|Every man passes his life in the search after friendship. - Emerson|
No. 150, 09 August 1993
RUSSIA PARLIAMENT SUSPENDS PRESIDENTIAL PRIVATIZATION DECREE. On 7 August parliament voted overwhelmingly to override President Boris Yeltsin's decree of 26 July "On Additional Steps to Protect the Rights of Russian Citizens to Participate in Privatization," ITAR-TASS reported. The presidential decree will now go to the Constitutional Court for a ruling on its validity. Prior to the vote, Deputy Prime Minister Anatolii Chubais called the resolution "economically absurd, juridically unfounded, politically flawed, and devoid of common sense." He indicated that the government had anticipated the parliamentary vote and told reporters that countermeasures had been prepared. -Keith Bush HYBRID THREE-YEAR PLAN APPROVED. An expanded Council of Ministers' session, with local and regional representatives in attendance, approved on 6-August a draft medium-term program for the period 1993-96, ITAR-TASS and Western agencies reported. As summarized, the document seeks to pursue a middle road, eschewing both further "shock therapy" and a plan drawn up by First Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Lobov that would have reinstated elements of the command economy. The new program envisages stabilization by 1995 and a resumption of growth by 1996. It allows for higher ceilings on new credits than were agreed upon in May, yet restates earlier targets for inflation and budget deficit limits. The draft will be submitted to parliament. -Keith Bush CHERNOMYRDIN REBUKES FEDOROV. Following the Council of Ministers' session, Prime Minister Victor Chernomyrdin made it clear that he would tolerate no further public criticisms of government policy from Finance Minister Boris Fedorov, ITAR-TASS reported. "If anyone else in the name of the government speaks out against government policy, then he should find himself another job," Chernomyrdin told reporters. Fedorov has criticized the Central Bank's ruble withdrawal while Chernomyrdin has supported it. According to Radio Rossii, Fedorov also attacked the proposal by Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Lobov to reassert greater government control over the economy and to ease the current policy of limiting credits to industry. Lobov's suggestions were developed in tandem with the Russian parliament and they reflect a more cautious, alternative approach to the economy which appears to be gaining strength within the cabinet. -Dominic Gualtieri CRISIS INTENSIFIES. Political scientist Aleksei Kiva, in an article in Izvestiya on 7 August, called upon President Yeltsin again to appeal directly to the people in order to fight the anti-reform parliament. The deputy head of the presidential apparatus, Vyacheslav Volkov, told Rossiiskie vesti on the same day that the Democratic Russia Movement had asked Yeltsin to issue a decree on holding parliamentary elections this autumn. The speaker of the Council of the Republic of the Supreme Soviet, Veniamin Sokolov, told the same newspaper that Yeltsin has lost his ability to rule and that only a political alliance between the parliamentary leadership, Prime Minister Chernomyrdin and his two first deputies, Oleg Lobov and Oleg Soskovets, could save the country. The co-leader of the Civic Union, Aleksandr Vladislavlev, warned of a putsch in Rossiiskaya gazeta of 7 August. -Alexander Rahr FORGIVENESS FOR RUSSIA'S EXTERNAL DEBT? RUSSIA PLANS TO ASK FOR MUCH OR MOST OF ITS EXTERNAL DEBT TO GOVERNMENTS AND BANKS TO BE FORGIVEN. This was disclosed by Konstantin Kagalovsky, Russia's representative at the International Monetary Fund, in an interview with Reuters on 6 August. Russia has assumed the external debts of the former Soviet Union, variously estimated to total between $80 billion and $90 billion. Kagalovsky's argument is that the money was given to the "Evil Empire" and was "completely wasted," but that it is now a burden for "democratic Russia" which does not have the means to pay off all of the debt and will be forced to default. Kagalovsky did not spell out how much of the external debt Russia will ask to be written off, but he noted that Poland had obtained a 50% reduction in its outstanding debt. -Keith Bush HERMES CREDIT GUARANTEES FOR RUSSIA HALTED. On 6 August, the German Economics Ministry announced that it would no longer provide Hermes export credit guarantees for German firms exporting to Russia because of Moscow's poor payments record, Reuters reported. In recent months, Hermes credit guarantees had been largely restricted to securing Russian orders from firms in the eastern part of Germany. Arrears in payments have been mounting, and some DM-500 million in interest payments alone will be due by the end of September 1993. -Keith Bush ARMS EXPORT CHIEF SACKED. Prime Minister Chernomyrdin announced on 6 August that the head of Oboroneksport, Russia's largest state arms exporting agency, has been dismissed for abusing his office, Reuters reported. The announcement came during a cabinet session devoted to corruption in foreign currency dealings. Reuters reported that officials from the exporting agency had said that the dismissal actually occurred a month ago, but that the reasons for it had not been revealed. The same officials reportedly said that Karaoglanov had been replaced by Major Gen. Valentin Trofimov, although that report has not been confirmed. Trofimov had been heading another of the three main exporting agencies that are subordinated to the Russian Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations. According to a recently published US Congress study, Russian arms export revenues continued their slide in 1992, but it is unclear if Karaoglanov's dismissal heralds a shake-up among the personnel that oversee such sales. -Stephen Foye KURIL ISLAND RESIDENTS NOT OPPOSED TO JAPANESE TAKEOVER. The results of a poll published by a Japanese newspaper on 8 August indicated that roughly 70% of Russian residents on the four disputed Kuril Islands support the idea of all or some of the islands reverting to Japanese rule. Reuters reported that the survey, which was conducted by a private Russian institute, showed that only 20% of the residents were firmly opposed to the return of the islands to Japan. A third of the islands estimated 10,000 residents reportedly said that the four islands should be returned to Japan on the condition that the rights and benefits of the Russian residents are protected. The poll was conducted in May and June of this year and was said to involve 404-residents of the island. -Stephen Foye YELTSIN GRANTS PARDON TO BREZHNEV'S SON-IN-LAW. Yeltsin has granted a pardon to Yurii Churbanov, a leading figure in a notorious corruption case of the late 1980s, Russian television newscasts reported on 7 August. Married to the daughter of the late Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev, Churbanov served as the first deputy minister of internal affairs in the administration of his father-in-law. Under Gorbachev, Churbanov was accused of involvement in the so-called "Uzbek" corruption network and sentenced to twelve years of imprisonment; he has served slightly more than half of this term. Churbanov appears to owe his early release to the influence of Andrei Makarov, who was Churbanov's defense counsel at his trial in December 1988. Last month Yeltsin put Makarov in charge of the department responsible for rooting out corruption in Russia. -Julia Wishnevsky YAROV ON SOCIAL POLICY. Deputy Prime Minister Yurii Yarov, in a talk on the priorities of social policy, has stated that the vast majority of Russian citizens should be guaranteed a per capita income level which is not lower than the minimum subsistence level, and stressed the need to increase the role of the state in regulating wages, ITAR-TASS reported on 7 August. He also called for a stricter system of taxing individual incomes and increased tax rates for the higher income brackets. Yarov stated that 33.3 million citizens currently receive pensions and social benefits, and that from 1 August the minimum pension has been 15,620 rubles a month, and the maximum 52,633 rubles. Yarov considers the existing mechanism for indexing pensions to be unsatisfactory, and proposes that it be replaced by "compensation payments of a fixed amount," which would be the same for all pensioners. On the problem of unemployment, Yarov stated that apart from the official 1% unemployment rate, about 4-5% of the workforce are affected by hidden unemployment, i.e. they are on compulsory leave or short time. -Sheila Marnie TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA GEORGIAN GOVERNMENT RESIGNS. Prompted by parliament's refusal to approve the national budget, Georgian Prime Minister Tengiz Sigua announced the resignation of his government on 6 August, ITAR-TASS reported. Parliament named Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze-who warned on 6 August that only an "emergency regime" could save Georgia from its current crisis-interim prime minister, giving him until 20-August to form a new cabinet. A year of fighting in the separatist region of Abkhazia and Russia's recent decision to invalidate most pre-1993 rubles have produced economic chaos in Georgia. The resignation of the government follows a spate of recent attacks by armed militiamen against civilians in open-air markets in Tbilisi. -Catherine Dale GEORGIAN TROOPS BEGIN WITHDRAWAL FROM ABKHAZIA. In accordance with a plan worked out by the joint commission to settle the Georgian-Akbhaz conflict after the signing of a ceasefire agreement on 27-July, Georgian heavy artillery and armored vehicles began to withdraw from the Gumista river front on 7 August, ITAR-TASS reported. Infantry units are scheduled to be withdrawn on 9 August, and all troops should be withdrawn by 12 August. Both sides report that the ceasefire is generally holding, despite reports from the Abkhaz Defense Ministry of heavy fighting near Sukhumi. Meanwhile, an advance team of eight UN military observers arrived in Tbilisi on 8 August to begin monitoring the ceasefire, Western agencies reported. -Catherine Dale CIS CENTRAL ASIAN-RUSSIAN SUMMIT ON TAJIKISTAN. The heads of state of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan met with Boris Yeltsin on 7 August to seek a solution to the conflict on the Tajik-Afghan border, Western and Russian agencies reported. In a declaration issued at the end of the meeting, the summit participants committed themselves to increasing the numbers of their troops guarding the border, promised additional military, economic and humanitarian aid to Tajikistan, and threatened retaliatory measures if outside attacks on the border continue. The declaration also called for a political settlement to the conflict. A separate declaration on the inviolability of borders that commits the signatories to prevent activities by individuals or groups on their territory seeking to alter borders was also signed by the summit participants. -Bess Brown KAZAKHSTAN, UZBEKISTAN AND RUSSIA TO FORM UNION. On 6 August, Russian, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan agreed in principle to form a ruble monetary union, various Russian new agencies reported. The official declaration, signed in Moscow, called upon each of the signatory nations to work out details of a unified monetary regime and endorse appropriate agreements in the course of the next two weeks. A formal pact will then be presented for approval by each of the nations' parliaments. The union is to represent a "ruble zone of a new type securing the effective functioning of a common monetary system," the declaration read. The signatories emphasized that the arrangement is open to other states' participation as well. The heads of the three signatory nations plus Kyrgyzstan also signed a document calling for a meeting of CIS member states on 7-September to discuss the creation of the economic union proposed on 14 May. -Erik Whitlock CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIAN WRAPUP. Bosnian Serb commander Ratko Mladic claimed his forces are withdrawing from the strategic mountains Bjelasnica and Igman outside Sarajevo, international media report on 9 August. After talks on 8 August with UN commander Gen. Francis Briquemont, he said that he would make a "phased withdrawal" to hand the positions over to UN troops. A UN spokesman said, however, that the Serbs' removal of two tanks and several heavy guns from Mt. Igman appears to have been a case of "clever stage management" and added "there is no sign of the Serbian forces' withdrawing." Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic warned that the Geneva negotiations will collapse unless NATO intervenes within days: "I can say if there are no air strikes, then there is no peace process, no negotiations." Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic said on 8 August that his forces would open two roads into Sarajevo on 9 August to permit humanitarian aid convoys and commercial traffic. He also offered to help a group of 2,000 peace activists who wanted to reach Sarajevo but had given up because of Serbian fighters' threats. The activists received a letter from a Bosnian Serb official already on 7 August, demanding that they bring Serbs out of Sarajevo in return for safe passage. The group, fearing being taken hostage, now plans to try to get to Mostar and stage a sit-down protest against the war. -Fabian Schmidt ALBANIA-KOSOVO BORDER INCIDENT. On 8 August Rilindja Demokratike reports that Serbian border forces entered Albanian territory near the Kosovo border on the 6th and shot an Albanian border guard and a local villager. In another incident the same day an Albanian border guard was allegedly shot and killed. According to ATA on 8 August, Albanian Foreign Minister Alfred Serreqi sent a letter of protest to the UN calling for an emergency meeting of the Security Council and asking that an UN observers mission be sent to the borders with the Serbian province of Kosovo. Serreqi asserted that it is clear that Serbia's aim is to create "new tensions" and sow seeds for a new, broader conflagration in the Balkans. The official Yugoslav position, according to Reuters on 7 August, is that armed Albanian forces entered Serbian territory and clashed with a Yugoslav Army patrol. Border incidents are increasing in this region. -Robert Austin CROATIAN OPPOSITION TO LEAVE PARLIAMENT? OPPOSITION CONTINUES TO GROW TO PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN'S AUTHORITARIAN RULING STYLE, HIS PARTY'S TOTAL DOMINATION OF THE GOVERNMENT, AND HIS POLICY OF COOPERATING WITH THE SERBS IN BOSNIA AGAINST THE MUSLIMS TO PARTITION THAT REPUBLIC. Following last month's joint meeting of opposition parties and a subsequent common declaration, Vjesnik of 9 August reports that the opposition now wants to be included in all "strategic decisions," especially in those involving the "key problem" of relations between Serbs and Croats throughout the former Yugoslavia. If the authorities continue in their "autocratic fashion" and do not change their Bosnia policy, the opposition threatens to walk out of parliament and set up a shadow legislature. They can presumably count on support from liberal members of Tudjman's party as well, since that party is widely believed to be on the verge of splitting into at least two factions. -Patrick Moore CARDINAL KUHARIC ALSO WANTS MORE OPEN GOVERNMENT. Croatia's primate, Franjo Cardinal Kuharic, gave an interview to the 8 August Vecernji list in which he continued to speak out on political issues. The Croatian Roman Catholic Church emerged from 45-years of communist rule much weaker than its counterparts in Poland or elsewhere in Central Europe, and only in May did the cardinal begin regularly addressing political issues in public. Like the legislative opposition, he also called for greater openness and democracy in government and a reversal of the current Bosnia policy. Kuharic argued that ethnically-mixed Bosnia requires "a special kind of civilization" in its future constitutional system in which the law of the jungle will be excluded. He reminded the Croats that their country lost its international moral capital from having been a victim of aggression in 1991 by subsequently committing aggression against the Muslims. Finally, the cardinal urged a more cooperative attitude on both sides in solving the current problems between the Zagreb authorities and the autonomy movement in Istria. -Patrick Moore SOLIDARITY OPENS ELECTION CAMPAIGN. Solidarity's Warsaw region opened its election campaign on 6 August with radical declarations. Warsaw region leader Maciej Jankowski threatened to organize street demonstrations and strikes if what he called "thieving privatization" is not halted immediately. Jankowski charged that "there is no democracy in Poland." He called government reports of an economic upturn a "swindle." The state, he said, is plundering its citizens' resources instead of providing welfare. Commenting on the departure from the union of a number of leading activists who supported the government, Jankowski said that "now people can vote for Solidarity because all the rats have left and the union has purged itself." The union's election slogan, PAP reports, is "the state-a friend to people." -Louisa Vinton RUSSIAN TROOPS DEPART POLAND, DISPUTE LINGERS. Russian troops from the special communications brigade at Rembertow left Poland on 6 August, PAP reports, but the dispute that prompted Russian Gen. Leonid Kovalev to call a unilateral halt to the withdrawal on 3 August was not resolved. No protocol governing the transfer of the Rembertow base to the Polish authorities was signed. Kovalev refused to transfer control over two buildings to the Poles, demanding instead that Poland designate them as the site for the Russian military mission that is to supervise the troop transit from Germany. Representing the Polish government, Gen. Zdzislaw Ostrowski said that Poland would sign a protocol accepting control over the entire site or none at all. The presence of a foreign military enclave on a base now designated for use by Polish special forces would be unacceptable, Ostrowski added. About 1,500 Russian soldiers and dependents now remain in Poland. -Louisa Vinton MIGS TO ARRIVE IN HUNGARY IN AUTUMN. State secretary in the Ministry of Defense Laszlo Szendrei announced that the 28 MiG-29 interceptor aircraft Hungary is to receive in return for partial cancellation of former Soviet debts will arrive in October and November, Pesti Hirlap of 7 August reports. The planes, worth $760 million, are about one-half of the former USSR's trade debt with Hungary. Szendrei said that Kecskemet has been chosen as the base site because the ministry deems it militarily and politically wiser to station the aircraft in central Hungary away from the border, MTI and Radio Budapest report. Some neighboring countries have expressed concern about the strengthening of Hungary's military power through the new aircraft, although even with the MiGs Hungary's defenses remain below levels allowed by the European Conventional Arms Limitations Agreement. Szendrei said that Hungary has no intention of selling the planes to a third country and stressed that the aircraft will replace aging MiG-21s currently stationed in Kecskemet. -Edith Oltay HUNGARY'S INTERNAL STATE DEBT. According to data published by the Ministry of Finance and the Hungarian National Bank, the amount owed by the state to the HNB and to purchasers of treasury bills and state bonds is expected to reach 2,840.1 billion forint ($29-billion) at the end of the year, MTI reported on 8-August. This would amount to an annual increase of 669.4 billion forint ($6.9 billion) in state debt and comprise 80% of the GDP. State indebtedness began to significantly increase in 1990 when state debt amounted to 1,357.2 billion forint. ($14 billion) The state debt resulted from the increase in budget deficit and state expenditures. -Edith Oltay JIU VALLEY UPDATE. On 8 August the Romanian government again urged striking miners in the Jiu Valley to go back to work. It said it appreciates the miners' contribution to the economy and is aware of their difficult conditions, but no extra funds can be approved to meet their demands. The government also said salaries will not be paid during the strike, Radio Bucharest reports. The management of the state controlled mining company in the Jiu Valley asked that the strike there be declared illegal. A government spokesman told RFE/RL on 6-August that the company made its request to the Supreme Court, which will decide on 9 or 10 August. President Ion Iliescu was quoted by Radio Bucharest on 6 August to say that the miners in the valley should go back to work, although the government has no money to meet their demands. Radio Bucharest said on the same day that a strike of the locomotive drivers, originally called for 5 August, has been postponed until 11-August. Yet miners in the Comanesti area went on strike on 6 August to protest nonfulfillment of contractual obligations by the government. -Michael Shafir GREEK SHIPPING TAKEOVER DECLARED ILLEGAL IN ROMANIA. On 6 August a local court in the port of Constanta ruled that a controversial plan for a Greek company to buy a controlling interest in Romania's Petromin shipping company is illegal, Radio Bucharest reports. The court said the Forum Maritime company failed to provide its promised contribution to Petromin's capital assets. An RFE/RL correspondent in Bucharest said the Constanta prosecutor's office challenged the purchase on grounds that Forum Maritime violated the terms of the purchasing contract. The deal had been harshly criticized by some opposition parties and in the media, both for allowing foreign control over a strategic asset and for the low price ($300 million) of the sale, and there were hints that financial irregularities were also involved. Some local media commented that the court ruling was an elegant way for the government to cancel the deal. -Michael Shafir BULGARIA WILL NOT CUT INTEREST RATES. In a Reuters interview published on 6-August, Todor Valchev, the governor of Bulgaria's central bank, said Bulgaria's political and economic situation is too unstable to permit the lowering of the prime interest rate, presently set at 48%. Valchev suggested that an interest rate cut might have the unwanted consequence of destabilizing the lev. According to Valchev, a current budgetary deficit, lower than anticipated revenues, and calls by the opposition Union of Democratic Forces for early elections have already combined to create some instability. Valchev argues that the role of the central bank is primarily to guarantee the internal and international stability of Bulgaria's currency, a strategy that most observers so far view as successful. For 1993 the annual inflation rate is nonetheless estimated to end above 60%. -Stan Markotich UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT TO REVIEW REFERENDUM DECISION. Will the referendum in Ukraine on confidence in the president and parliament scheduled for 26 September actually be held? Society seems increasingly split on this issue. Ukrainian Radio reported on 6 August that the Presidium of the Supreme Council is continuing to receive requests from local authorities and political and social organizations that the referendum be cancelled. The decision to hold the referendum was made under pressure from striking miners. Accordingly, the presidium has called a session of parliament for the third week of August to review the decision. Reports from the Donbas indicate, however, that miners' leaders are saying that they will call for new strikes if the referendum is cancelled. -Bohdan Nahaylo KRAVCHUK-YELTSIN MEETING POSTPONED. Radio Ukraine reported on 8 August that the meeting between the Ukrainian and Russian presidents on the Black Sea Fleet scheduled for 8-10 August has been postponed until September because the various documents were not ready. -Bohdan Nahaylo UNEMPLOYMENT IN BELARUS. Specialists are forecasting that by the beginning of 1994 the number of unemployed will be 700,000 (which would imply an unemployment rate of 12-13%), according to an ITAR-TASS report on 3 August. In the first six months of 1993, 96,882 unemployed citizens registered with the state employment service, which implies a much lower unemployment rate of 1-2%. In the same period 8,371 people were granted the status of unemployed in Minsk alone, of whom 6,508 (77%) were women, and 5,023 (60%) were forced to turn to the employment service due to layoffs. A further increase in the number of unemployed is expected this autumn, when school leavers and higher education graduates will swell the ranks of the unemployed. -Sheila Marnie MOLDOVAN POLITICAL CRISIS. The parliamentary minority's success on 4 August in blocking ratification of Moldova's limited and conditional membership of the CIS, which is supported by a substantial majority, has triggered a severe political crisis. The voting has dramatized the pro-Romanian minority's ability to frustrate any legislative action because any bill must be approved by an absolute majority of all 331 deputies, including absentees. The boycott of the parliament by "Dniester" deputies and the irregular attendance of others has thus artificially maximized the opposition's strength, enabling it permanently to block the adoption of a constitution and bills on multiparty elections, the rights of ethnic minorities, and Transdniestria and Gagauz autonomy. For the session due to convene on 10-August, the majority has collected 145 signatures of the 166 technically needed for the parliament to dissolve itself. Should that motion fall short, the majority threatens to resign en masse in order to force the holding of new elections. President Mircea Snegur and Parliament Chairman Petru Lucinschi have endorsed the majority demands. All sides expect that new elections would further weaken the pro-Romanian groups and unblock the constitutional and legislative processes. -Vladimir Socor NEW ESTONIAN DEFENSE MINISTER. Baltic media reported on 6 August that Juri Luik, minister without portfolio and head of the Estonian delegation for negotiations with Russia, has been temporarily assigned the duties of defense minister. The appointment follows the resignation of Hain Rebas, who quit because the government refused to take action against a protest by a rebellious infantry unit. That same day the commander of that mutinous unit, Asso Kommer, announced that his company had been placed under the guidance of the Defense Forces' General Headquarters. -Dzintra Bungs NO PROGRESS IN LITHUANIAN-RUSSIAN TALKS. Lithuanian delegation head Virgilijus Bulovas told a press conference on 7 August that the talks on Russian troop withdrawal in Moscow on 5-6 August were unsuccessful, BNS reports. He rejected Russian charges that Lithuania proposed a completely new version of the agreement, noting that Lithuania only offered changes in the agreement's 12th article dealing with compensation for damages under Soviet occupation. Russia said that the compensation issue should not be part of the withdrawal agreement, but agreed to begin talks on it within a month. Bulovas advised President Algirdas Brazauskas not to meet Russian President Boris Yeltsin until Russia formally announces its position on compensation. -Saulius Girnius ESTONIAN, LATVIAN PRESIDENTS MEET. On 7-August Estonian President Lennart Meri welcomed his Latvian counterpart, Guntis Ulmanis, in the village of Valgeranna. The two discussed the withdrawal of Russian troops from their countries, problems of population migration, and areas of further cooperation, especially the establishment of a unified Baltic energy infrastructure. Baltic media report that a tripartite Baltic summit may take place at the end of August. -Dzintra Bungs PARFENOV WANTS COMPLETE REHABILITATION. Arriving in Moscow on 6 August to a festive welcome, Sergei Parfenov told the press and his supporters that he wants to be completely cleared of the charges-abuse of power-for which he was imprisoned in Latvia. The former deputy commander of the OMON forces in Riga claimed that he had been sentenced by "radical nationalists" in Riga and said that he had told the Latvian authorities who processed his extradition to Russia that they should "pray to their non-Russian God that we don't come back." BNS reported on 7 August that Russian President Yeltsin sent a message of thanks to the Latvian president for his assistance in the transfer to Russia of Parfenov and other Russian citizens to serve their sentences in their homeland. Yeltsin pardoned Parfenov upon his arrival in Russia. -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Ann Sheehy and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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