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No. 144, 30 July 1993
RUSSIA GERASHCHENKO SUSPECTED OF FRAUD. A Western adviser to the Russian government has accused Russian Central Bank Chairman Viktor Gerashchenko of malfeasance in ordering the currency reform, the Los Angeles Times of 30 July and Western agencies reported. At a regular news conference by the Center for Economic Reform in Moscow, Anders Aslund presented what he called "circumstantial evidence" that the Bank had given cash credits of some 588 billion rubles to former Soviet republics in April-June 1993, presumably in return for kickbacks to bank officials. Aslund suggested that the currency reform was an attempt to cover up the missing money. Asked whether he was accusing Gerashchenko of fraud, Aslund replied: "I suspect him of it. I think that it's the only rational explanation , because something very fishy is going on." -Keith Bush YELTSIN, CHERNOMYRDIN APPEAL TO NORTH OSSETIANS, INGUSH. Yeltsin and Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin issued a joint appeal to the peoples of North Ossetia and Ingushetia on 29 July in which they expressed concern at the situation in the areas of the two republics where a state of emergency is in force, ITAR-TASS reported. The appeal was issued after a working meeting between the two and the North Ossetian and Ingush leaders, Akhsarbek Galazov and Ruslan Aushev. The decree called for a moratorium on frontier changes. It also said that the first Ingush refugees and involuntary resettlers would start returning in August to places of compact settlement in North Ossetia where they would be granted full civil rights, Delays in the return of the refugees to North Ossetia due to North Ossetian objections had led Aushev to threaten on 28 July that Ingushetia would declare its independence. -Ann Sheehy WARNING STRIKE AT DEFENSE INDUSTRY PLANTS. An RFE/RL correspondent reports that workers at dozens of defense enterprises in the Urals region held a one-hour warning strike on 29 July to demand pay increases, new tariff agreements, better credit conditions, and the adoption of a "state military doctrine." According to Russian Television, the coordinating council of manufacturers and trade unions of the defense industry met on 27-July, and in a draft resolution issued an ultimatum to the government, demanding that the latter pay for work carried out on the design and production of arms and military technology. If the government fails to meet this and other demands by 6-August the work collectives will cease work on state orders and the trade unions will start gathering signatures for a petition demanding that the government step down. -Sheila Marnie DIMINISHED ROLE OF RUSSIAN SECURITY COUNCIL. In an interview published in the 28 July issue of Megapolis-Ekspress Secretary of the Russian Security Council Evgenii Shaposhnikov claimed that the formerly powerful council now has little influence on the course of political events in Russia. Shaposhnikov also suggested that Boris Yeltsin does not familiarize himself with the details of Russian security policy and at least partly for that reason the council should not be reduced to an advisory role, but should serve as the coordinating organ for defense decision-making. Shaposhnikov also implied that the Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Defense, Internal Affairs, and Security were among those who wanted to see the council eliminated. Shaposhnikov said that in Yeltsin's absence he did not have the authority to convene the council and suggested that confusion was one result. Shaposhnikov, until mid-June the Commander-in-Chief of the CIS Joint Armed Forces, called once again for implementation of the CIS Collective Security Agreement. -Stephen Foye RESERVATIONS ON START-2 TREATY. Krasnaya zvezda, official organ of the Russian Ministry of Defense, carries a commentary on 29 July in which an expert on arms control issues argues for revisions in the START-2 Treaty. According to Gennadii Khromov, the START-2 Treaty is, first of all, dependent upon implementation of the START-1 agreement, which he suggests is unlikely to be ratified by Ukraine. Second, and of greater importance, he argues that the START-2 Treaty is likely to face significant opposition in the Russian parliament. To help make the treaty more palatable, he calls for several revisions. He notes that, given Russia's deteriorating economy, Moscow will face difficulties both in destroying arms that remain serviceable and in manufacturing the new weapons systems allowable under the treaty's terms. He therefore urges the US to consider agreeing to a postponement on the elimination of ICBMs with multiple reentry warheads and on reaching limitations on the total number of warheads for ICBMs and SLBMs called for in the treaty. -Stephen Foye SHORTFALLS IN TAX COLLECTION. The head of the state taxation service told the cabinet on 29 July that the shortfall in overall tax collection is running at about 15% and not the 30-40% widely believed, ITAR-TASS and Western agencies reported. Vladimir Gusev said that companies engaged in foreign trade had failed to pay some $10 billion due in taxes in 1992. His service was promised additional personnel and help in computerization. (In 1992, the taxation service was authorized to hire an additional 100,000 inspectors, and was expected to hire many of these from among demobilized officers). -Keith Bush MID-YEAR ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE AND YEAR-END FORECASTS. The Russian State Committee on Statistics reports that in the first half of 1993 GDP dropped 14%, exports increased 3% and imports fell 49% in comparison with the same period last year, according to ITAR-TASS on 29 July. Moskovskie novosti reported Deputy Prime Minister Anatolii Chubais as saying that a third of the total number of enterprises in the country are now privatized. The Center for Economic Reform announced at a news conference in Moscow that an inflation rate by year-end of 10% was achievable if the current strict monetary policy was adhered to, ITAR-TASS reported the same day. The Center was less sanguine about developments in enterprise finance and industrial performance. The Center views the recent decrease in unemployment rates as a sign that budget constraints are not hardening adequately. It also sees no improvement in the rate of decline in industrial production. Erik Whitlock LATEST FIGURES ON UNEMPLOYMENT AND POVERTY. According to figures released by the Russian State Statistical Committee (Roskomstat) for the first half of 1993, there are over 1 million registered jobseekers, and over 700,000 registered unemployed; 65.7% of the latter are in receipt of unemployment benefits. About 70% of the unemployed are women, and one third are under 30 years old. However, the number of registered unemployed dropped by approximately 10,000 in June, and the number of registered job vacancies has increased by 1.7 times since the beginning of the year. The minimum subsistence level for July was 16,000 rubles (per person, per month), and more than one third of the population currently lives below this level. The figures were reported by ITAR-TASS on 28 and 29-July. Meanwhile, a resolution of the Russian parliament, published in Ekonomika i zhizn no.30, raises the minimum monthly pension to 14,620 rubles from 1-August. -Sheila Marnie MALAYSIA TO PAY PALM OIL FOR MIGS? AFP REPORTED ON 29 JULY THAT MALAYSIA WOULD LIKE TO ARRANGE A DEAL WHEREBY IT PAYS FOR 18 RUSSIAN MIG-29 JET FIGHTERS WITH APPROXIMATELY $1-BILLION WORTH OF PALM OIL OVER A PERIOD OF FIVE YEARS. Malaysian trade officials admitted, however, that the Russian Defense Ministry was likely to push for more cash and less palm oil to settle the deal, estimated to be worth approximately $1.8 billion. Negotiations on the exact terms of the sale are to begin soon, according to Malaysian officials. -Stephen Foye SPECIAL HARVEST MEASURES. Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin has issued an order to support the large harvest expected this year, ITAR-TASS and Reuters reported. Chernomyrdin has instructed the Ministries of the Economy, Finance, and Fuel and Energy to take appropriate measure to ensure that adequate storage, transportation facilities and fuel are provided. The order follows recent parliamentary urging for such action. -Erik Whitlock TRANCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA NAGORNO-KARABAKH UPDATE. Defense and Foreign Ministry officials from Azerbaijan and Nagorno-Karabakh agreed at their meeting on 28 July to extend the three-day ceasefire that went into effect on 26 July for a further five days in order to allow for high-level talks on a possible settlement, Reuters and ITAR-TASS reported. On 29 July the UN Security Council passed a resolution condemning the occupation of Agdam and other territory in Azerbaijan and calling for the immediate withdrawal of the occupying forces; it urged the Armenian government to use its influence to persuade the Karabakh Armenian authorities to end hostilities and accept the CSCE peace proposal, according to an RFE/RL correspondent. On 29-July the Azerbaijan National Assembly voted to hold a nation-wide referendum on 28-August on public confidence in President Abulfaz Elchibey, who fled Baku on 18 June, ITAR-TASS reported. -Liz Fuller AMNESTY IN TAJIKISTAN. Tajikistan's Supreme Soviet has decreed an amnesty that covers oppositionists fighting the government inside Tajikistan or from Afghanistan provided they leave their armed groups by 9-September, Khovar-TASS and Russian agencies reported on 29-July. The amnesty, which is officially pegged to the second anniversary of Tajikistan's independence, is the first sign that the country's present leadership might be softening its refusal to seek reconciliation with the armed opposition. In the last few days the Tajik leadership has come under strong pressure from its CIS allies to negotiate with the opposition; the same day that the amnesty was proclaimed, the presidents of Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan told a news conference in Almaty that they had called on the Tajik leadership to meet with the opposition. -Bess Brown TURKMENISTAN STIFFENS CUSTOMS. President of Turkmenistan Saparmurad Niyazov issued a resolution on 29 July establishing tougher customs control on its borders, ITAR-TASS reported. Among other measures, the resolution explicitly forbids the import of ruble bills printed between 1961 and 1992. The republic fears a large influx of the old-style rubles as Russia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and other ruble zone nations are removing or soon will remove them from circulation. Turkmenistan has insisted on maintaining these old-style rubles as legal tender until later this fall when it plans to introduce its own national currency. Erik Whitlock CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE "UNION OF REPUBLICS" PROPOSED IN BOSNIAN PEACE TALKS. Thorvald Stoltenberg and Lord Owen, the mediators in the Geneva negotiations, proposed a plan that would divide the republic into three parts with a minimal central government responsible for foreign affairs, international media report on 29 July. There has been no official announcement of the plan for a "Union of Republics," but reports say that none of the three "republics" would have armed forces, and a clause would bar any of them from leaving the union. It is unclear whether the collective Bosnian presidency will accept the plan. Officials said President Alija Izetbegovic appeared unhappy with the proposal and sought a recess in the talks. The political leaders in Geneva ordered a new cease-fire on 29 July, and the military commanders are scheduled to meet on 30 July in Sarajevo. Meanwhile, shelling continued on Mount Zuc north of Sarajevo, and Radio Sarajevo reported Serb attacks around Brcko, Tesanj, Maglaj and the regions of Doboj and Gorazde. Now that Travnik, Kakanj, Fojnica and Bugojno have fallen to Bosnian government troops, Gornij Vakuf seems their next target in central Bosnia. -Fabian Schmidt CROATIA MOVES AGAINST MUSLIM REFUGEES. The BBC's Croatian Service on 30 July quotes Radio Bosnia-Herzegovina as saying that Croatian authorities the previous day arrested about 100 Bosnian Muslim refugees and incarcerated them in a sports center. American, German, Turkish, and Bosnian diplomats reportedly protested to the Croatian authorities, but the latter said it was normal practice in dealing with undocumented aliens. Croatia is currently host to about 250,000 Muslim refugees, but the government has been under political pressure especially since the outbreak of Muslim-Croat fighting this spring to withdraw the welcome mat. Many Croats feel that the Muslims are a drain on an already strained economy and a potential long-term demographic threat, while West European countries fear that expulsion of the Muslims would lead to a wave of refugees fleeing to the more prosperous parts of the continent. At his 5-July press conference, President Franjo Tudjman confirmed long-standing rumors that Zagreb is indeed considering a change in policy toward the Muslims, especially since Croat refugees are now arriving as a result of ethnic cleansing by Muslim forces. Meanwhile, Reuters on 29 July said that Croatia has asked the UN Security Council to help protect Bosnian Croats, while Hina reported the arrival in Tomislavgrad of large numbers of elderly, women, children, and invalids. The refugees reached Croat-held territory in Herzegovina with Serbian help. -Patrick Moore WILL THE CROATS WITHDRAW FROM MASLENICA? THE CROATIAN FOREIGN MINISTER TOLD THE BBC'S CROATIAN SERVICE ON 29 JULY THAT CROATIAN TROOPS WILL NOT EVACUATE THE MASLENICA BRIDGE AND ZEMUNIK AIRPORT THIS WEEKEND AS PLANNED UNLESS THE LOCAL SERBS GIVE UP THEIR HEAVY ARTILLERY. The 16 July UN-sponsored agreement does not make any such linkage, but the surrender of Serb heavy weaponry to the UN is covered in the original 1992 Vance plan. The bridge was reopened to automobile traffic on 29 July after considerable delay in paving it. The Croatian government is apparently anxious to show an impatient public that it is able to stand and hold its ground on the question of recovering the 25% of Croatian territory under rebel Serb control. Meanwhile, Reuters reported on 27 July that Croat troops were burning houses and crops in the area scheduled to be evacuated and placed under UN control. -Patrick Moore SERBIA'S CRISIS IN HEALTH-.-.-. On 28 July Velibor Popovic, the health minister of rump federal Yugoslavia warned of grave consequences if humanitarian aid is not exempted from international sanctions. Popovic stated that the mortality rate and incidence of illness are rising dramatically. Humanitarian aid shipments require approval of the UN sanctions committee, and Popovic accused Muslim members of the committee of turning down all humanitarian requests. Veljko Djerkovic, the assistant director of Belgrade's Health Protection Institute, recently told Vreme that government officials and doctors are surprised that the country has not had more epidemics in the past year. The influx of refugees into Belgrade from areas with higher rates of epidemics poses a serious threat to public health, he said, and much food is being sold in Belgrade without basic inspection. Some people are bringing meat from war-torn areas in Bosnia where health conditions are catastrophic. Djerkovic also called attention to contaminated ice cream being sold to children. -Milan Andrejevich .-.-.-AND ECONOMICS. Belgrade TV on 28 July reported that Serbia is in the grips of "monetary chaos." Bank customers often must wait in long lines for as many as six hours to withdraw money. The federal mint is working two and sometimes three shifts to print more money. Some stores raise prices on some goods 100-700% twice a day. The unofficial daily inflation rate is now reported at 20%. The Federal Statistical Office estimates that if the current rate continues, Serbia-Montenegro could face annual inflation of 1 billion percent. On 29 July the government announced a price freeze on certain foodstuffs and household items, a move that has been widely criticized. For example, Vojislav Seselj, leader of the Serbian Radical Party, reiterated his threat to topple both the federal and Serbian governments in the autumn. Meanwhile, Milorad Vujasinovic, head of the pro-Milosevic Federation of Independent Trade Unions announced that an agreement with the government is within reach, however the union presidium on 26 July called a general strike for 5-August. Serbia's Independent Trade Unions also backs a general strike call. -Milan Andrejevich CROATIA RESTORES WORLD WAR II-ERA CURRENCY. Hina reported on 29 July that the legislature passed a package of measures dealing with banking and finance, including replacing the transitional dinar with a permanent kuna at an unspecified date. Many speakers argued for calling the new currency "kruna" instead, since the kuna was used by the pro-Axis Ustasa regime during World War II and would be bad for Croatia's image abroad. Croatia in fact has a mixed record in dealing with the Ustasa legacy, although Tudjman has ruled out rehabilitating its leader Ante Pavelic and has often personally intervened to prevent streets and squares being renamed after leading Ustasa-era personalities. He has also kept the Tito-era "day of antifascist struggle" as a national holiday. Other actions, however, such as the reintroduction of the kuna, reinforce the image that the Zagreb government is politically insensitive to international opinion and the feelings of domestic minorities who suffered under the Ustasa's brutal policies. -Patrick Moore WALESA BOOED ON CAMPAIGN TRAIL-.-.-. Polish President Lech Walesa was greeted with faint applause and loud catcalls when he arrived in the town of Wrzesnia to meet with supporters from his presidential campaign on 28 July, Gazeta Wyborcza reports. Shifting into populist mode, Walesa mocked the Polish political system as a "caricature" of democracy. "There is democracy," the president said, "but only in the struggle for cushy positions." He criticized the government's privatization program for breeding crime and spawning scandals but praised Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka as "the only man in the government." Despite his criticism of the current system, Walesa once again endorsed elections as the only way to move the country forward. -Louisa Vinton .-.-.-AND FAULTED FOR COURTING POLICE AND MILITARY. On 26 July, during a meeting with high-ranking police officials that was closed to the press, Walesa warned that the current political situation is a boon to extremists and called for full mobilization on the part of the police. He pledged to protect the police from unfair screening procedures. In remarks not included in the official communique but reported by Gazeta Wyborcza, Walesa also urged police officials to support his Nonparty Reform Bloc (BBWR) as an alternative to the established parties. The prominence of military and police officers on the BBWR ticket has raised concern that the apolitical status of the military and police may be compromised. Under Polish law, police and military officers are not allowed to join political parties. They may run for office only if they take a leave of absence; they may not campaign in uniform or on military bases. Rzeczpospolita suggested on 28 July that the president is attempting to give his bloc a "uniformed leg." -Louisa Vinton APOLOGIES FOR POLISH "AGENTS." The Internal Affairs Ministry (MSW) apologized in two major Polish dailies on 29 July to former Sejm deputy and Rural Solidarity activist Antoni Furtak for having placed his name on the list of alleged communist "agents" that was released to the parliament in June 1992. Apologies are pending for former Justice Minister Aleksander Bentkowski, two former Sejm deputies, and a former deputy foreign minister. Seven additional court cases have been filed against the MSW. The release of the "agents" list led to the abrupt dismissal of the government headed by Prime Minister Jan Olszewski. The list was the work of former Internal Affairs Minister Antoni Macierewicz, who is now under investigation for allegedly revealing state secrets. A right-wing newspaper, Gazeta Polska, also faces charges for having published its own "agents" list in 1993. The courts have ruled on the issue of defamation of character rather than collaboration itself, as the MSW has refused to turn over the secret police archives. -Louisa Vinton DID FEDERAL INTELLIGENCE SERVICE SPY ON HAVEL, KLAUS? CZECH TV REPORTED ON 29 JULY THAT THE FORMER FEDERAL SECURITY AND INFORMATION OFFICE, FOUNDED TO PROTECT THE CONSTITUTIONAL ORDER IN POST-1989 CZECHOSLOVAKIA, SPIED ON LEADING CZECHOSLOVAK POLITICIANS, INCLUDING VACLAV HAVEL AND VACLAV KLAUS. Czech TV claimed that this spying activity was launched on 22-January 1992, when the intelligence service was led by Stefan Bacinsky. Bacinsky is now an employee of the Czech Ministry of Internal Affairs. Stanislav Devaty, the current director of the Czech Security and Information Service, became Bacinsky's deputy on 21 August 1992. Devaty has claimed that the gathering of compromising information about private lives of leading politicians was a private initiative of an FBIS agent Vaclav Wallis, who earlier this year sold the information to Viktor Kozeny, chairman of the Harvard Investment Fund, the largest such fund in the Czech Republic. Wallis is now facing criminal charges. However, Czech TV cast doubt on Devaty's statements, claiming that the spying was done by the Federal Security and Information Service as such. -Jiri Pehe SLOVAK PRESIDENT CALLS A MEETING OF POLITICIANS. In an effort to seek a way out of the current parliamentary crisis, President Michal Kovac called meetings on 28 and 29 July of representatives of leading political parties in Slovakia. During the talks, Kovac emphasized the need for political cooperation of all parties, but no agreement was reached. In a statement issued after the talks, a spokesman said that the president "is convinced that there are no intentions in Slovakia to solve the current political crisis through illegal and unconstitutional means that would lead to changes in the government." Also on the 29th, Slovak National Party Chairman Ludovit Cernak told CTK that coalition talks with the ruling Movement for a Democratic Slovakia have failed. Cernak is skeptical about holding early elections because, in his opinion, there are not enough votes (90 are needed) in the 150-member parliament to call new elections. However, TASR quotes Milan Ftacnik, vice president of the Party of the Democratic Left, as saying that events are moving in the direction of new elections. Christian Democratic Movement Chairman Jan Carnogursky told TASR that either the MDS changes its policies or there will be new elections. -Jiri Pehe SLOVAK BANK APPOINTMENT SURROUNDED BY CONTROVERSY. On 29 July President Michal Kovac officially appointed Vladimir Masar as governor and Marian Tkac as vice-governor of the Slovak National Bank. Both officials were elected by parliament in the middle of July. Tkac's appointment took place amid charges in the weekly Domino that the bank's new vice governor was registered as a secret police agent under the communist regime. Although Tkac has received an official certificate from the former federal Ministry of Internal Affairs that he was not a collaborator, the Domino article claims that the certificate is false and that documents seen by parliament's screening commission prove beyond a doubt that Tkac was a secret police agent. In an interview with CTK on 29 July, Tkac resolutely denied the charges. -Jiri Pehe HUNGARIAN AUDIT AGENCY CRITICIZES PRIVATIZATION, STATE HOLDING ORGANIZATIONS. A report by the State Audit Agency (SAS) says the State Asset Handling Company, which supervises most of Hungary's state-owned enterprises, made guarantees to many firms that it cannot back up financially, Hungarian Radio reports. Similar charges were leveled at the State Property Agency, the main organization for privatization. The SAS found the financial records of both organizations in shambles, and said they are unable to account for their properties. The SAS was unable to determine whether privatization prices represent real values or not. SPA spending on consulting fees was also found to be too high; one unnamed consulting firm received payments of 400 million forint (about $5 million). -Karoly Okolicsanyi BEROV SURVIVES ANOTHER NO-CONFIDENCE VOTE. According to an RFE/RL correspondent, on 29-July Bulgarian Premier Lyuben Berov and his cabinet survived yet another no-confidence vote by a margin of 141-to-80 in a secret ballot. The motion, backed by the opposition Union of Democratic Forces coalition, was called to challenge a government decree depriving municipal authorities of the right to impose local taxes. Berov said the coalition is "trying to flog a dead horse" since his government has already promised to revise the decree. This was the third attempt by the UDF to force the ouster of the Berov government in the past two months. On 22 July Berov comfortably survived a vote by a margin of 147-to-81. -Stan Markotich STRIKE IN ROMANIA'S JIU VALLEY. Striking miners besieged the mines administration headquarters in Petrosani on 29 July, RFE/RL and Radio Bucharest report. A strike that started on 27 July in Lupeni later spread to other mines in Jiu Valley. Between two and three thousand miners demonstrated on 29 July outside the administration's headquarters. They claimed that the average 70% pay increase they were promised this month is not enough and that too much of the funds made available goes to white-collar workers. The miners said that they are directing their protest against the administration, not against the government. Meanwhile in Bucharest, the government said the miners' demands would cause unjustified imbalances with other sectors of the economy and are financially impossible. The miners called for union leader Miron Cosma, who spent the day in Bucharest negotiating with the government, to return to the valley. Cosma's fame dates back to the days of the miners' rampage of Bucharest in June 1990, and he was active in the violent protests that led to the resignation of Petre Roman's government in September 1991. -Michael Shafir ROMANIAN BANK GOVERNOR QUESTIONS CHANCE OF IMF AGREEMENT. Mugur Isarescu says he is uncertain whether Romania will be able to conclude a new agreement with the IMF in September. An RFE/RL correspondent in Bucharest reports about a press conference on 29 July at which Isarescu cited disagreements over the inflation rate and the pace of economic reform. In contrast to Isarescu's pessimistic views, in an address to the country's prefects the same day, Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu said that there are good chances for an agreement to be concluded. Romania, Vacaroiu said, cannot "nod to the IMF" on everything, however, and must take into consideration the country's specific situation, including social costs. Vacaroiu harshly criticized some media and political personalities for statements on the economy that, he claimed, hurt Romania's image abroad and make negotiations unnecessarily difficult. -Michael Shafir BELARUS GRANTED FIRST IMF CREDIT. The Executive Directorate of the IMF decided on 28 July to grant Belarus a credit of around $98 million, thus giving the green light to the first IMF project in the republic, ITAR-TASS reported on 29 July. The credit, which is from the fund specially set up three months ago to further market reforms in the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union, is for one year and is to be used to reduce the monthly inflation rate from 30% to 5%, improve the balance of payments, and reduce the annual drop in the volume of gross domestic product from about 15% to 5%. If Belarus succeeds in realizing these aims, a second credit will be forthcoming from the same source. If the republic should embark on a more radical market program, then the fund is prepared to grant it a standard large-scale credit. -Ann Sheehy INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT CONFERENCE IN VILNIUS. On 29 July a two-day conference on integrating the Baltic transport system into that of the European Community opened in Vilnius, Radio Lithuania reports. The transport ministers of the three Baltic States as well as representatives and experts from the EC, the G-24 states, the World Bank, the European Investment Bank, and the EBRD are participating. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Bess Brown and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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