|The salvation of mankind lies only in making everything the concern of all. - Alexander Solzhenitsyn|
No. 143, 29 July 1993
RUSSIA FEDOROV ATTACKS GERASHCHENKO. At his first news conference after his return from Washington, Finance Minister Boris Fedorov launched an outspoken attack on the currency reform of 24 July and on its instigator, Russian Central Bank Chairman Viktor Gerashchenko, Western agencies reported on 28 July. Fedorov called the recall of old banknotes "a scandalous, stupid, and senseless action" that did not help reduce inflation, damaged Russia's relations with other former Soviet republics and with international financial organizations, and caused panic and mistrust in the population. "There is one culprit: Viktor Vladimirovich Gerashchenko," Fedorov asserted. The finance minister could not define President Yeltsin's position on the currency reform, stating merely "I don't think that the president supports this action." -Keith Bush GERASHCHENKO STANDS FIRM. In an interview with ITAR-TASS on 28 July, Gerashchenko rejected the parliamentary presidium's declared intention, announced earlier that day, to rescind all limits on the amount of old banknotes to be exchanged. He declared that the parliament, state authorities, and individuals have the right to propose changes in the Russian Central Bank's decision, but that the Bank has the right to approve or reject these proposals. According to The Boston Globe of 29 July, Gerashchenko has repeated his earlier claim that Yeltsin, Chernomyrdin, and top parliamentary officials had prior knowledge of the monetary reform measure and had not objected. Meanwhile, according to Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Lobov on 27 July, the RCB continues to support the ruble on currency exchanges: this appears to run counter to the provisions of the 21 May agreement between the government and the RCB. -Keith Bush IMF DISTANCES ITSELF FROM CURRENCY REFORM. In a statement carried by Reuters on 28 July, an unnamed official of the International Monetary Fund claimed that the Fund had not been consulted about the currency reform of 24 July. "The lack of consultation, at a time when the IMF is supporting a . . . reform program in Russia . . . is regrettable," said the official. He also criticized the Russian action for causing "an unnecessary degree of uncertainty " in other former Soviet republics that are still using the ruble. -Keith Bush YELTSIN APPOINTS NEW STATE SECURITY CHIEF, PARLIAMENT BACKS BARANNIKOV. Boris Yeltsin has named Nikolai Golushko Acting Minister of Security, Russian Television reported on 28 July. Golushko, who worked for the KGB for over 25 years, was appointed chairman of the Ukrainian KGB in 1987. In 1992 he joined the Russian Ministry of Security as one of Minister Viktor Barannikov's deputies. Meanwhile, an emergency session of the Presidium of the Russian parliament declared the removal of Barannikov illegal, an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 28 July. According to parliament speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov, a law adopted this year requires parliamentary approval of nominees to head the law enforcement ministries. Both the removal of Barannikov and the appointment of Golushko must be confirmed by a session of parliament, Khasbulatov said. -Victor Yasmann INGUSHETIA TO DECLARE INDEPENDENCE? INGUSH PRESIDENT RUSLAN AUSHEV TOLD A PRESS CONFERENCE IN MOSCOW ON 28 JULY THAT THE INACTION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERAL AUTHORITIES IN SOLVING THE NORTH OSSETIAN-INGUSH CONFLICT WAS FORCING THE INGUSH TO SEEK THEIR OWN WAY OUT OF THE SITUATION, THE RUSSIAN MEDIA REPORTED. Aushev said that decrees of the Russian president, parliament, and government had not been implemented. In these circumstances, Aushev said that it was very likely that the Congress of the Peoples of Ingushetia, due to meet on 31 July, would decide not to sign the federal treaty or endorse the new Russian constitution, and could even call for a referendum on the question of Ingushetia remaining part of the Russian Federation. Up to now the Ingush have felt they had a better chance of regaining the Prigorodnyi raion of North Ossetia by remaining part of Russia. -Ann Sheehy YELTSIN EXTENDS STATE OF EMERGENCY IN NORTH OSSETIA, INGUSHETIA. "In connection with the continuing exacerbation of the situation" Yeltsin signed a decree on 27-July extending the state of emergency in parts of North Ossetia and Ingushetia until 30-September, ITAR-TASS and Ekho Moskvy reported on 28 July. At the request of North Ossetia, four further settlements have been included in the area covered by the state of emergency. Yeltsin said that 5,000 internal troops were to be stationed in the area, and military units were to be reinforced with more helicopters. He instructed the Security Council to hold a special session to give a political evaluation of the armed clash between Ossetians and Ingush in October-November 1992 and to draw up proposals to regulate the conflict in the light of today's circumstances. -Ann Sheehy ENERGY PRICES RISE SHARPLY. The prices of oil products increased 60% in the first half of July alone, a government research institute reported in Izvestiya on 23 July. The jump follows the issue of a presidential decree the first week of July which frees oil prices from direct government regulation. Coal and natural gas prices have also been subject to varying degrees of deregulation this year. Since the beginning of the year, the price of crude oil has increased 2.7 times, natural gas 4.1 times, and coal 2.6 times. The recent increases have yet to push up the rate of consumer price inflation which has remained (officially) below 20% since the February. The price increases may also have an appreciable negative effect on production, the decline of which had been slowing recently. -Erik Whitlock VORKUTA MINERS THREATEN ACTION OVER PROPOSED PIT CLOSURES. A conference in the northern coal-mining center of Vorkuta on 27 July demanded that the Russian government and other central authorities draw up and adopt a special program on proposed pit closures and the giving of real social guarantees to those who lose their jobs, ITAR-TASS reported on 28-July. Until the program was adopted, they added, no workers should be dismissed. The agency said that up to now the Vorkutans have received no proper answers from the Russian leadership. They are prepared to wait until 5 August, but if no real progress in solving the problems in the mines is made by then, the miners could take more decisive actions. -Ann Sheehy TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA ABKHAZ CEASEFIRE IMMEDIATELY VIOLATED? WITHIN AN HOUR AFTER A RUSSIAN-BROKERED CEASEFIRE WENT INTO EFFECT ON 28 JULY, GEORGIA AND ABKHAZIA ACCUSED EACH OTHER OF VIOLATING THAT AGREEMENT, REUTERS REPORTED. The Abkhaz parliament accused Georgia of opening fire on the village of Nizhnaya Eshera, while a Georgian Defense Ministry spokesman said that Abkhaz forces had resumed shelling of Sukhumi. Georgian Parliament Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze left for Sukhumi on 28 July to investigate the allegations that Georgian troops had violated the agreement. -Catherine Dale AZERBAIJAN, KARABAKH OFFICIALS DISCUSS SETTLEMENT. On 28 July, the final day of the 3-day ceasefire, foreign and defense ministry officials from Azerbaijan and Nagorno-Karabakh met in Mardakert to discuss possibilities for a permanent solution to the Karabakh conflict; no details have been divulged, according to ITAR-TASS. Also on 28 July, the UN Security Council continued to discuss the Turkish request for a resolution condemning the Armenian occupation of Agdam. -Liz Fuller KOZYREV APPOINTED SPECIAL RUSSIAN REPRESENTATIVE ON TAJIKISTAN. As a measure of his concern at the ongoing fighting on the Tajik-Afghan border in which Russian troops are taking a major role, President Boris Yeltsin has appointed Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev his Special Representative on Tajikistan, ITAR-TASS reported on 28 July. Kozyrev is to coordinate the work of the Russian Ministries of Security, Defense and Foreign Affairs in coping with the crisis and induce the leaderships of the other four Central Asian states to take a more active role in resolving the Tajikistan situation. At the top of the list of Kozyrev's new responsibilities is persuading the government of Tajikistan to establish a dialog with the Tajik opposition, who are the intended beneficiaries, if not the initiators, of the armed penetrations of Tajik territory from Afghanistan that the Russian and other troops on the Tajik side of the border are trying to stop. The Tajik government has so far flatly refused to meet with the opposition. -Bess Brown AKAEV OPENS BORDER CROSSING TO CHINA. On 28 July Kyrgzystan's President Askar Akaev formally opened his country's first frontier-crossing station on the Chinese border, ITAR-TASS reported. Opening of the crossing point, on the Torugart Pass, is another step in the improving economic relations between Kyrgyzstan and China. Kyrgyzstan is reported to have the third-highest volume of trade with China among states of the former USSR, exporting fertilizer, glass and metal pipes and importing consumer goods and sugar. -Bess Brown WESTERN CRITICISM OF CENTRAL ASIAN HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS INCREASES. Sen. Dennis DeConcini, Chairman of the Congressional Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, in a letter to President Karimov of Uzbekistan criticized recent human rights violations in Uzbekistan, RFE/RL learned on 28 July. DeConcini expressed concern about the trial of six men in the "Milli Majlis" case. These men are on trial for organizing a round table of political parties in order to discuss the political situation in Uzbekistan. The Senator pointed out that "[Uzbek] government's decision to try them . . . is a serious violation of their right to freedom of speech as enshrined in the Helsinki Final Act" which the Uzbek government signed in 1992. He called on Uzbekistan to cease the repression of its citizens. DeConcini, also, according to the Congressional Record of 26 July, speaking in the US Senate, asked the Congress to withhold most-favored nation status from Uzbekistan until its government ceases its repressive policies. Also, Turkmenistan has been criticized in a new Helsinki Watch report of being "complacent" about fulfilling its obligations to protect the rights of its citizens. -Yalcin Tokgozoglu COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES KAZAKHSTAN, UZBEKISTAN CALL FOR EMERGENCY CIS SUMMIT. Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbaev and Uzbekistan President Islam Karimov issued a joint appeal in Almaty on 28 July to the other CIS heads of state to hold an emergency summit at the beginning of August, ITAR-TASS reported. The two presidents complained that "regional separatism, the isolationism of individual states and their desire to get out of the crisis on their own or at the expense of the economic interests of neighboring states" were taking the place of economic integration, and suggested the summit should discuss the realization of the decision on creating an economic union, the immediate implementation of the agreement on an interstate bank and the creation of a CIS payments union, and the effective realization of the CIS collective security pact. The next routine CIS summit, which was to have taken place in mid-July, was put off until later in the year. In the meantime the Central Asian states have been put out not only by Russia's ruble exchange but also the intention of the three Slav republics to form an economic union. -Ann Sheehy CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE POLAND, VATICAN SIGN CONCORDAT. Polish Foreign Affairs Minister Krzysztof Skubiszewski and Papal Nuncio Archbishop Jozef Kowalczyk signed a concordat between Poland and the Holy See on 28 July in Warsaw, PAP reports. President Lech Walesa and Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka attended the ceremonies. With the weight of a bilateral agreement between two states, the concordat is designed to regulate Polish-Vatican relations, on the one hand, and Church-state relations in Poland, on the other. Skubiszewski said that the concordat is based on the principle that Church and state are "independent and autonomous" entities that can also cooperate for the common good. The agreement affirms the status quo with respect to religious education in schools: "the state guarantees" the provision of religious education "in accordance with the will" of parents and students. Gazeta Wyborcza reports that the government was divided on this issue and that the voluntary nature of religious education was confirmed only when several ministers insisted on it. The concordat puts Church weddings on par with civil ceremonies, provided they are registered. The civil right to divorce remains unaffected. Skubiszewski expressed confidence that the new Sejm will ratify the concordat. Some parties criticized the agreement, however, on the grounds that the government had signed the concordat before the adoption of a new constitution. Gazeta Wyborcza reports that Pope John Paul II considers the agreement with Poland to be a model for other countries in Central Europe. Italy and Portugal are now the only other European states with concordats. -Louisa Vinton POLISH-RUSSIAN TRADE AGREEMENT COMPLETED. Polish and Russian officials initialed a new bilateral treaty on trade and economic cooperation in Warsaw on 28 July, PAP reports. The treaty, which is to be signed during Russian President Boris Yeltsin's visit to Poland later this year, replaces the communist-era trade agreement dating from 1945. An official communique issued on 28 July said that the new treaty restores "sovereign equality" to trade relations. These are to be based on free-market principles, hard-currency accounting, and international norms. A Polish-Russian agreement on the construction of a pipeline to convey Russian natural gas through Poland to Western Europe was also initialed on 28 July. Deputy Prime Minister Henryk Goryszewski hailed this agreement as a boost to Poland's "energy sovereignty." The pipeline, which is to cross Belarus as well, will supply Poland's gas needs for several decades. The Western European customers at the other end of the line will guarantee uninterrupted deliveries. As Polish TV noted, "you can either turn off the tap for all customers, or for none." The cost of the Polish segment is estimated at $3.2 billion. Polish firms will do the building; Western banks will provide the financing. Construction is to begin in 1994. -Louisa Vinton POLAND ANNOUNCES HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION PLAN. The government adopted a "priority program" on 27 July to build 2,000 kilometers of toll highways in Poland over the coming 15 years, Polish TV reports. Three major new highways are planned. The first is to run north to south from Gdansk via Czestochowa to the Czech border. The other two are to run west to east, the first from Poznan via Warsaw to Terespol, and the second from Wroclaw via Katowice and Cracow to Medyka. The construction program is expected to create 170,000 new jobs. The government will provide 15% of the financing, with the remainder to come from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. The new highways are expected to pay for themselves in 30 years' time. -Louisa Vinton SILAJDZIC SEES LITTLE SUCCESS IN PEACE TALKS. Face-to-face peace talks between the Bosnian government, Bosnian Serb and Croat leaders, and the presidents of Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia continued in Geneva on 28 July. No details emerged after the two-hour meeting of the three warring sides, international media report. Sources said that the discussions were to focus on maps showing the outlines of three proposed ethnic ministates. Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic is reported as again rejecting any "confederal solution." A spokesman for the conference said that the talks were "progressing steadily." Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic warned that there are two ways to end the war: "one way would be through talks, the other would be total defeat of one side-and it would be the Muslim side". Bosnian Foreign Minister Haris Silajdzic said that the negotiations are based on "the situation on the ground created by the use of brutal force and genocide" against Muslims. "I hope I will be proved wrong, but I don't think there is any progress," he said. Mediator Lord Owen told reporters he would be surprised if any deal were struck before the weekend. Meanwhile, fighting continues around Mount Zuc, north of Sarajevo. News agencies say Serb forces gained ground overlooking the city, which is reported quiet, while Bosnian Radio said Muslim lines are intact. Elsewhere Serb attacks continue around Brcko in the northeast. -Fabian Schmidt ST0RMY SESSION IN CROATIAN PARLIAMENT. Vjesnik of 29 July and the BBC's Croatian Service on 28-July said that a lively discussion ensued in the lower house when Istrian deputies introduced proposals aimed at expanding regional autonomy. They charged the ruling Croatian Democratic Community (HDZ) with promoting a high degree of centralized control and with viewing local and regional government as little more than a transmission belt for the Zagreb authorities. In the heat of the debate one deputy demanded the resignation of house speaker Stipe Mesic. Elsewhere, Hina on 29 July quoted Serbian Krajina rebel authorities as saying the previous day that they will not place their heavy weapons under UNPROFOR control. The Croatian military may now find themselves tempted not to live up to an agreement to withdraw from the Maslenica bridge and Zemunik airport areas at the end of the month. Finally, Vecernji list of 28 July and Hina the following day report on the flight of Croats in central Bosnia from Bugojno in the wake of the town's fall to the Muslims. Hina quoted a BBC reporter as saying it was the worst case of ethnic cleansing he has seen all year. -Patrick Moore SLOVAKIA, SLOVENIA SIGN ACCORDS. Slovak Premier Vladimir Meciar and his Slovene counterpart, Janes Drnovsek, signed four agreements during Drnovsek's one-day visit to Slovakia on 28 July, Slovak media report. The accords cover issues such as the liberalization of bilateral trade, payments in bilateral trade, mutual protection of investment, and abolition of visa requirements for travel between the two countries. Both premiers said that they hope the agreements will help increase bilateral trade and tourism. -Jiri Pehe MORAVCIK DENIES THAT HE SHOULD REPLACE MECIAR. Slovak Foreign Minister Jozef Moravcik told CTK on 28 July that reports that he had been asked to replace Vladimir Meciar as prime minister are "false." CTK says it obtained the information from "a very well informed source" close to the leadership of the ruling Movement for a Democratic Slovakia. Parliament Chairman Ivan Gasparovic said on 26 July that he was asked by the Slovak National Party, which is engaged in coalition talks with the MDS, to replace Meciar and that an MDS deputy approached him with a similar offer. However, he denied a CTK report that the MDS parliamentary caucus discussed such a proposal and accused those who spread such information as trying to disrupt political life in Slovakia. On 22 July Meciar told Slovak Radio that there had been attempts in the parliament to find someone who could replace him in the post of Prime Minister. Meciar, however, ascribed these efforts solely to the opposition. -Jiri Pehe HUNGARIAN EXPORTS DECLINE DRASTICALLY. Minister for International Economic Relations Bela Kadar told a press conference that exports, calculated in dollars, decreased by 27% in the first half of 1993 compared with the same period last year, Hungarian Radio reports. Imports grew by 6%, giving a trade deficit of $1.4-billion. Kadar said some of the decline came because of the German mark's fall against the dollar in the exchange markets, but West European recession, the Yugoslav UN embargo, drought, and lack of adequate export financing were also cited as reasons. In the first half of 1993, $700 million in direct foreign investment came to Hungary, Kadar said. -Karoly Okolicsanyi WORLD BANK HOLDS UP ROMANIA LOAN. A spokesman for the World Bank in Washington says it is withholding a final loan totaling about $150 million because of the Romania's poor economic performance, an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 28 July. Earlier the IMF blocked a $75-million final payment to Romania under a standby arrangement. A World Bank representative in Bucharest for talks with Romanian officials told reporters on 28 July that some broad economic reform measures must be taken before Romania may draw on the loans. Arntraud Hartmann said the bank is not going to "inject money into an unstable economic environment hit by inflation." He added that Romania must reduce its budget deficit, adjust interest rates, and stabilize the external balance of payments. -Michael Shafir UDF IN SEARCH OF POLITICAL ALLIES. According to a memorandum published in Demokratsiya on 28 July, the Union of Democratic Forces is considering allowing other staunchly anticommunist parties and organizations join the coalition. The UDF declares itself ready to enter negotiations and subsequently to cooperate with any organized political group that shares the coalition's chief aims and broad principles, as well as guarantees never to collaborate with the excommunist Bulgarian Socialist Party. Among the key political goals outlined in the memorandum is the demand for general elections in the immediate future, declassification of secret police files, prosecution of former top-ranking communists, and "decommunization" of the church. Opinion polls indicate that the UDF has steadily been losing supporters over the last couple of months. -Kjell Engelbrekt BULGARIAN RADIO TO LAUNCH TURKISH-LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING. On 28 July 24-Chasa reported that Ivan Obretenov, head of Bulgarian National Radio, announced that domestic Turkish-language radio broadcasts over medium wave will begin on 1-August. Three 30-minute broadcasts are scheduled daily. As of 1 October, Turkish-language programming will be expanded to three daily one-hour broadcasts. -Stan Markotich NANO LOSES PARLIAMENTARY IMMUNITY. In a vote held on 27 July deputies of the Albanian parliament voted to remove the immunity of Socialist Party leader Fatos Nano. Deputies from the ruling Democratic Party, the Democratic Alliance, the Republican Party, plus three deputies of the Social Democratic Party took part in the vote, but the Socialists boycotted it. Proceedings can now begin against Nano for alleged abuse of funds during his brief tenure as prime minister in 1991. Reuters reports on 28 July that Namik Dokle, the head of the Socialists' parliamentary group, read a statement to parliament calling the move against Nano a "witch hunt." The Socialist daily Zeri i Popullit carried a statement on 29 July charging that the Democratic Party has been usurped by a bloc of "ballist-fascists" (referring to the wartime Balli Kombetar Party, the opposition to the communists) and that "their thirst for retaliation does not have limits." While the Socialists interpret the move against Nano as a politically motivated attempt to destroy or at least cripple their party, other deputies not aligned with the ruling Democrats consider the charges against Nano quite serious and would like see justice done. The Socialists have declared a complete boycott of the parliament and will undoubtedly seek other avenues to battle the ruling party as well. -Robert Austin UKRAINE DISMANTLING SOME LONG-RANGE MISSILES. Following a three-hour meeting between visiting Foreign Minister Konstantin Morozov and US Secretary of Defense Les Aspin on 27 July, Pentagon officials announced that Ukraine has begun dismantling some of its 10-warhead SS-19 long-range nuclear missiles, Western agencies report. Morozov reportedly promised that Ukraine will eventually dismantle all 130-of its SS-19's; US officials in response will begin providing some $175 million in aid that has already been approved by Congress. While American officials described Kiev's actions as an important first step, they noted that Ukraine declines to discuss a schedule for dismantling its more modern SS-24 missiles, the New York Times reports. Earlier in the day on the 27th, Kiev and Washington also signed a defense cooperation agreement that provides for exchanges between high-level military officials and the provision of US military expertise. -Stephen Foye US COMPANY TO DISPOSE OF UKRAINIAN WEAPONS. The New York Times also reported on 28-July that Morozov has concluded a deal with US munitions maker Alliant Techsystems, Inc., to begin cutting up more than 200,000 tons of surplus Ukrainian ammunition. Alliant and Ukrainian officials reportedly estimate that the resulting sales of scrap copper, steel, brass, and aluminum could generate more than $100-million in revenue over the next five years. Alliant and the Ukrainian government would divide the proceeds. -Stephen Foye RUSSIA BLAMES LITHUANIA FOR TROOP WITHDRAWAL DELAY. Viktor Isakov, the head of the Russian delegation negotiating troop withdrawal from Lithuania, said that Lithuania is responsible for the failure to sign a formal agreement on the withdrawal, Radio Lithuania reported on 28 July. Because Lithuania is primarily concerned with internal political affairs, only one meeting (in May) of the negotiating delegations has been held since October 1992. Lithuanian President Algirdas Brazauskas has stated that since the withdrawal is proceeding successfully according to the timetable signed by the countries' defense ministers on 8-September 1992, such an agreement might be signed after the troop withdrawal is completed on 31 August. Isakov asserted that President Yeltsin will not agree to meet Brazauskas in Moscow unless the agreement is signed. -Saulius Girnius TALKS CONTINUE ON LITHUANIAN-RUSSIAN GAS JOINT VENTURE. On 27 July Petr Rodionov, the director general of the St. Petersburg firm Lentransgaz, held talks in Vilnius with Lithuanian Energy Minister Algimantas Stasiukynas on the formation of a joint-venture gas company, Radio Lithuania reports. In an earlier visit to Vilnius on 9 July Rodionov agreed to restore the shipment of gas to Lithuania that was stopped on 27 June and said that Lithuania should agree to form a joint venture with Lentransgaz, similar to the one that Estonia has. Stasiukynas met a 7-member Russian working group that is drawing up the documents for the joint venture. Rodionov had earlier also expressed Lentransgaz's interest in buying a 20% share in the oil refinery at Mazeikiai and a controlling share in Lithuania's largest gas user, the Azotas fertilizer plant in Jonava. -Saulius Girnius AN END TO LATVIA'S PROMISSORY NOTE SCANDAL? RITA AKSENOKA, SENIOR ASSISTANT TO THE PROSECUTOR-GENERAL, SAID THAT HER OFFICE HAS EXAMINED THE MATERIALS CONCERNING THE $400-MILLION IN PROMISSORY NOTES ISSUED BY THE LATVIAN INVESTMENT BANK LAST YEAR AND CONCLUDED THAT THE LETTER OF FORMER FINANCE MINISTER ELMARS SILINS OF 4 DECEMBER 1992 CAN BE UNDERSTOOD AS A FORMAL STATE GUARANTEE TO REPAY THE DEBT. She added that since there have been no negative consequences for the country from this affair-the promissory notes were retrieved and annulled in Belgium 19 July-the Prosecutor's Office decided on 22 July not to take the case to court. Aksenoka told Diena on 28 July that she considers it abnormal that negligent officials should not be called to account for themselves simply on the grounds that potentially harmful consequences of their actions did not occur. Latvia could have suffered bankruptcy if it had to repay the $400 million. -Dzintra Bungs ESTONIA HAS NEGATIVE TRADE BALANCE. The Customs Department announced that in the first half of 1993 goods worth 4.42 billion kroons ($321 million) were exported while imports totaled 4.63 billion kroons ($338 million), BNS reported on 28 July. The figures do not include gas imports, electricity exports, and payments for services or capital transfers. Finland, Russia, and Sweden were the leading importers and exporters together accounting for a little less than 60% of both totals. Agricultural products were the leading exports (19.2%) and imports (13.3%). Since exports of nonferrous metals (12.0% of total) were three times greater than imports, their smuggling into Estonia continues unabated. Estonia trades with 90-countries, having a favorable trade balance with 55 of them. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Bess Brown and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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