer, whose ministry ordered the move. According to Bugar, Hofbauer has been "causing emotions in minority regions" rather than solving the "real problems" in his field. Bugar also said that as a new member of the Council of Europe, Slovakia is now given the chance "to prove that it stands by democratic principals and wants to become a part of European structures." He expressed his confidence that Slovakia will solve the problem of bilingual town names by modifying its law as recommended by the CE. -Sharon Fisher KOVAC MEETS BULGARIAN PRESIDENT. Slovak President Mihal Kovac arrived in Sofia on 9 August, BTA reports. On the same day he met with his Bulgarian counterpart Zhelyu Zhelev to discuss bilateral issues. Zhelev noted that there are no obstacles to a rapid broadening of relations. Kovac invited Zhelev to visit Slovakia. He later traveled to the Black Sea coast, where he will spend two weeks vacation. -Kjell Engelbrekt BULGARIAN PARLIAMENT RAISES EXCISE TAX. At an extra session of the National Assembly on 9 August, legislators approved a higher excise tax on certain luxury products. According to BTA, the parliament voted to raise taxes on high-octane gasoline, gambling, and hard liquor. Government proposals for tax hikes on all alcoholic beverages and tobacco were rejected, however. Bulgarian deputies are normally on vacation throughout August, but the government asked for a special session on the grounds that a higher excise tax would significantly boost state revenues.--Kjell Engelbrekt ZHIVKOV AND OTHERS ACCUSED OF EMBEZZLEMENT. On 9 August former president Todor Zhivkov, along with seven other former communist officials, including former prime minister Georgi Atanasov, were charged with embezzling state funds. The money was allegedly transferred to Nicaragua, Yemen, and a variety of left-wing organizations around the world in the form of hard-currency grants, technical aid, and arms, Reuters reports. According to BTA, Zhivkov stands accused of embezzling 17 million leva while Atanasov is suspected of misappropriating 150 million leva. A total of 22 persons are expected to be indicted in the case. Zhivkov and Atanasov have already been convicted of misappropriating funds, and now, along with the others, face an additional sentence of up to 30 years' imprisonment if found guilty. Earlier, on 5 August, Andrey Lukanov, Bulgaria's last communist premier, was charged with embezzling 120 million leva. -Stan Markotich JIU VALLEY UPDATE. On 9 August the leader of the Jiu Valley coal miners, Miron Cosma, said the members of his union could go back to work next day, Radio Bucharest reports. Cosma said he sent a new proposal to the government and was waiting for a reply. An RFE/RL correspondent in Petrosani reports that Cosma seemed sure that an agreement has been reached and he has ordered the miners to resume work. The government has agreed to increase the miners' pay, he said, although not as much as they had wanted. Another union official told the corespondent that the government has agreed to increase salaries by 30% and that the miners will get a larger portion of the increase than will the mine's clerical workers. The head of the government's information department, Octavian Partenie, however, denied that an agreement has been reached. He said the miners are now willing to accept less than their original demands, but are still demanding more than the government is willing to offer. In its late evening broadcast, Radio Bucharest said Cosma had decided the strike will go on, since no reply has been received from the government to his new proposals. -Michael Shafir MOLDOVAN POLITICAL CRISIS. The parliamentary majority (including the Russian deputies' group and supported by Parliament Chairman Petru Lucinschi) has stepped up the pressure to dissolve the legislature, where the pro-Romanian minority has been able to block the adoption of the new constitution and other major bills and the holding of multiparty elections. This parliament was elected before the multiparty system was introduced, and its term expires only in 1995. In an interview in Der Spiegel, cited by the Moldovan media on 8-August, President Mircea Snegur also came out in favor of dissolution of parliament and multiparty elections, and predicted that a new parliament would be able to push through Transdniester and Gagauz autonomy. On 9 August the Social-Democrat Party leaders, who dominate Snegur's group of advisers, publicly urged the calling of a Constituent Assembly by presidential decree, as was done by Yeltsin in Russia, to work in parallel with parliament, should the motion for dissolution fail. Meanwhile, the pro-Romanian opposition has cabled the parliaments and governments of West European states, the USA, and Romania, soliciting support for the preservation of parliament and asking the West to "reassess its relations with Moldova" if parliament is dissolved. The opposition leaders also announced that they will regard the Romanian leadership guilty of "national treason" if it fails to resist the leadership's "movement away from Romania and toward the CIS," Basapress reported on 9-August. -Vladimir Socor UKRAINIAN REFERENDUM TO BE POSTPONED OR CANCELLED? LOCAL MEDIA REPORT THAT OLEKSANDR LAVRYNOVYCH, THE ACTING HEAD OF THE CENTRAL ELECTORAL COMMISSION, HAS CONFIRMED THAT THIS BODY HAS SUSPENDED PREPARATIONS FOR THE NATIONAL REFERENDUM SCHEDULED FOR 26 SEPTEMBER ON CONFIDENCE IN THE PARLIAMENT AND PRESIDENT. Lavrynovych stated that because the parliament has not yet worked out and approved the full details connected with the organization and financing of the poll, there was insufficient time left to make the necessary preparations. "There will be no referendum in Ukraine on 26 September," he declared. It was up to the parliament to decide on a new date or whether to abandon the idea. -Bohdan Nahaylo GERMAN FOREIGN MINISTER VISITS ESTONIA. On 9 August Klaus Kinkel made a one-day private visit to Tallinn during his vacation in Finland, BNS reports. He spoke with Estonian Prime Minister Mart Laar on the situation in Russia, the withdrawal of Russian troops from Estonia, and problems associated with Estonia's integration into Europe. Kinkel also met President Lennart Meri and discussed guarantees for the safety of the Baltic States, Germany's assistance to Estonia in forming a market economy, and Estonia's cooperation with European economic and security structures. -Saulius Girnius LITHUANIA PROPOSES FURTHER TALKS WITH RUSSIA. On 9 August President Algirdas Brazauskas ended his vacation and returned to work, Radio Lithuania reports. He held a conference with Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius, Foreign Minister Povilas Gylys, and head of the delegation for Russian troop withdrawal Virgilijus Bulovas at which it was decided to send an official invitation to the Russian delegation to continue talks in Vilnius. In the evening Brazauskas met with eight members of the Lithuanian delegation for an hour and a half, but no reports on the meeting have been released. In talks between the delegations in Moscow the previous week on signing a troop withdrawal agreement, Russia refused to include Lithuania's request for compensation for damages caused to Lithuania since 1940. -Saulius Girnius RUSSIAN DENIES RECRUITING LATVIANS. Oleg Groznetsky, press officer of Russia's Northwestern Group of Forces, denied recent allegations in the press that the Russian military is recruiting mercenaries or employees from among citizens and permanent residents of Latvia, Diena reported on 9 August. Groznetsky said that no citizen of Latvia is serving in the Russian armed forces and added that if any residents of Latvia are working for the military, then it is only those who are either stateless or are citizens of Russia and these individuals are being employed on a freelance basis. -Dzintra Bungs LATVIA TO HAVE FINANCE POLICE, SECURITIES MARKET. On 9 August Finance Minister Uldis Osis announced to the press plans to establish a finance police to audit residents' income, tax payments and customs tariffs, as well as to oversee street vendors at the Riga Central Market who, he said, are currently dominated by criminal gangs. Osis also said that the first state securities in Latvia will be issued in October. The new securities are expected to be short-term (up to three months) state promissory notes. They will be first distributed to officials, but later to the general public through the largest Latvian commercial banks. Osis said the Latvian securities market is still in the formative stages and licenses have been granted to 36 brokers. -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Ann Sheehy and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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