|When we can begin to take our failures non-seriously, it means we are ceasing to be afraid of them. It is of immense importance to learn to laugh at ourselves. - Katherine Mansfield|
No. 148, 05 August 1993
RUSSIA FEDOROV PROPOSES REORGANIZATION OF GOVERNMENT. Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance Boris Fedorov has sent an official note to Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin proposing rationalizing the existing structure of government ministries and committees, Izvestiya reported on 4 August. In particular, Fedorov called for merging the Finance and Economics Ministries (plus the tax service, tax inspection, customs committee, State Committee on Prices, and Committee on Precious Metals) into one Ministry of Finance and the Economy; and combining the Ministry of External Economic Relations and the Committee for Industrial Policy into a Ministry for Trade and Industry. He claimed that substantial staff cuts could be made in the process of the reorganization. The proposal also includes a reduction in the number of deputy prime ministers. -Erik Whitlock SHUMEIKO ON NEED OF SOCIAL ORIENTATION OF REFORM. First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko has said that the Russian government plans to make its economic reform policy more socially oriented, ITAR-TASS reported on 4 August. He stated that "the social protection of the population cannot be delayed until later," because "to conduct reforms just for the sake of it is senseless." He stressed that reforms should be conducted first and foremost for the benefit of the population. Shumeiko also asserted that the government intends to stabilize the ruble and push inflation to under 5-7% per month by the end of 1993. He said that the power struggle in Russia will be halted after new elections take place, and rejected any use of force in solving the present political confrontation. -Alexander Rahr AFTERMATH OF BANKNOTE WITHDRAWAL. President Boris Yeltsin told assembled WW II veterans in Orel on 4 August that the banknote withdrawal measure of 24 July was "understandable," but that its implementation was "poorly thought out and poorly prepared," Russian and Western agencies reported. Yeltsin did not spell out whether he had given prior approval for the measure. The president of the Association of Russian Banks told Reuters on 4-August that the Russian Constitutional Court should review the actions of the central bank to ensure that it does not exceed its powers; and Finance Minister Fedorov told the Financial Times of 4 August that conservative government ministers were seeking to exploit the chaos caused by the exchange in order to reverse radical reforms, while reformist ministers were engaged in self-destructive "intrigues." -Keith Bush CHERNOMYRDIN DENIES SPLIT IN THE GOVERNMENT. Prime Minister Chernomyrdin denied reports that his government is divided over the Russian Central Bank's (RCB) withdrawal of pre-1993 rubles, AFP reported on 4 August. He insisted that the government is "unanimous on the monetary reform" despite repeated criticisms of the move by Finance Minister Fedorov, who condemned the RCB decision as "a scandalous, stupid, and senseless action." Chernomyrdin called Fedorov's statements his "own personal opinion" and reiterated the government's support for the controversial move. Meanwhile, the Finance Ministry issued a press release on 4 August attacking Deputy Prime Minister Alexander Zaveryukha, who holds the government's agricultural portfolio. The statement said that Zaveryukha was "undermining the state's financial policy" and "opposing real reforms in agriculture." -Dominic Gualtieri YELTSIN'S VISIT TO OREL. In an interview with Ostankino TV "Novosti" on 4 August during his visit to Orel, President Yeltsin suggested that Russian patriotism was an essential ingredient for improving the current situation in the country. He confirmed that on 13 to 14-August he will meet the heads of Russia's constituent republics and the chairmen of eight regional associations in Petrozavodsk to try to resolve problems in the new draft constitution. He also revealed that he intends to meet Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk later in the month to discuss Sevastopol and the Black Sea Fleet. ITAR-TASS on the same day reported Yeltsin's complaints that the parliament had derailed the economy and scuppered reforms by "permanent political strife and intrigues." -Wendy Slater KHASBULATOV ON BUDGET DEFICIT. Parliamentary Speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov said that the government could cut the budget deficit by 2 trillion rubles ($2 billion) if it exercised tighter control over imports and exports, Echo Moskvy radio reported on 4 August. He also suggested that the government reduce its administrative apparatus to make savings. Khasbulatov criticized the Russian Finance Ministry for leading Russia to ruin by following the will of the IMF which, according to Khasbulatov, was "seeking to destroy the country." (In July the parliament approved a 1993 budget with a deficit of 22 trillion rubles.) -Dominic Gualtieri PRAVDA ON YELTSIN'S SICKNESS. An article in Pravda of 4 August added fuel to the recent rumors that Yeltsin is incapacitated. It said that people who have seen the president recently at close quarters report that he is sick and that his speech has become incoherent. Pravda claimed that Yeltsin has entrusted the management of the country to three men: the head of the presidential apparatus, Sergei Filatov; the chief of the Main Directorate for Protection of State Leaders, Mikhail Barsukov; and the chief of Yeltsin's personal bodyguard, Aleksandr Korzhakov. The article claimed that these three men succeeded first in removing from office the former Secretary of the Security Council Yurii Skokov, and now the Minister of Security Viktor Barannikov. It further maintained that many functions of the Ministry of Security, including telephone bugging services, have been transferred from the security ministry to Barsukov's office, and that Barsukov is collecting information on Yeltsin's political opponents. -Alexander Rahr SHARP INCREASE IN DIPHTHERIA CASES. An official of the State Committee for Sanitary and Epidemiological Inspection told ITAR-TASS on 4 August that about 4,000 diphtheria cases had been registered during the first half of 1993. A similar number of cases were recorded during the whole of 1992. The number of deaths from diphtheria during the first six months of this year was some 104, compared with 131 deaths during the whole of 1992. The incidence of the disease was particularly high in Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Krasnodar, and in the Far East and Saratov regions. The official attributed the rise to the shortage of vaccine, to objections by parents to having their children vaccinated, and to neglect by adults to get booster inoculations. -Keith Bush INDIA INFORMED OF ROCKET SALE SUSPENSION. The Foreign Ministry has officially informed Indian authorities that the sale of an estimated $350 worth of rocket technology to India has been suspended, a Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman told Reuters on 4-August. The suspension, which had been strongly opposed by a number of leading officials in the Russian space agency Glavkosmos, came after accusations by the US administration that the planned sale would violate the Missile Technology Control Regime. The Russian Foreign Ministry has argued that compliance with Washington's wishes would lead to the opening of new markets in the West for the Russian space industry. -Stephen Foye IRAN RECEIVES SECOND RUSSIAN SUBMARINE. Reuters reported on 4 August that Iran has taken delivery of a second submarine from Russia. The kilo-class diesel submarine was one of three that Iran had purchased from Russia in a deal estimated to be worth more than $600 million. Iran received the first submarine from Russia in November of last year. -Stephen Foye TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA BADAKHSHAN AUTHORITIES WANT TAJIK TROOPS OUT. Garibsho Shabozov, chairman of Gorno-Badakhshan's legislature, told ITAR-TASS on 4 August that the authorities in the autonomous oblast have warned the Tajik government in Dushanbe that the continued presence of government troops in Badakhshan will raise tensions between the region and Dushanbe. The Tajik Ministry of Defense said that government troops had attacked opposition fighters in Tavildara Raion in order to lift a blockade of the road between Dushanbe and Khorog, capital of the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast. Shabozov discounted the influence of radical separatist and pro-Islamic groups in Badakhshan and accused Dushanbe of wanting to use the region as a staging area for attacks on Tajik opposition groups in Afghanistan. -Bess Brown NIYAZOV MEETS WITH TURKMEN AND RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTRY OFFICIALS. Turkmen President Saparmurad Niyazov met with representatives of the Russian and Turkmen Defense Ministries on 3 August, ITAR-TASS reported, and discussed several questions concerning future military cooperation between the two countries, including the as yet undecided status of Russian officers serving in Turkmenistan. (The Turkmen Armed Forces are currently under joint Russian-Turkmen command, most of the officers being Russian.) The two sides also reached a preliminary agreement on the National Air Defense Forces to be established in Turkmenistan with Russia's cooperation. The preliminary agreements reached at the meeting will be finalized in October 1993 during Russian President Yeltsin's planned visit to Ashgabat. -Yalcin Tokgozoglu JAPANESE-CHINESE PLAN TO BUILD OIL REFINERY IN UZBEKISTAN. The Japanese company Marubeni and the Chinese State Oil-Gas Corporation plan to cooperate in building an oil refinery in Uzbekistan, ITAR-TASS reported on 3 August. Until now Marubeni had been working independently to build the refinery, which is in Bukhara. The addition of the Chinese firm to the project should ensure the completion of the refinery by 1996. The Japanese side will provide financing and marketing, while the Chinese firm will undertake the engineering and technical work and the training of specialists for the refinery. The refinery's capacity is to be 2 million tons per year. Part of the oil to be refined will be supplied from China from the regions bordering Central Asia. The project also foresees the export of oil to Japan by pipeline. It is likely that the oil fields discovered in March 1992 in the Fergana Valley at Minbulak will also provide oil to the refinery once they are developed -Yalcin Tokgozoglu CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE SERBS SAY THEY TOOK KEY MOUNTAIN. Belgrade dailies and international media on 5-August quote Bosnian Serb commander Ratko Mladic as saying that his forces now control Mt. Igman near Sarajevo, thereby cutting off the beleaguered capital's main supply route. Mladic defied the UN's no-fly zone on 4 August by inspecting his troops from a helicopter with UN observers looking on, the Washington Post reports on 5-August. He also rebuffed orders from Bosnian Serb civilian leader Radovan Karadzic to withdraw from newly won high ground and put those positions under UN control, saying that Serbs have never before given up conquered territory, the Los Angeles Times notes. At least a hundred Muslim troops deserted during the fighting, and UN spokesmen said they fear that up to 30,000 refugees may flee the area and brave sniper fire to reach Sarajevo. Elsewhere, Reuters on 4 August quotes a British general with UN forces as saying that the main threat to Sarajevo's supply lines is not the Serbs near the town but rather the Muslim offensive against the Croats in central Bosnia. The BBC's Croatian Service on 5-August adds that Croatian forces are pressing their attack on Gornji Vakuf, which the Muslims claim to have captured early in the week. -Patrick Moore BOSNIAN PRESIDENCY MEETS MEDIATORS. Bosnian Serbian leader Radovan Karadzic and Bosnian Croatian leader Mate Boban broke off Geneva peace talks on 4 August and returned home after Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic boycotted the negotiations for the third day, international media report. They were followed by the Serbian and the Croatian presidents. Izetbegovic, who, together with the rest of Bosnian presidency, will meet mediators Lord Owen and Thorvald Stoltenberg on 5 August, insisted on a prompt withdrawal of the Serbian forces from Mt. Igman and Mt. Bjelasnica. Meanwhile, UN officials and NATO diplomats are holding high-level talks to work out who will decide when to order possible air strikes and where they should be carried out. Owen dismissed NATO's threat of air strikes in Bosnia as having little effect on bringing the conflict to an end, adding that the only effective military leverage the world could apply is "to put ground troops in and take it seriously," news agencies reported. He said that it is up to the warring leaders to end the fighting: "This is their country, it's their battle, it's their people who are being killed," he said. Elsewhere, about 1,500 foreign peace activists left Split on 4 August with buses and cars loaded with water and medicine bound for Sarajevo, where they want to hold a demonstration on 7-August. -Fabian Schmidt SERBIAN PARTIES REACT TO AIR-STRIKE THREAT. Several opposition parties in Serbia have strongly reacted to the threat of US-NATO bombing of Bosnian Serb positions surrounding Sarajevo and other Bosnian towns. Slobodan Raketic, Vice President of the Serbian Renewal Movement (the party of Vuk Draskovic), remarked that such an operation would be "absurd," especially because the three warring parties were at the negotiating table. Vojislav Kostunica, head of the Democratic Party of Serbia, described the threats of foreign military intervention as the main obstacle toward a successful conclusion of the Geneva peace talks because "it only encourages Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic to undermine the talks." Western intervention would drastically alter the character of the conflict in Bosnia, he said. Furthermore, a statement by the Serbian Radical Party also condemns President Clinton's "hostile stand towards Serbs." Radio Serbia carried the report on 4 August. -Milan Andrejevich EX-YUGOSLAV GENERAL SAYS HE HELPED SLOVENIAN INDEPENDENCE. In an interview published by the Maribor daily Vecer on 3 August, Konrad Kolsek, a general in the former Federal Yugoslav Army, admitted to having undermined General Staff decisions on military operations in Slovenia in June-July 1991. As commander of the Fifth Army District, which included Croatia and Slovenia and was based in Zagreb, Kolsek said he prevented the Yugoslav army from deploying special units to Ljubljana and obstructed air strikes on the Slovenian capital and other towns. He suggested that his role may have directly helped Slovenia's break from the Yugoslav federation. Kolsek, a Slovene, said he broke his silence about his role because of immense pressure from unnamed officials and anonymous death threats. -Milan Andrejevich CROATIAN UPDATE. The BBC's Croatian Service on 4-August reported that the Croatian parliament is dealing with a new election package that would move away from a winner-take-all system to one of proportional representation. The measure would be a mixed blessing for the opposition: on the one hand, the opposition would stand to increase its percentage of seats in the legislature; on the other hand, the measure is likely to breathe new life into tiny parties and hinder the coalescence of the opposition within a few larger groupings. Meanwhile, Hina said on 4 August that the foreign minister received American and Russian diplomats for a discussion of the Bosnia crisis and possible allied air intervention in the region. The BBC's Croatian Service noted that a British delegation headed by the defense secretary met with Croatia's defense minister and chief of staff in Zagreb. -Patrick Moore MOLDOVA FAILS TO RATIFY CIS MEMBERSHIP. At a stormy session on 4 August, parliament by a narrow margin declined to ratify Moldova's participation in the CIS. The bill as presented to parliament dealt exclusively with economic undertakings within the CIS and reaffirmed Moldova's refusal to participate in political and military dealings or in any supranational structures. The legislation was hedged with supplementary conditions and reservations. As reported by Basapress, the vote was 162 in favor of ratification to 101-against, but the pro votes fell 5 votes short of 167, the required simple majority, because of the boycott by "Dniester" Russian deputies. The majority leaders promptly demanded dissolution of the legislature and rule by executive decree pending new elections. The mostly pro-Romanian opposition had campaigned intensely in the media against ratification, arguing that the CIS is being used by Russia to reestablish domination over the ex-Soviet republics. At a news conference after the vote, opposition leaders criticized Romania for having failed to assist the anti-CIS efforts and termed the situation "a general failure of pro-Romanian forces" in Moldova. -Vladimir Socor POLISH PARTIES ATTACK GOVERNMENT. Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka's order on 2-August that state administration officials running for parliament either resign or request a leave of absence raised a storm of protest from Poland's political parties. Polish Peasant Party leader Waldemar Pawlak on 3 August accused Suchocka of overstepping her authority. He also charged the government with privatizing firms against their will and conducting surveillance of opposition parties. Union of Labor leader Ryszard Bugaj accused the government of toying with legality and called for a halt in privatization until after the elections. The postcommunist Democratic Left Alliance in turn attacked the government for signing the concordat with the Vatican and accused the coalition parties of yielding to Church pressure in return for its endorsement in the election campaign. Privatization Minister Janusz Lewandowski defended the government's privatization program as legal, economically rational, and conducted with the assent of the affected work forces. Suchocka's spokesman also refuted the varied accusations, adding that some attacks on the government violated the acceptable limits of election campaigning. -Louisa Vinton POLISH CROWD EVICTS MAYOR. Egged on by activists from the radical Self Defense union, a crowd of about 100 unemployed people in the town of Praszka, near Czestochowa, stormed the town hall on 3 August, PAP reports. When the mayor, a Democratic Union member, refused to resign, the crowd carried him from the building and carted him around the town square in a wheelbarrow. The police intervened only after the incident, temporarily detaining three people. The situation was repeated on 4 August, when a crowd surrounded the town hall and demanded the resignation of the town council. After the police enabled the council to convene, the mayor and most of the council resigned. The central police authorities fired the local police commander for inaction, suspended the regional commander, and opened an investigation on 4 August. In a similar incident in Swinoujscie in July, the police also failed to protect local officials from an angry crowd. At a Warsaw press conference on 4 August, Self Defense leader Andrzej Lepper accused the government of deliberately destroying the Polish economy and threatened, "if necessary," to evict the prime minister and the rest of her cabinet in wheelbarrows. -Louisa Vinton POLAND'S SELF DEFENSE VIES FOR PROTEST VOTE. With its bombastic defense of the unemployed, Lepper's Self Defense has emerged as the most likely contender for the Polish protest vote in the coming elections. The events in Praszka seem to have been planned with this in mind. As one of the union's activists admitted to Gazeta Wyborcza on 4 August, "a little demagoguery never hurts." The union may well aspire to take over the constituency that voted for Stan Tyminski in the 1990 presidential elections. Self Defense has made a name for itself in the past year by erecting roadblocks, occupying government offices, and threatening to use force to prevent foreclosures on indebted farms. Among Self Defense's leading candidates for the parliament are the filmmaker Bohdan Poreba, a former hard-line communist and cofounder of the mysterious Grunwald patriotic association, and other prominent nationalist figures from the communist regime. -Louisa Vinton KLAUS ON SPYING SCANDAL. Czech Premier Vaclav Klaus told Czech Radio on 4 August that the scandal surrounding the alleged sale of sensitive information by former agent of the Federal Bureau for Intelligence and Security Vaclav Wallis to Viktor Kozeny, president of Harvard Capital and Consulting, the largest investment fund in the Czech Republic, shows that "someone in the Czech Republic is striving for instability." The premier said he does not know who the culprits are and warned that fragile Czech democracy cannot afford such scandals. In a related development, the Civic Democratic Alliance, a coalition partner of Vaclav Klaus's Civic Democratic Party, proposed on 4 August that a nonpartisan replace the acting director of the Bureau for Intelligence and Security, Stanislav Devaty, who was a member of the CDP when he was appointed to his post in September 1992. In recent days Devaty has come under strong criticism in the media for not doing enough to control the activities of BIS agents. -Jiri Pehe MECIAR COMMENTS ON SLOVAK COALITION TALKS. In a 4 August press conference of the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar said that if coalition talks with the Slovak National Party are to continue, the SNP "must remove certain obstacles." According to Meciar, the first round of talks failed partly because the SNP "doesn't present qualified candidates for-.-.-. government offices," while the party's demands "are disproportionately large relative to its actual political power." Although the SNP has only 15-deputies in parliament compared with 65 for the MDS, Meciar said the SNP has requested representation in the diplomatic assembly and the state administration at a 1:1 ratio, in addition to several important posts in the parliament. If the talks are unsuccessful, new elections are likely. Meciar, in a 4 August interview with TASR, said that premature elections "would slow down the nation's development process." -Sharon Fisher HUNGARY REPLACES ECU WITH DM. The 31 July edition of the business daily Napi reported that the National Bank of Hungary will replace the ECU with the German mark in its exchange basket effective 2 August. The dollar and the ECU, in a 50:50 ratio, have been used as foreign currency mix to fix the value of the forint. For a long time the bank has sought closer monetary attachment to the stable mark, since Germany is Hungary's largest trading partner, and the recent problems with the European monetary system seemed a good occasion for the change, the paper said, quoting bank sources. -Karoly Okolicsanyi LABOR UNREST SPREADS IN ROMANIA. The miners' strike in the Jiu Valley goes into its fourth day, with no solution to the conflict in sight. On 4 August the miners voted against a suggestion of their leader, Miron Cosma, to send a delegation to Bucharest with new proposals for negotiations, Radio Bucharest reported on 4 August. The Jiu Valley union sent a message to other miners' unions stating that its demands will benefit all miners in the country. Meanwhile, there are reports that the effects of the strike are beginning to be felt in vital sectors of the industry left without coal supplies. The labor conflict seems also to be spreading to other sectors. On 4 August the Union of Locomotive Drivers said it will walk off the job on the next day if a wage agreement is not reached. Rompres says the drivers want the negotiations to take place in the Jiu Valley town of Petrosani, as a sign of solidarity with the striking miners. The Federation of Road Drivers also said it will call a strike on 17 August because the government has not answered issues raised in its warning strike on 26 July. The Fratia National Confederation of Free Unions in Romania issued a statement supporting the road drivers. It said their strike would include blockage of the most important roads in the country. -Michael Shafir BEROV ON ECONOMIC ISSUES, ELECTIONS. In an interview with RFE/RL on 4 August, Bulgarian Prime Minister Lyuben Berov said the deep economic crisis has come to an end and certain signs of recovery can be observed. Berov was quoting recent statistics, which among other things suggest that annual inflation will drop from last year's 80% to slightly over 60%. He declared that the government's current top priorities are privatization, the "bad loans" of state companies, the restitution of farm land, the problem of ensuring that private farmers have access to agricultural machinery, and improvements in the overall tax collection system. On 3 August Berov managed to persuade Parliamentary Chairman Aleksandar Yordanov to call a special session of the National Assembly to adopt laws on excise and value-added taxation, plus amendments in basic economic legislation. Berov said new elections will in all likelihood take place in the summer of 1994. -Kjell Engelbrekt ESTONIAN DEFENSE MINISTER RESIGNS. Hain Rebas told RFE and Swedish radio on 4-August that he has submitted his resignation to Prime Minister Mart Laar. Rebas said that the resignation was due largely to conflicting views over the handling of the mutinous infantry unit at Pullapaa. Rebas, who assumed the leadership of the Defense Ministry in October 1992, is the second member of Laar's cabinet to resign; the first was Economics Minister Ain Saarmann who left his position last year. -Dzintra Bungs BRAZAUSKAS POSTPONES TRIP TO MOSCOW. The visit of Lithuanian President Algirdas Brazauskas to Moscow has been postponed, principally because the text of interstate treaty on the withdrawal of Russian troops from Lithuania is still not complete. The Russian and Lithuanian heads of state were to have signed this document during Brazauskas's visit to the Russian capital, Baltic media reported on 4 August. In order to iron out the differences, the Lithuanian delegation for talks with Russia is to arrive in Moscow on 5 August. -Dzintra Bungs NEW LATVIAN DELEGATION READY FOR TALKS WITH RUSSIA. Baltic media reported on 4 August that Martins Virsis, erstwhile deputy foreign minister, has been appointed by the government of Prime Minister Valdis Birkavs to head the Latvian delegation for talks with Russia on the withdrawal of its military forces from Latvia. Other members of the delegation are: Aivars Vovers, Atis Janitis, Janis Peters, Aleksandrs Kirsteins, Ilga Grava, Ivars Silars, Dainis Turlais, Edvins Inkens, Janis Eihmanis, and Raimonds Jonitis. -Dzintra Bungs MORE RUSSIAN CRITICISM OF UKRAINIAN NUCLEAR WEAPONS' POLICY. Amplifying remarks made by a Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman the day before, the Russian government on 4 August released an official statement charging that Kiev's recent actions with respect to the disposition of strategic nuclear weapons on its territory contravene a number of international agreements and are threatening world stability. The statement, reported by ITAR-TASS, also accused Kiev of undermining efforts to enforce the 1968 Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty and claimed that Ukraine's inability to maintain independently the nuclear weapons on its territory is also increasing the threat of a nuclear accident. While referring directly to a 2 July document passed by the Ukrainian parliament that declares nuclear weapons in Ukraine to be the property of Ukraine, the Russian government statement is clearly also connected with recent assertions by Ukrainian leaders that Kiev would hold onto its 46 SS-24 nuclear missiles even after ratification of START-1. -Stephen Foye KUCHMA ON RUSSIAN CURRENCY REFORM. Ukrainian Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma told a press conference in Kiev on 4 July that the Russian Central Bank's recent currency reform vindicates Ukraine's claims that it had long been trying to push Ukraine forcibly out of the ruble zone, Ukrainian TV reports. Kuchma also said the action would help stabilize the karbovanets, which has been rapidly depreciating recently, but he did not explain how. The prime minister repeated his support for the idea of an economic union with Russia, but not if it would result in a loss of sovereignty for Ukraine. -Erik Whitlock [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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