|If we are to live together in peace, we must first come to know each other better. - Lyndon B. Johnson|
No. 147, 04 August 1993
RUSSIA BANKNOTES: EXCHANGE AND ACCUSATIONS CONTINUE. The Russian Central Bank (RCB) stated on 3 August that nearly three-quarters of the roughly 1-trillion rubles' worth of old banknotes in circulation had been exchanged, ITAR-TASS reported. Nearly one-half of the total had been exchanged for new banknotes, while the balance had been deposited in savings accounts. The figures related to official exchanges only. (The original RCB deadline for exchanges of 7 August was subsequently amended to 31 August by President Boris Yeltsin's decree of 26 July.) Meanwhile, charges and countercharges persist. RCB Chairman Viktor Gerashchenko told Izvestiya on 27 July that parliamentary chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov had taken part in planning the banknote exchange. Konstantin Borovoi, chairman of the Economic Freedom Party, went further at a news conference on 28 July: he declared that Khasbulatov had known about the exchange on 23 July and implied that the parliamentary chairman had profited financially from his prior knowledge. -Keith Bush CURRENCY REFORM SUCCEEDED WHERE FEDOROV FAILED? THE WIDELY READ BUSINESS WEEKLY, KOMMERSANT (NO. 30, 1993) has come out in strong support of the currency reform undertaken by the Russian Central Bank. The authors of an article "Asian Monetary Union Was Created in Two Days" roundly criticize Deputy Prime Minister and Minster of Finance Boris Fedorov for hypocrisy in his struggle against the bank, claiming that the editorial board of Kommersant had in their possession a document sent by Fedorov to the government on 18 June urging a currency reform that would force the other republics of the ruble zone to toe Moscow's monetary line or introduce their own currencies. Fedorov's demand came after he and Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Shokhin had for months tried to force the republics to make this choice. "[RCB Chairman] Viktor Gerashchenko in two days solved a problem that the best minds of the Ministry of Finance had tackled for years," the authors write. The authors assert that the central banks of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Armenia have agreed to join what amounts to a monetary union under Russian Central Bank leadership (Azerbaijan may do likewise). Fedorov's attacks are also denounced as being part of his personal vendetta against the central bank. -Erik Whitlock KHASBULATOV FOR TWO-PARTY SYSTEM. Parliamentary speaker Khasbulatov told local deputies in the city of Orel that the Russian parliament wants "to enforce constitutional control over the activities of the executive branch," Radio Rossii "Novosti" reported on 3-August. Khasbulatov stated that he favors more socially-oriented reforms. Russian TV "Bisnes v Rossii" [Business in Russia] on 2 August quoted him as saying that two economic models are currently competing in Russia: one advocating radical reforms; the other, socially-oriented reforms under strict state control. In Khasbulatov's opinion, a civilized solution could be found by the creation of a two-party system in Russia, whereby the party which gathers the majority of votes runs the country. -Alexander Rahr YELTSIN MEETS REPORTERS, DENIES ILL-HEALTH. President Yeltsin appeared in public for the first time in three weeks on 4 August, thereby ending widespread speculation about the state of his health. "I feel excellent. I am working intensively. My program is very full," he told ITAR-TASS on the eve of a trip to Orel to take part in ceremonies commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the WW II battle. Yeltsin said that plans to adopt Russia's new draft constitution were making progress, and that he had devised a formula that would accommodate both Russia's republics and the regions which are seeking equal status with them within the federation. The president also said that he planned to call a meeting soon of the heads of the republics in order to discuss their views of the draft, and he predicted that the constitutional assembly would resume its work in September. -Dominic Gualtieri LOCAL LEADERS IN SEARCH OF THEIR OWN PRESIDENT? AN ARTICLE IN ROSSIISKIE VESTI ON 4 AUGUST SAYS THAT THE REPUBLICAN AND REGIONAL LEADERS OF RUSSIA, WHO HAVE STRENGTHENED THEIR POSITIONS LATELY, REJECT THE COUNTRY'S PRESENT TOP LEADERS BECAUSE THESE POLITICIANS MADE THEIR CAREERS IN THE USSR GOVERNING STRUCTURES AND NEVER RELIED ON REGIONAL SUPPORT. The local leaders advocate a political system for Russia in which the head of state would be selected from their ranks. But since the republics and regions are too weak at present to introduce such a system, they have begun to consider promoting their own candidate for the presidency from among Russian politicians in the central structures who want to ally themselves fully with regional politics. At present, regional leaders seem to have a choice between two politicians: Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai and former Secretary of the Security Council Yurii Skokov. -Alexander Rahr NEW REGULATIONS FOR OIL JV EXPORTS. The government has finally formulated new guidelines for joint ventures (JVs) operating in the Russian oil sector to export their output, the Journal of Commerce reported on 3 August. JVs are restricted to exporting only oil that they produce. On 1 June the government had banned such exports, accusing JVs of exporting quantities exceeding their production. The new decree states that the JVs will have to provide the Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations with an estimate on how much oil they expect to produce in a given time period in order to receive an export license. The decree also insists that only oil refined by equipment owned by the JV may be exported. If the company rents the equipment, only light distillates may be exported. -Erik Whitlock RUSSIAN UNEMPLOYMENT. Russian TV on 2 August reported on the composition of the Russian unemployed. About 70% are reported to be women, more than half of whom have children under 16 years old. Despite the growth of unemployment (there are now over 1-million registered non-employed jobseekers), enterprise demand has almost doubled since the beginning of the year. The state employment service at the beginning of July had notice of vacancies for more than 500,000 jobs, most of them for skilled blue-collar workers. At the end of June about 16,000 citizens were registered as unemployed in Moscow, and there were 85,000 registered vacancies, 88% of which were for blue-collar workers, and 12% for engineers and technicians. The average length of unemployment in Moscow is 4 months. There are already complaints about "scroungers": people who prefer not to work and are happy to receive unemployment benefit while not actively seeking employment, and others who have a second unofficial income on top of the benefit. It is estimated that 10-20% of the registered unemployed are "scroungers". -Sheila Marnie AFTERMATH OF POLYANICHKO'S MURDER. The murder of Viktor Polyanichko, the head of the interim administration in the area of the North Ossetian-Ingush conflict, on 1 August continued to feature prominently in the Russian media on 3 August. Komsomolskaya pravda speculated that the murder could have been the work of Ingush, Ossetian, or Armenian extremists, the latter having sentenced Polyanichko to death for his role in Nagorno-Karabakh. Trud claimed that he had also been sentenced to death by the Islamic fundamentalist "Gray Wolves" in Azerbaijan. Russian Deputy Premier Sergei Shakhrai had talks with both the Ingush and North Ossetian leaderships. He told ITAR-TASS that the talks between the two sides would be resumed at a meeting in Terek in Kabardino-Balkaria on 4-August of the mixed commission for solving the refugee question. Yeltsin and Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin issued a joint statement saying the president and government would do all in their power to apprehend those guilty of the murder. Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev said in a message of condolence that the murder showed once again the need to work harder for the all-round integration of the CIS states. -Ann Sheehy TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA GEORGIA LEAVES RUBLE ZONE. In response to the Russian Central Bank's invalidation of old rubles, Georgia officially withdrew from the ruble zone on 2 August, Reuters reported. A new permanent currency, the lari, will not be introduced until the economic situation in war-torn Georgia has stabilized. Until then, the only legal tender are the interim coupons introduced in April, the value of which continues to plummet. Despite the ban on the use of rubles, a number of businesses have continued to accept the old currency, while others have simply closed their doors. -Catherine Dale RUSSIAN OFFICIAL TO SUKHUMI FOR TALKS. Sergei Shoigu, leader of the Russian part of the tri-lateral United Commission for settlement of the Abkhaz conflict, and Chairman of the Russian State Committee for Emergency Situations, traveled to the Abkhaz capital Sukhumi on 3 August to meet with Aleksandr Kavsadze, the personal representative of the Georgian head of state, and with Abkhaz leaders, ITAR-TASS reported. Participants discussed both the work which Shoigu's committee will undertake in Sukhumi to separate the warring sides and to facilitate the withdrawal of troops, and the introduction of peacekeeping forces into the zone of conflict. -Catherine Dale TAJIKISTAN UPDATE. Russia's First Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Anatolii Adamishin, on a trip through Central Asia to discuss the situation in Tajikistan, met Turkmenistan's President Saparmurad Niyazov on 3-August and was told that Turkmenistan will not participate in any joint military actions in Tajikistan, ITAR-TASS reported. Niyazov continues to insist on a political solution in Tajikistan. Adamishin complained to the press about what he characterized as the shortsightedness of the sentiment he has encountered in Central Asia that Russian troops should be withdrawn from Tajikistan. The same day Tajik government forces were reported to have begun an offensive against armed opposition groups in Gorno-Badakhshan, in apparent violation of a promise to Badakhshani authorities that government troops would not operate in the autonomous oblast. -Bess Brown KOZYREV: RUSSIA'S GOALS IN TAJIKISTAN. Russia's national interests dictate that it play a forceful role in Tajikistan, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev wrote in the 4-August issue of Izvestiya. As summarized by ITAR-TASS, Kozyrev said that Russia's presence in Tajikistan is aimed at preventing renewal of the civil war there, at providing security for Tajikistan's multi-national population, at helping Tajikistan along the path of democracy and national reconciliation, and at ensuring that the region as a whole does not fall prey to political extremism. On the last point, Kozyrev appeared to be casting Russian policy in terms that would win sympathy in the West, and particularly in the US. He warned that these "extremist" forces existed not only in Afghanistan, but in Iran and Pakistan as well, and that they embraced policies, including international terrorism, that could destabilize the entire region. Kozyrev said that Russia would move to mobilize its partners in the CIS, in the West, and among moderate Arab leaders. He added that Russia supported the participation of UN and CSCE affiliated peacekeeping forces in Tajikistan. -Stephen Foye CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIAN UPDATE. Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic boycotted the Geneva peace talks on 3 August protesting Serb actions around Sarajevo, but late in the night he joined a session with Croatian President Franjo Tudjman and Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic, international media report. According to a UN spokesman, Serb attacks on Mt. Igman near Sarajevo continue. The Washington Post reports that the negotiations bogged down over deep divisions on whether Sarajevo should be partitioned between Serbs and Muslims, while three Croat members of the Bosnian collective presidency accused the Bosnian army of committing "ethnic cleansing and barbaric massacres" in Croat villages located in central Bosnia and northern Herzegovina. They accused Izetbegovic of no longer representing the multiethnic government and acting only to defend the interests of his own Muslim people. Bosnian troops have captured Travnik, Kakanj, Fojnica, and Bugojno in recent months. According to the commander of the UN troops there, Gornij Vakuf fell on 2-August after a two-week fight. -Fabian Schmidt CROATIA TO REFLOAT MASLENICA BRIDGE. Hina on 3 August quoted transportation and construction officials as saying that the pontoon bridge sunk by the Serbs on 2 August will be back in operation by the end of the week. They added that work has already begun and hoped that the international community and other European countries might help with the costs. Meanwhile, Borba of 4 August quotes President Franjo Tudjman as telling his monthly press conference that Croatian troops will not withdraw from the area, and that Zagreb now considers the July agreement under which they were to have done so as null and void. He repeated Croatia's demand that Serb artillery near the Maslenica bridge, Zemunik airport, and Peruca dam be put under UN supervision, which the Serbs have refused to do. Tudjman suggested that the shelling was the work of extremists, noting that Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic and Montenegrin President Momir Bulatovic by contrast seem interested in a comprehensive improvement in relations with Croatia. -Patrick Moore NATO MEETING WARNS OF "STRONGER MEASURES." An announcement following the NATO meeting in Brussels on 3 August declares that the "dire humanitarian situation in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Sarajevo" is "unacceptable," and said that NATO has "decided to make immediate preparations for undertaking, in the event that the strangulation of Sarajevo and other areas continues, . . . stronger measures including air strikes against those responsible, Bosnian Serbs and others." The allies would also consult with the international mediators Thorwald Stoltenberg and Lord Owen, both of whom have generally opposed the use of force, international media report. Owen said that the NATO announcement shows that the alliance supported the peace talks. Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic charged the NATO with sabotaging the negotiations, saying: "We have been just close to the solution and then those threats come in, and the Muslims are reluctant to talk because they now have hopes of military intervention." -Fabian Schmidt SERB BARGES VIOLATE EMBARGO. Romanian custom authorities say a Serb oil barge convoy violated the UN embargo by forcing its way through the locks on the frontier dam along the Danube river on the night of 1-2 August. The customs director told Radio Bucharest on 3 August that the gates had been opened to let a Ukrainian vessel pass through, and the Serbian tugboat Velebit, towing 11 empty oil barges, forced its way through, disregarding warnings to stop by port authorities and border guards. -Michael Shafir SLAVE WAGES AND NEAR STARVATION IN SERBIA. Belgrade TV on 3 August cites a federal health commission report saying there has been a sharp rise in the mortality rate since introduction of international sanctions. The commission is urging the UN Security Council to speed up approval of humanitarian aid for Serbia-Montenegro. Belgrade TV also quotes Borivoj Vracaric of Belgrade University's Medical School as saying the majority of the urban population is on the brink of starvation and that the first signs of widespread clinical malnutrition are expected by early winter. He warned that the population will be exposed to tuberculosis and other infectious diseases. Tests conducted by health officials show that half of Belgrade's children suffer from anemia and that nearly half of army draftees from Vojvodina are undernourished and declared unfit for military service. Basing its information on analyses from leading economists, Vreme comments in its latest issue that the salaries of workers in Yugoslavia are less than those earned by slaves who built the pyramids of ancient Egypt. The average monthly wage of workers now stands at about $8.70 and economists expect the average wage in September to dwindle to about $2. A general strike called by trade union leaders in protest is expected to begin on 5 August. -Milan Andrejevich KLAUS, KOZENY COMMENT ON SPYING SCANDAL. Speaking on Czech TV on 3 August, Viktor Kozeny, president of Harvard Capital and Consulting, the largest investment fund in the Czech Republic, reiterated his earlier position that he has been a victim of extortion by Vaclav Wallis, an agent of the former Federal Bureau of Intelligence and Security, from whom, after agreeing to pay, he received various information, including that on private lives of some politicians. Kozeny reacted to allegations in the media that he actively sought to buy sensitive information from Wallis. Kozeny rejected as "absurd" allegations that the information provided by Wallis was used in shaping the HC&C's investment strategy. Wallis also said that the information supplied by Wallis was just worthless gossip. He said that the HC&C's success is a result of hard work for which "we do not need the advice of secret agents." According to Kozeny, it is alarming that the intelligence services have gotten out of control, with agents extorting entrepreneurs and politicians. In a related development, Czech Premier Vaclav Klaus dismissed the spy scandal as "a soap bubble" that appeared when all leading politicians had left for vacation and the press had "nothing to write about." He said he is not afraid of revelations about his private life. Klaus acknowledged he was not fully familiar with the Wallis affair and indicated that he may take steps to review the activities of intelligence services. -Jiri Pehe UPDATE ON JIU VALLEY STRIKE. Romania's striking coal miners decided to continue their work stoppage and rejected an invitation to send representatives to Bucharest to meet the government. The decision followed a telephone conversation between miners' leader Miron Cosma and Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu, in the course of which Cosma once more threatened the miners might come to Bucharest in force. Among other things, he told Vacaroiu that the Locomotive Drivers' Union, which is staging a protest in Bucharest, has asked the miners to come to the capital. The conversation was carried by Romanian TV on 3 August. On the same day Radio Bucharest carried a declaration by Vacaroiu in which he again refused to come to the valley. He said giving the miners more money would mean taking it away from someone else. In an apparent attempt to build political capital, Gheorghe Funar, the controversial leader of the extreme nationalist Party of Romanian National Unity, arrived to Petrosani and said he had tried to convince Vacaroiu to come and talk to the miners, but failed. On the other hand, the opposition Party of Civic Alliance, the Liberal Party '93, and the Democratic Party (NSF) issued statements blaming the government for the conditions of the economy and the problems of the miners, but clearly distanced themselves from the demands. Finally, the Federation of Miners' Union, the largest grouping of unions representing miners outside the Jiu Valley, stated the striking miners' demands were too high and may trigger "national resentment" towards them. -Michael Shafir ROMANIAN TRADE UNION LEADER CALLS FOR COALITION. Victor Ciorbea, the head of Romania's largest trade union confederation, told Reuters on 3-August that the country could face "uncontrollable social explosions" unless a coalition government replaces the present minority government of Nicolae Vacaroiu. Ciorbea said Romania is crossing the "hardest period of social, economic, and even political crisis since December 1989." Against the background of mounting labor unrest in the Jiu Valley Ciorbea, who has denounced the miners' action, said the new coalition should include representatives of the unions and the political forces of the opposition, along with the ruling Party of Social Democracy. In this coalition, he added, there should be no room for the extremist, nationalist, or chauvinist parties. In his view, the new coalition would give world lenders, such as the World Bank and the IMF, more faith in Romania's commitment to free-market democracy. -Michael Shafir OPPOSITION SOCIALISTS CONTINUE TO BATTLE ALBANIAN GOVERNMENT. The crisis precipitated by the arrest and imprisonment last week of Socialist Party leader Fatos Nano continues to provoke tensions. Nano's arrest was followed by the detention of Thoma Gellci, editor-in-chief of the Socialist daily Zeri i Popullit, and former Minister of Internal Trade Robert Gjini. Gellci was released after questioning, while Zeri i Popullit reports on 3 August that the editor of the Socialist paper Berati was also arrested, along with the leader of Albania's Eurosocialist Forum. Aleanca reports on 3 August that a former director of Albanian TV has also been arrested. This wave of arrests, particularly Nano's, is viewed by some as an attempt by the government to silence opposition. Clashes between police and demonstrators were reported at a Socialist sponsored rally on 30 July reportedly attended by some 50,000 people; two Socialist Party members were allegedly beaten by police and 150-demonstrators arrested. While some parliamentary deputies outside the ruling Democratic Party took part in the vote to remove Nano's parliamentary immunity last week, his arrest has been widely criticized in the Albanian and foreign media, especially because Nano remains an elected deputy with responsibilities to his constituency in Kucove. Albania's Socialists are circulating a petition for the release of Nano and the arrested demonstrators. President Sali Berisha is under increasing pressure from extremist elements in his party to take a harder line against "former communists." However, these actions will not only fuel concerns raised that Berisha is becoming increasingly authoritarian, but further discredit the ruling Democratic Party. Robert Austin BULGARIAN SECURITY OFFICIALS IN "BULGARIZATION" TRIAL. Five officials of the former Bulgarian State Security are standing trial in Ruse for crimes committed in connection with the 1984-89 forced assimilation program against ethnic Turks, Demokratsiya reports on 3-4 August. The officials could receive three-year prison sentences. The prosecution says that in 1989 the officials violated the "national and racial equality" of Bulgarian citizens by first applying unnecessary force against the Turks, and then keeping them in an improvised labor camp for several weeks. The Turks had been protesting against the assimilation scheme. It is the first time civil servants are being prosecuted for their actions during the "Bulgarization" campaign. The five exofficials reject all charges, saying they treated the Turks according to the law. Two of the defendants are currently employed in the National Security Service, the successor organization of the disbanded State Security. -Kjell Engelbrekt RUSSIAN TROOPS HALT WITHDRAWAL FROM POLAND. The withdrawal of the last remaining organized Russian military unit from Poland was halted on 3 August by Russian troop commander Gen. Leonid Kovalev, PAP reports. The unit, a strategic communications brigade located in Rembertow outside Warsaw that once controlled crucial links with Berlin, was to have departed on 3 August. Loaded freight cars were reported waiting on a railway siding late in the day. In an official communique, the Polish government described the Russian move as "an unprecedented act of lawlessness" and said it is treating the halt as a "caprice" on Kovalev's part that runs contrary to the Russian government's intentions. Gen. Zdzislaw Ostrowski, the Polish government official responsible for Russian troops, lodged a "sharp protest" but received no response. Kovalev's move apparently caught Russian foreign ministry personnel off guard; officials there were unwilling to criticize Kovalev but stressed that the troop withdrawal will continue. Polish TV reports that 1,100 Russian soldiers and 1,900 civilians and dependents now remain in Poland. Reporters for Gazeta Wyborcza who visited the Rembertow site on 2 August were greeted by empty-handed Russian soldiers who told them, "You've arrived too late-we've already sold everything." -Louisa Vinton THE ROOT OF THE CONFLICT. Kovalev's move was designed to pressure Poland to yield to Russian demands on the location of the 30-man military mission that is to supervise the Russian troop withdrawal from eastern Germany. Kovalev charged that the Polish failure to cooperate could jeopardize the timetable for the German withdrawal. Negotiations had been underway on the mission issue for weeks. Kovalev would like it housed in existing facilities, while the Polish government wants the mission headquartered at the Russian embassy. Russian officials claimed on 3 August that the mission's presence would effectively "militarize" the embassy. Polish officials responded that alternate quarters could be made available, provided the Russians explain why they are renting embassy space for commercial purposes. Kovalev's resort to unilateral measures came as a surprise to the Polish government; a former Polish negotiator had expressed satisfaction in an interview on 2-August that the withdrawal was proceeding "in European style." Still, the Russian announcement did not seem to cause much alarm; the story was the ninth item on the Polish TV news on 3-August, following a report on rising telephone prices. -Louisa Vinton RUSSIA REJECTS UKRAINE'S DECISION ON SS-24'S. On 3 August Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman Grigorii Karasin criticized the recent assertion by Ukrainian leaders that Kiev would hold onto its 46 SS-24 strategic nuclear missiles even after ratification of START-1. According to AFP, Karasin said that Russia cannot accept Ukraine's self-proclaimed "temporary status as a nuclear power." Russian officials have argued that all nuclear weapons in the former USSR belong only to Russia, and they have accused Ukraine of harboring ambitions to become a nuclear power. -Stephen Foye MOLDOVAN PARLIAMENT TAKES UP CIS RATIFICATION. A special session of parliament that opened on 3 August and is scheduled to last until the 5th includes on the agenda the question of ratifying Moldova's membership of the CIS (which Moldova joined at the Alma-Ata summit of December 1991) and the subsequent CIS commitments signed by President Mircea Snegur. Virtually all of these commitments are economic, Moldova having consistently declined to join in political or military undertakings. Addressing parliament on 3 August, Snegur and Prime Minister Andrei Sangheli urged ratification, citing economic factors which in their view compel Moldova to join in an economic union of the CIS states. Parliament Chairman Petru Lucinschi in his turn went on television to urge ratification. Moldova's situation, he continued, is complicated by Russia's mistaken perception that Moldova seeks to join Romania, whereas Romania misperceives Moldova's policy as pro-Russian. -Vladimir Socor COMMISSION FORMED ON CASE OF MUTINOUS ESTONIAN UNIT. Baltic media reported on 3 August that a special commission, headed by Transportation and Communication Minister Andi Meister, has been formed to analyze the conflicts concerning the rebellious Estonian infantry unit at Pullapaa. On 2 August the infantry unit sent a letter revoking its previous statement that it wants withdraw from the Estonian defense forces. The following day the government suspended its decision on the disbanding of the unit. Prime Minister Mart Laar told the press on 3 August that the government will make its final decision on the fate of the unit after it receives the commission report. Laar's statements were sharply criticized by Deputy Peeter Lorents, who claims that the government is mishandling the case. It is also possible that parliament may also consider the case next week. -Dzintra Bungs YELTSIN PARDONS PARFENOV. Baltic media reported on 3 August that Russian President Boris Yeltsin has issued a decree pardoning Sergei Parfenov sentenced to four years' imprisonment by a Latvian court on charges of abuse of authority. Parfenov was deputy chief of the Riga OMON unit and was reportedly involved in the OMON attack on the Ministry of Internal Affairs in January 1991 and other unlawful activities in 1990 and 1991. Following an interstate accord allowing prisoners to serve out their sentences in their homeland, Parfenov was returned to Russia on 31 July. Parfenov is returning to Tyumen, where most of the Riga OMON men were transferred after Latvia regained its independence in August 1991. -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.