|We do not live an equal life, but one of contrast and patchwork; now a little joy, then a sorrow, now a sin, then a generous or brave action. - Ralph Waldo Emerson|
No. 145, 02 August 1993
RUSSIA RUSSIANS STRIKE A DEBT DEAL WITH WEST. A committee representing Western commercial bank creditors and Russian negotiators meeting in Frankfurt on 30-July reached an agreement in principle on repayment terms for some of the debt of the former Soviet Union, Reuters and ITAR-TASS reported. Russia has agreed to pay $500 million in the fourth quarter of this year partially to cover arrears on interest payments due in 1992 and 1993. The press release for the meeting said that the terms reflect the "exceptional circumstances in which the Russian Federation is trying to implement its economic reform program." A more detailed timetable drawn up on the basis of this agreement must now be approved by the other creditors. Payments on the principal of this $70-80 billion debt have been rolled over several times, the last time being in late June of this year. -Erik Whitlock CURRENCY EXCHANGE: POLEMICS CONTINUE AND YELTSIN'S POPULARITY FALLS. Interviewed on Russian TV on 30 July, Parliamentary Chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov accused Finance Minister Boris Fedorov of being responsible for the "disorganization" caused by the currency exchange. He went on to charge Fedorov with withholding pay from the armed forces and with attempting to impose a dictatorial regime. Replying on the "Vesti" program on 31-July, Fedorov refuted these "slanderous" and "distorted" charges and repeated that he was abroad when the measure was announced and had no prior knowledge of it. On 1 August, Ostankino TV disclosed the results of a poll taken on 25 July: these indicated that President Yeltsin's popularity rating had fallen from 35% in June to 24% -Keith Bush EXTRAORDINARY SESSION OF RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT SUSPENDED. Parliamentary deputies suspended their extraordinary session which opened on 31 July until 6 August, various Western and Russian agencies reported. The original proposal for a one-day session to debate President Yeltsin's extension of the state of emergency in North Ossetia and Ingushetia was extended to include the questions of Yeltsin's dismissal of Barannikov and the recent currency reform debacle. During the brief session, deputies discussed changes in the law governing the appointment of ministers. When the session resumes, deputies are to give a second reading to a legislative amendment aimed at giving the parliament greater controls over presidential powers to appoint and dismiss the "strong ministers" (defense, security, foreign affairs and interior). -Wendy Slater FURTHER SUBSIDIES FOR COAL DECREED. Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin issued a decree on 30-July that provides continued subsidies for the coal industry, ITAR-TASS reported. The subsidies will be paid from the state budget and are intended to cover the costs of closing down unprofitable mines, the modernization and expansion of surviving mines, and social expenditures. No price tag was given, but Ostankino TV on 1-July had estimated that the social program alone for retraining and relocating miners would cost 1 trillion rubles in 1993. (The overall subsidy for the coal industry in 1993 was projected to exceed 3-trillion rubles). The technical annex to the joint government-Central Bank agreement of May provided for a reduction of 1 trillion rubles in coal subsidies. -Keith Bush CONTROVERSY OVER BARANNIKOV'S REMOVAL. The dismissal of the Minister of Security Viktor Barannikov was made under demands from Democratic Russia and other radical supporters of President Yeltsin, Sergei Yushenkov, the deputy head of the Federal Information Center told Russian TV on 30 July. Yushenkov, who is the leader of the Radical Democrats parliamentary faction, stressed that Barannikov had suspended any reform of the security agency and that his actions proved his disloyalty to President Yeltsin. Former KGB general Oleg Kalugin also said to Open Radio in Moscow that the Ministry of Security had been attempting to regain its former power. -Victor Yasmann JAPANESE "WHITE PAPER" ON RUSSIAN DEFENSE. A "white paper" outlining Japanese defense policy that was released by the Defense Agency on 30 July warned that Russian military forces in East Asia pose a threat to "stability" in Asia and the Pacific region. According to reports by Kyodo and ITAR-TASS, the document said that Russian forces in the region had been strengthened and modernized in recent years by the acquisition of forces withdrawn from Eastern Europe. The "white paper" also pointed to declining living standards and discipline among Russian forces in the Far East and the absence in Russia of a coherent military doctrine as further reasons for concern. -Stephen Foye FILATOV SAYS CONSTITUTION MAKING PROGRESS. The head of the presidential apparatus, Sergei Filatov, is quoted by Ekho Moskvy "Novosti" on 30 July as saying that approximately one half of the regions and republics federation are prepared to discuss the draft constitution in August. He said that President Yeltsin intends to meet with leaders of the republics of the Russian Federation in August and that the pace of the constitutional debate in Moscow has temporarily slowed owing to the parliamentary deputies' vacation period. In Filatov's opinion, regional deputies disagree with some draft proposals concerning the status of the subjects of the federation, the status of the procurator general, and some questions of local government. -Alexander Rahr PROCESS OF PRIVATIZATION. In an interview given to Argumenty i fakty no.30, Anatolii Chubais, reported that by 1 July 56% of all small enterprises in Russia had been privatized, and that in no other country had privatization been carried out with such speed. It is intended to complete the privatization of 80% of small enterprises by the end of the year. The Russian parliament had attempted to disrupt the privatization process by issuing two decrees in May designed to limit the use of privatization vouchers and restrict the powers of the state property committee headed by Chubais. Chubais insists that the move failed and that the fact that the vouchers lost no more than 10% of their value during the dispute is a sign that the privatization process has become irreversible. -Sheila Marnie HEAD OF INTERIM ADMINISTRATION IN NORTH OSSETIA AND INGUSHETIA ASSASSINATED. Viktor Polyanichko, the head of the interim administration in the areas of North Ossetia and Ingushetia which are under emergency rule, was ambushed and killed on 1-August, ITAR-TASS and Ostankino TV reported. The garrison chief of Vladikavkaz, General Anatolii Koretsky, and four accompanying soldiers were also killed in the attack, which took place in the disputed Prigorodnyi raion of North Ossetia. Russian Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai, who is responsible for nationalities' questions, was to fly to the conflict zone. Polyanichko, the fifth head of the interim administration in eight months, was appointed just over a month ago. He was regarded as a hard-liner because of actions attributed to him during his time as second secretary of the Azerbaijan Communist Party. -Ann Sheehy CONGRESS OF PEOPLES OF INGUSHETIA SAYS FEDERAL TREATY UNACCEPTABLE. An extraordinary congress of the peoples of Ingushetia in Nazran on 31 July decided that Ingushetia should not sign the federal treaty or continue to participate in the assembly drafting a new Russian constitution, ITAR-TASS reported. The congress also decreed that deputies to the Russian parliament from Ingushetia should be recalled and a referendum held on Ingushetia's continued membership in the Russian Federation if no progress was made on returning Ingush refugees to North Ossetia by 1-September. Addressing the Russian parliament, which ratified Yeltsin's decree on extending the state of emergency in the area on 31 July, Shakhrai blamed the leadership and parliament of North Ossetia for obstructing the return of the refugees. On 30 July the Russian Constitutional Court issued a statement expressing concern at the non-fulfillment of various laws and decrees on the North Ossetian-Ingush conflict. -Ann Sheehy CIS RUSSIA RATIFIES COLLECTIVE SECURITY TREATY. The Russian parliament on 31 July ratified the CIS Treaty on Collective Security, originally signed in Tashkent on 15 May 1992 by Russia, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan, ITAR-TASS reported. Russian Defense Ministry officials had long complained of the parliament's failure to ratify the treaty, and this inaction appears to have been one of the reasons for Moscow's decision in mid-June of this year to liquidate the command of the CIS Joint Armed Forces. The parliament's decision to ratify the accord at this time was clearly linked to the events on the border between Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Evgenii Ambartsumov, chairman of the parliament's Committee on International Affairs and Foreign Economic Ties, noted that the treaty prohibited member-states from participating in any military unions directed against other member states, and suggested that the treaty would become one of the "levers in the restoration of integration processes" in the CIS. -Stephen Foye TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA GAMSAKHURDIA SUPPORTERS SEIZE TOWN, WITHDRAW. Supporters of Georgia's deposed president Zviad Gamsakhurdia seized the town of Senaki in Western Georgia on 30-July but withdrew after Jaba Ioseliani, head of the paramilitary Mkhedrioni group, said he would eject them by force, Western and Russian agencies reported on 1 August. The Gamsakhurdia supporters seized Senaki, according to some reports, in order to prevent the withdrawal of Georgian troops from Abkhazia under the terms of ceasefire that is to be the first step in ending the fighting between Georgian troops and Abkhaz separatists. Gamsakhurdia and his supporters have termed the ceasefire agreement a sellout of Georgian national interests. -Bess Brown CEASEFIRE OBSERVERS DEPLOY IN ABKHAZIA. A first contingent of Russian troops who are part of a tripartite ceasefire monitoring group have arrived in Abkhazia, Western, Russian, and Georgian agencies reported on 31 July and 1 August. The ceasefire is part of an agreement between Georgia, Abkhazia, and Russia to end the fighting in Abkhazia that started in 1992 when Abkhazia sought greater autonomy from Georgia. On both 31 July and 1 August the Georgian and Abkhaz sides traded accusations that the other had violated the ceasefire. -Bess Brown RUSSIA THREATENS PREEMPTIVE STRIKE ON TAJIK BORDER. The Russian government issued a threat to launch a preemptive strike on the Tajik-Afghan border if Tajik opposition forces and their Afghan supporters continue to concentrate along the Afghan side of the border, ITAR-TASS reported on 1 August. These forces are reported to be planning a large-scale attack on Tajikistan; according to the Russian statement, Afghan authorities have been warned to evacuate civilians from the areas where the Tajik opposition forces are gathering. Numerous Afghan casualties as a result of Russian cross-border shelling have been reported from the region in recent weeks. On 31 July Russian special envoy Evgenii Primakov met with Afghan President Burhanuddin Rabbani and promised that the cross-border shelling would stop. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE GENEVA PEACE TALKS CONTINUE. Bosnian Muslim leaders are threatening to withdraw from the Geneva negotiations if Serb forces continue attacks on Mt. Bjelasnica overlooking Sarajevo, and around Brcko and Gradacac in northern Bosnia. But Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic said he plans to be on hand when the talks resume on 2 August, international media report. Bosnian Serbian leader Radovan Karadzic denied that his forces have launched any offensives. "We are pretty close to peace," he told reporters. Bosnian Foreign Minister Haris Silajdzic called for international intervention against the Serbs to prevent genocide against his people. Meanwhile a peace conference spokesman cited progress on the divisive issue of the map, and Izetbegovic said the bargaining is "very difficult." An ethnic Serb member of the Bosnian Presidency said: "we were faced with a dictate" by the mediators to accept the terms of Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic. Izetbegovic had agreed that Bosnia be turned into a union of three ethnic republics, saying the Muslims would otherwise risk extermination. Karadzic is prepared to reduce the territory his forces control from 72% of Bosnia to 50%. The Muslims would control about 30%, including the Muslim enclaves in eastern Bosnia, a land corridor from Sarajevo to Gorazde, and Neum, a small port 50-kilometers northwest of Dubrovnik. The rough map accords about 20% of Bosnia to the Croat community, although the borders were far from settled by 1 August. Mediator Lord Owen dismissed the fears of the Bosnian government that a change in Bosnia's title and constitution would affect its membership in the UN. -Fabian Schmidt SERBIAN REACTIONS. Most parties in Serbia welcomed the agreement, according to Belgrade Radio and TV on 31 July. The ruling Socialist Party of Serbia called it a decisive step towards peace and a just solution to the Bosnian crisis, adding that the agreement confirms the party's policy that a lasting and just solution could only be reached by respecting equality and the interests of all three peoples living in Bosnia. SPS Vice President Mihajlo Markovic remarked that peace is now imminent and justification no longer exists for maintaining UN sanctions. The opposition right-wing Democratic Party of Serbia remarked that the agreement is realistic and that the constitutional principles adopted must now be followed up with a territorial division that is fair to Bosnia's Muslims, Serbs, and Croats. Zoran Djindjic, vice president of the moderate Democratic Party, and Slobodan Rakitic, vice president of the main opposition Serbian Renewal Movement, both said the Serb side can be satisfied with the principles that emerged from Geneva, but warned that the key element for ending the crisis in Bosnia is still lacking-an agreement on maps. -Milan Andrejevich FIGHTING CONTINUES ALL OVER BOSNIA. Senior officers of the three warring parties met in Sarajevo on 1 August to try to consolidate a two-day-old cease-fire that all sides have accused the others of ignoring, international media report. Fighting between Serbs and Muslims continued to the north of Sarajevo, and near Zvornik, Doboj, and Gornji Vakuf. On 31 July Muslim forces captured two villages outside Gornji Vakuf. British UN peacekeepers said it was the heaviest fighting they have seen in the area, while, according to Croatian Radio, Muslim artillery fired on Croat positions near Novi Travnik and Prozor. British peacekeepers said Bosnian troops are poised to try to capture Prozor over the next few days. Some 3,000 Bosnian Croats, who fled Bugojno after its capture by Muslim fighters, have reached Croat-held territory in southern Bosnia, a UN official said on 1 August. "There could still be some 2,000 to 7,000 people still on their way" a UNHCR spokesman said. The commander of the UN protection force, Gen. Jean Cot, expressed horror and dismay at the killing of a Spanish UN soldier in an artillery bombardment in Jablanica, where 17 other Spanish soldiers were injured on 29 July. It is not clear who fired on the peacekeepers. . -Fabian Schmidt TENSION BUILDS OVER SERB-CROAT CONFRONTATION. International media report on 2 August that rebel Serb forces have given the Croatian military until midnight of 3 August to evacuate the Maslenica bridge, the Zemunik airport, and the Peruca dam, which Croatian forces retook in a January offensive. A series of deadlines expired earlier on the weekend, and on 1 August the Serbs shelled the airport and the area around the bridge, Hina says. The Croats were supposed to have handed over the three areas of key economic importance to UN forces by 31 July, but last week Zagreb insisted that the Serbs surrender their heavy weapons to UN control at the same time. The Serb-Croat agreement on the Croatian evacuation of the three zones makes no mention of such linkage, but UN control over artillery is specified in the original 1992 Vance plan. The Croatian government has virtually made the question of keeping the bridge and airport open a matter of vital national interest, while the Serbs do not want to be seen as being told what to do by the Croats. The UN Security Council has threatened Croatia with "serious consequences" if it does not withdraw, but Politika of 2-August reports that UN officials are conducting marathon negotiations amid a de facto news blackout. -Patrick Moore NANO TO JAIL, SOCIALISTS TO THE STREETS. In response to last week's removal and subsequent of arrest of Fatos Nano, leader of Albania's Socialist Party, Western agencies report on 31 July that some 20,000 supporters attended a rally at Tirana's Dinamo Stadium on 30 July demanding new elections and shouting "down with Parliament, down with dictatorship and down with Sali Berisha." The demonstrators left the stadium and marched to Tirana's Skanderbeg Square, where they were met by police and government supporters. Nano, who is alleged to have misappropriated some $8 million dollars, has repeatedly declared his innocence and has blamed the actions against him on foreign influence, notably the United States. On 1 August the Socialist party newspaper Zeri i Popullit issued a call to denounce the "reawakening of dictatorship" in Albania and restated the party's determination to boycott local and national legislative bodies. Nano's arrest does not bode well for the achievement of political stability in Albania. He enjoys wide support from the Albanian public and particularly within his party. No doubt the Socialists will use whatever means are at their disposal to continue to challenge what they perceive as an attempt to destroy Albania's main opposition party. -Robert Austin SUCHOCKA WARNS POLICE ON ELECTIONS. Speaking in Poznan on 30 July, Polish Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka warned police officials that involvement in the elections and party politics could cost them the public's trust. Police officials are running for parliament on a number of different party lists. Some have proposed creating a "police lobby" in the parliament despite the fact that the law requires police employees to take a leave of absence for as long as they hold office. Suchocka stressed that police officials running for election represent the party backing their candidacy, not the state or the police, PAP reports. "It is impermissible for them to create the impression that they are candidates of the police force or speak in its name." Suchocka added that she issued a special directive to this effect to Internal Affairs Minister Andrzej Milczanowski on 28 July. This directive was issued just two days after President Lech Walesa met with high-ranking police officers and, with Milczanowski's apparent approval, urged them to consider supporting his Nonparty Reform Bloc (BBWR). -Louisa Vinton CAMPAIGN FRICTION BETWEEN WALESA AND SUCHOCKA? SOME OF THE PRESIDENT'S CAMPAIGN EFFORTS TO CAPITALIZE ON PUBLIC DISSATISFACTION APPEAR TO HAVE PUT THE GOVERNMENT ON THE DEFENSIVE. During a visit to Katowice on 30 July, Walesa conducted what he called "hygienic discussions with the discontented," focusing on a three-month old strike at the BEFA plant in Bielsko-Biala, where strikers are demanding the return of a director fired by the government's local representative. After meeting with unionists from Solidarity '80, the president pledged to take "appropriate steps even if they are on the bounds of legality" to solve the conflict. His office made public a letter to the government's local representative, urging him to consider reappointing the fired director. The government responded a half hour later with its own statement, expressing confidence in decisions made by its regional representative and its disinclination to intervene in "local conflicts." This is not the first such exchange of statements. On 27 July the president made public a letter to Suchocka in which he criticized the customs authorities and urged the prime minister to take action. Suchocka responded with a statement listing the many efforts the government has already made to improve customs controls. -Louisa Vinton CZECH SPYING SCANDAL GROWS. On 30 July Mlada Fronta dnes reported that it has obtained information showing that the ruling Civic Democratic Party of Vaclav Klaus has been building its own intelligence service. The charge followed a series of revelations in the Czech media that individual agents of the former Federal Bureau of Intelligence and Security-if not the FBIS itself-have been spying on leading politicians, including President Vaclav Havel and Prime Minister Klaus. An FBIS agent, Vaclav Wallis, sold some of this information to Viktor Kozeny, chairman of Harvard Capital and Consulting, the largest investment fund in the Czech Republic. Wallis currently faces criminal charges. Mlada Fronta dnes said that a document showing that the CDP is building its own intelligence service was found among papers confiscated from Wallis. On 30 July the CDP spokesman resolutely denied the charges. On 1 August, Miroslav Macek, a former CDP vice chairman, told Czech TV that in early 1992 he was approached by two FBIS agents who offered to "protect the CDP from information leaks and supply it with information about other parties." Macek says he rejected the offer. -Jiri Pehe SLOVAK NATIONAL PARTY ON COALITION TALKS. A statement issued by the Slovak National Party after the meeting of its leadership on 31 July says that the party is still interested in coalition talks with the ruling Movement for a Democratic Slovakia. The statement described the previous SNP-MDS coalition talks as "a failure" but says that the party is willing to enter another round of talks "for the sake of stability in Slovakia." In the statement the SNP leadership "resolutely protests incorrect information about the coalition talks" released by the MDS. Should new coalition talks take place, SNP chairman Ludovit Cernak will lead the party delegation. During the previous MDS-SNP coalition talks, Slovak Premier Vladimir Meciar accused Cernak of attempting to obtain over 1 million koruny from the government in exchange for consent to form a coalition with the MDS. Meciar said there would be no place for Cernak in his government. Cernak has resolutely denied the charge, claiming that the money he asked for was part of regular state contributions to various parties reflecting their election results. -Jiri Pehe HUNGARIAN LANGUAGE SIGNS TAKEN DOWN IN SLOVAKIA. Hungarian Radio reports that in many towns in Southern Slovakia populated by the Magyar minority, signs indicating the Hungarian names of villages and towns has been taken down, apparently in response to a new Transportation Ministry directive. Mayors said that the signs, put up by local governments, were taken down by private persons. An appeal to the Slovak parliament is planned. -Karoly Okolicsanyi PRICE INCREASES IN HUNGARY. An earlier decision by parliament to increase value-added taxes took effect on 1 August, MTI reports. The increase, from 6% to 10%, was needed to offset the record high budget deficit. Prices of most food items, mass transportation, electricity, gas, water and phone prices increased as the result. -Karoly Okolicsanyi JIU VALLEY STRIKE. Miners in Romania's Jiu Valley began a general strike on 2 August. Union leader Miron Cosma said on 31 July that the strike is being called because the government has not sent a negotiator to the valley to discuss the pay dispute as demanded by the miners, Radio Bucharest reports. The miners received assurances of a pay increase last month, but they said this was not sufficient, since too much of it goes to office staff and not enough to the miners themselves. The government has rejected the new wage demands, which it says would amount to more than half a million lei ( about $625) a month per employee-more than ten times the national average. Radio Bucharest said on 31-July that the director of the Jiu Valley mines was called to Bucharest to discuss the mines' budget and the allocation of salaries, and that the miners' leaders were also invited. The miners, however, went on strike instead. -Michael Shafir BULGARIAN PARLIAMENT FIRES BTA DIRECTOR. Ivo Indzhev, general director of the Bulgarian Telegraph Agency, has been dismissed, Bulgarian media report. On 30 July parliament voted 133-70 to oust Indzhev, who had refused to comply with a government decision ordering him to leave his position. Two weeks ago Indzhev was formally reinstated as head of BTA by the Supreme Court, which ruled that the government had exceeded its powers. The call for the removal of Indzhev was supported by the Bulgarian Socialist Party, the Movement for Rights and Freedoms, and the New Union for Democracy faction. In the parliamentary motion the BTA chief was said to have displayed a "negative attitude toward state institutions." Stefan Gospodinov, head of BTA's financial and marketing department, was elected successor. -Kjell Engelbrekt ZHELEV VISITS KAZAKHSTAN. On 30 July Bulgarian president Zhelyu Zhelev concluded a two-day visit to Kazakhstan, BTA and Western agencies report. Zhelev and Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbaev met in Almaaty, signed a treaty of friendship, and concluded agreements on economic ties, establishment of a joint credits and investment bank, and cooperation in areas such as agriculture, telecommunications, and tourism. On 31 July Zhelev traveled to Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, for talks with President Askar Akaev. -Stan Markotich KAZAKHSTAN OFFERS CHEAPER NUCLEAR FUEL TO LITHUANIA. On 28 July Lithuanian Energy Minister Algimantas Stasiukynas told reporters in Vilnius about a meeting in Moscow the previous day with Kazakh Minister for Energy and Fuel Resources Kadyr Baikin, BNS reports. Kazakhstan agreed to sell nuclear fuel cassettes for the atomic power plant at Ignalina at prices lower than charged by Russia in exchange for various Lithuanian goods. Kazakhstan is also interested in shipping oil to the Mazeikiai refinery, but still has to obtain Russia's permission for its transit. Lithuania has amassed large debts to Russia for energy and welcomes the Kazakh offers since they would be paid in goods and not hard currency. -Saulius Girnius PARFENOV RETURNS TO RUSSIA AS LITHUANIA MOURNS MEDININKAI VICTIMS. Baltic media report that in accordance with the Latvian-Russian agreement on allowing prisoners to serve out sentences in their homeland, Sergei Parfenov, the former deputy chief of the OMON forces in Riga, was turned over to Russia on 31 July. That same day a mass was held in Vilnius to commemorate the seven Lithuanian border guards and customs officers killed at the Medininkai checkpoint on 31 July 1991. Though it is widely believed that the Riga OMON was involved in the killings in Medininkai and a few weeks ago the possibility of turning him over to Lithuania was under consideration, authorities there failed to provide sufficient evidence to bring charges against him, and Parfenov was turned over directly to Russia, BNS reported on 31 July. -Dzintra Bungs KRAVCHUK: SS-24'S NOT COVERED BY START I. In a move certain to increase tensions between Ukraine and both the US and Russia, Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk on 30-July said that Ukraine's 46 SS-24 strategic nuclear missiles are not covered by START-1 and that the question of destroying the SS-24's must be dealt with in a separate treaty between Ukraine, Russia, and the US. Kravchuk's announcement echoed remarks made earlier in the week by Dmytro Pavlychko, chairman of the parliamentary international affairs commission, who suggested that the parliament would ratify START-1 this fall but not consider accession to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty until 1995. Both Pavlychko (whose comments were reported by Holos Ukrayiny on 30 July) and Kravchuk argued that the START-1 Lisbon Protocol does not obligate Ukraine to destroy the SS-24's. This interpretation, which had long been hinted at in Ukraine, was rejected by the US administration, Reuters reported on 30 July. US and Ukrainian officials only recently concluded a modest defense pact and Ukraine announced that it has begun dismantling some SS-19 missiles in compliance with American wishes. -Stephen Foye [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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