|Human life is but a series of footnotes to a vast obscure unfinished masterpiece. - Vladimir Nabokov|
No. 142, 28 July 1993
RUSSIA TENSION CONTINUES OVER CURRENCY REFORM. An RFE/RL correspondent reports that the presidium of the Russian parliament decided on 28 July in principle to rescind all limits on the exchange of old ruble notes. It was not clear whether parliament has the power to modify the original measure of the Russian Central Bank as modified by President Boris Yeltsin. The confiscatory nature of the limitation has been highlighted by many critics of the currency reform. Despite an ITAR-TASS claim on 27 July that President Yeltsin's decree of the previous day had helped to stabilize the situation, eye-witness reports described huge lines of people waiting to change their banknotes and scenes of some chaos within the savings banks. In Moscow, an RFE/RL correspondent reported that banks have organized a system whereby those holding a residence permit are given priority. This means even longer waits for those from other former Soviet republics and from other foreign countries. It is not clear whether the original exchange cut-off date of 26 July for foreigners has been extended or merely ignored. -Keith Bush RECRIMINATIONS MOUNT. Russian Central Bank Chairman Viktor Gerashchenko told a news conference and Izvestiya on 27 July that members of the cabinet, members of President Yeltsin's staff and top officials of parliament had been informed in advance about the planned currency reform. He stopped short of saying that the president knew any details of the measure but felt certain that the president was informed at least "in general terms." Parliamentary Speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov claimed that he had been informed "as late as Saturday," but did not specify whether this notification came before or after the measure had been announced. Prosecutor General Valentin Stepankov called for the cancellation of the currency reform, and threatened to remove Gerashchenko if he declines. Presidential adviser Sergei Shakhrai hinted that the government could be forced to resign over the affair. -Keith Bush SAKHA (YAKUTIA) THREATENS TO ISSUE OWN CURRENCY. Provisional arrangements are being made for the introduction of a national currency in Sakha (Yakutia), Ostankino television reported on 27 July citing the Postfaktum agency. The agency, citing a source in the administration of the president of Sakha (Yakutia), said that the currency would only be issued if the president, Mikhail Nikolaev, was unable to reach agreement in Moscow on the comprehensive financing by the Russian government of state-owned enterprises on the territory of Sakha and of support in the social sphere. Nikolaev's administration considers that the national currency would have better backing from the republic's own gold resources than the ruble has. At the beginning of July, Sakha threatened to introduce a state of emergency and appropriate all local financial resources if the central government did not provide credit to enable supplies for the winter to be shipped in before the rivers, the main transport link, freeze in September. -Ann Sheehy VIKTOR BARANNIKOV DISMISSED. Minister of Security Viktor Barannikov has been dismissed by President Boris Yeltsin for "violation of ethical norms and serious failures in the leadership of his ministry, including of the Border Troops," an apparent reference to recent events on the Tajik-Afghan border, Russian Television reported on 27 July. Yeltsin's edict also says that Barannikov's dismissal does not indicate distrust of the entire ministry. Barannikov's ouster may be connected with the power struggle between Yeltsin and the Russian parliament. Although Barannikov was considered to be a Yeltsin's loyalist, he failed to prevent frequent leaks of confidential government documents to the anti-Yeltsin opposition. In addition, Yeltsin recently dismissed the First Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs, Andrei Dunaev, who was responsible for the operative and agent network. Dunaev and Barannikov were long-time associates in the MVD. Possible successors of Barannikov are the present chief of the Moscow State Security Administration, Evgenii Savostyanov and Yeltsin's political adviser Sergei Stankevich. -Victor Yasmann NATIONAL SALVATION FRONT SPLITS. Following the second congress of the opposition pro-communist and pro-nationalist organization on 24-25 July, some key members of the NSF have left to form their own party. Nikolai Pavlov and Sergei Baburin, leaders of the Russian All-People's Union and Valerii Ivanov, leader of the Party of Russian National Renaissance, who are all co-chairmen of the NSF, together with Nikolai Lysenko, leader of the National Republican Party of Russia, announced their intention to quit the NSF. They will abandon "any attempts at consolidation with the communists" according to Lysenko on Ekho Moskvy on 27-July, and also will reject those "who cannot string two words together without mentioning a Jewish-Masonic plot." They intend to form their own opposition movement in time for the next elections. -Wendy Slater ECONOMIC CONFERENCE OPENS IN MOSCOW. A national conference on the economy organized by Parliamentary Speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov opened on 27 July, Russian news agencies reported. The conference is being attended by 1,200 delegates from across Russia including People's Deputies, academics and regional representatives as well as prominent political figures opposed to the current government such as Vice-President Alexander Rutskoi, Central Bank Chairman Viktor Gerashchenko and Constitutional Court Chairman, Valerii Zorkin. Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, who was supposed to co-chair the conference, did not attend amid a continuing uproar over the Central Bank's decision to withdraw Soviet-era rubles from circulation. In his opening speech, Khasbulatov demanded that the government adapt its policies to deal with the collapse in production. He also insisted that the next Congress of People's Deputies should deal with economic rather than constitutional issues. The conference will now divide into groups in order to prepare specific proposals on various aspects of economic policy. -Dominic Gualtieri MOSCOW NEGOTIATING ON CAM RANH BAY. The Singapore Times reported on 26 July that Russia and Vietnam are currently negotiating a new agreement that would define the terms under which Russian ships could use logistical facilities at the Vietnamese port of Cam Ranh Bay. At the conclusion of the Vietnam War, the former US military base was taken over by Hanoi, which granted the Soviet Navy access to it. When the Soviet Union collapsed, Russia and Vietnam continued to observe the agreement but, according to the report, the number of ships using the port declined significantly. Speaking in Singapore on 22 July, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev defended a continued Russian military presence at Cam Ranh Bay. -Stephen Foye TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA ABKHAZ CEASEFIRE SIGNED. In Sochi on 27 July Georgian Parliament Speaker Vakhtang Goguadze, Deputy Chairman of the Abkhaz Supreme Soviet Sokrat Dzhindzholia, and Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev signed a ceasefire agreement which goes into effect at noon on 28 July, ITAR-TASS reported. The document stipulates that trilateral groups stationed throughout Abkhazia will begin monitoring compliance with the ceasefire on 29 July, and will cooperate with international observers when they arrive. By 5-August, a joint commission, including UN and CSCE representatives, will be established to work out a final settlement of the conflict. Within 10-15 days, Georgian forces will be withdrawn from the conflict zone. "Other armed groups," a reference to Russian and North Caucasian mercenaries said to be participating in the fighting, will also be disbanded and withdrawn. -Catherine Dale TAJIK OPPOSITION SAYS IT HAS STINGERS. Muhammadsharif Himmatzoda, head of the Tajik opposition Islamic Renaissance Party, has told the Pakistani daily News that the opposition has bought Stinger missiles from its Afghan allies, Western agencies reported on 27 July. Himmatzoda was reported to have said that the Tajik opposition will use the missiles only if the need arises; according to ITAR-TASS he offered to sell them to the US if US officials would establish direct contact with his group. On 26 July Western agencies reported from Dushanbe that Tajikistan's Foreign Minister Rashid Alimov had told journalists that his country offered to hold talks with representatives of Russia, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan to try to find a solution to the conflict on the Tajik-Afghan border. Alimov flatly rejected the inclusion of the Tajik opposition now headquartered in Afghanistan in the talks. -Bess Brown KITOVANI SAYS SHEVARDNADZE SHOULD RESIGN. In an interview with ITAR-TASS on 24 July, Georgia's former Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defense Tengiz Kitovani warned that if Shevardnadze did not resign, the conflict in Abkhazia would continue and Georgia would become the scene of civil war. Kitovani stated that certain military circles in Russia cannot forgive Shevardnadze for the role he played as Soviet Foreign Minister, and therefore they are trying to force Shevardnadze's resignation by exacerbating the conflict in Abkhazia. At the same time, Kitovani continued, the Georgian parliament and people will never forgive Shevardnadze if he signs an agreement that sanctions the loss of Abkhazia. -Catherine Dale TURKMENISTAN TO INTRODUCE OWN CURRENCY IN OCTOBER. Turkmenistan's President Saparmurad Niyazov announced on 26 July that his country will introduce its own currency in October, Russian sources reported. In the meantime, old Russian rubles will remain the official currency. Niyazov denied that recent developments in Russia had affected Turkmenistan's timetable, though an Ostankino TV report suggested that this is indeed the case. Niyazov called on citizens not to panic, referring to the frantic buying up of goods which he said has already begun, and he appealed to them to put their money in savings banks to facilitate the currency exchange in October. Since it became independent Turkmenistan has repeatedly threatened to introduce its own currency; reportedly the new currency has already been printed. -Bess Brown AZERBAIJAN AND ARMENIA PAY GAS DEBTS TO TURKMENISTAN. Armenia and Azerbaijan are paying their debts to Turkmenistan for natural gas with increased deliveries of goods and equipment to Turkmenistan, Radio Mayak reported on 26 July. Armenia will pay its $6 million debt for shipment of the gas in rubles, while Azerbaijan will pay its $34-million debt partly with hard currency and partly by supplying equipment and materials to the Turkmen gas concern Turkmengaz. Officials of the Turkmen gas industry have agreed to consider increasing gas deliveries to Armenia during the summer, if it will be paid for at winter rates. -Yalcin Tokgozoglu IMF CREDIT FOR KAZAKHSTAN. The International Monetary Fund has approved a $86-million credit for Kazakhstan from its "systemic transformation facility," a new fund designed to help former socialist countries make the transition to market economies, according to the Financial Times on 27 July. The report suggests that Kazakhstan has qualified for the credit because it has succeeded in restraining the size of its budget deficit through improved tax collection, cuts in state spending and reductions in state subsidies. The projected budget deficit for this year is 6% of GDP. -Sheila Marnie CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIA PEACE TALKS OPEN. After the end of the first session of the peace talks in Geneva on 27 July, Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic, Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic, and a UN spokesman said that they made some progress but gave no details. Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic, Bosnian Croat leader Mate Boban, Croatian President Franjo Tudjman, and Montenegrin President Momir Bulatovic also participated in the talks, international media report. Meanwhile, French peacekeepers came under attack again as Serbs continued shelling Sarajevo. The French Foreign Ministry called on the UN immediately to implement Resolution 836, which permits defensive air cover, and a NATO spokesman said that NATO planes are ready to move if the UN wants. Radio Sarajevo reports a Serb offensive on Zuc Mountain, north of the city, where Muslim defense lines were holding, and Serb shelling around Brcko and Gorazde. Croatian Radio reported that Muslim forces had broken through Bosnian Croat defense lines at Banovo Brdo near Fojnica, west of Sarajevo. International aid organizations working in the isolated enclave of Tuzla appealed urgently to the UN Security Council for intervention to break a blockade by Serbs and Croats. -Fabian Schmidt RADIO BROD ON THE AIR. The EC-subsidized Radio Brod (Radio Boat) will resume 24-hour broadcasts on 29 July, according to deputy editor Konstantin Jovanovic. The floating radio station in the Adriatic Sea began broadcasting to the former Yugoslavia on 7 April but was docked on 28 June by the International Telecommunications Union after Serbia complained that international law prohibits broadcasting from international waters. Jovanovic told RFE/RL on 27 July that intense international pressure persuaded the ITU to reverse its decision, and the boat has now been reregistered under the flag of the Caribbean island of St. Vincent. Called "Droit de Parole," the boat-radio is staffed by 10 well- known journalists from the former Yugoslavia. -Milan Andrejevich SLOVENIA ROCKED BY SCANDALS. Two major political scandals could force the resignation of the government and prompt new elections, local media report. Last week Vecerno delo published a story that Zmago Jelincic, head of the right-wing nationalist Slovenian National Party, which placed fourth in last December's parliamentary elections, had been an agent for the Yugoslav State Security Service since 1987, allegedly informing on the activities of Western journalists and Slovenian emigres. Although Jelincic denies any wrongdoing, questions have been raised in Delo and Mladina about possible links with key officials, such as President Milan Kucan and Prime Minister Janez Drnovsek. Analysts are predicting that the moderate-left coalition government will lose a vote of confidence in the autumn, forcing new elections, and that the powerful right-wing bloc will emerge the winners. Meanwhile, the discovery on 23 July of some 150 tons of smuggled arms at Maribor airport is turning into a major scandal that might damage Slovenia's international reputation. Media reports say that the investigation has determined that not only private citizens, but members of the Slovenian government have been involved in arms smuggling. The arms apparently originated in Saudi Arabia and were intended for Bosnian Muslim forces. Defense Minister Janez Jansa concedes that illegal arms trade is well organized. Critics suggest that he is withholding information prejudicial to a number of Slovenian figures and international investors. -Milan Andrejevich POLITICAL TENSIONS MOUNT IN CROATIA. The Zagreb dailies on 28 July report on a number of developments reflecting a general dissatisfaction across the political spectrum with the policies of President Franjo Tudjman and his center-right faction of the ruling Croatian Democratic Community (HDZ). On 27 July, 15 leaders of all major parties met to discuss the need to reverse some key Tudjman policies, especially that toward Bosnia-Herzegovina. Tudjman and his Herzegovinian advisors favor a de facto partition of the neighboring republic, while the bulk of Croatian opinion seems to feel that Croatia would lose its claim to its own territorial integrity by endorsing such a move which, in any event, would only benefit the Serbs. Tudjman's recent talk about possible land swaps with the Serbs has also left many uneasy, not least of all the people in the regions affected. One participant in the Zagreb meeting said that Cardinal Franjo Kuharic is "consternated and depressed" by the government's refusal to reverse course, but the HDZ again rejected any change in policy and any moves toward a coalition government. Vecernji list reports at length on the meeting, while Vjesnik runs an account of Tudjman's latest press conference, during which he continued to brand the Muslims as "mujahedeen and fundamentalist elements." The political turmoil is likely to continue, however, because another all-party meeting is slated for next week, while the HDZ will hold its congress on 15-16 October, at which time many expect the party to split into at least two factions. The larger group may well be the one headed by the pragmatic Stipe Mesic, and Tudjman's days of real power could prove to be numbered. -Patrick Moore ALBANIAN SOCIALIST PARTY RESPONDS TO MOVE AGAINST NANO. In response to a move by parliament to consider removing immunity from Socialist Party leader Fatos Nano, the party's parliamentary group has issued a harsh statement attacking President Sali Berisha. In a statement in the Socialist paper Zeri i-Popullit on 28 July, the group called the move "antidemocratic and antilegal" and reiterated the accusation that the ruling Albanian Democratic Party is trying to install a fascist dictatorship. Pointing to the 12-July imprisonment of Idajet Beqiri (leader of the miniscule Albanian National Unity Party) on charges of insulting and slandering Berisha, the Socialists also claimed that the government is moving against all opposition forces. A new three-point agenda calls for new elections, stresses that the Socialists will continue to boycott the People's Assembly, and announces a further boycott of Socialist representatives at the local level. The Socialists have continually used all means at their disposal to force new elections, which they feel they will win. Berisha seems determined to hold on until his mandate expires in 1996. The situation remains perilous with parliament at a standstill because of a three-party boycott, rifts in the Democratic Party becoming apparent, and an intense battle raging over the new constitution. -Robert Austin ALBANIA EXTENDS ANOTHER OLIVE BRANCH TO GREECE. After weeks of tense exchanges between Albania and Greece, Reuters reported on 23 July that Albanian Foreign Minister Alfred Serreqi has reiterated an earlier call to normalize relations. Serreqi said that Albania wants to resolve disputes because relations with Greece "are important not only in the bilateral dimension but for the entire Balkans." Ties between the two countries were strained after Albania expelled a Greek Orthodox cleric on 25 June and Greece responded with the deportation of thousands of illegal Albanian migrants. Earlier this month, Greek Prime Minister Constantine Mitsotakis suggested that Albania must reinstate the cleric and improve its stand on Greek minority rights in southern Albania before any progress could be made. -Robert Austin FIRST ELECTION DEADLINE PASSES IN POLAND. More than 500 Senate candidates managed to beat the midnight deadline on 26 July and submit the 3,000 supporting signatures required to register for the September elections, Polish TV reports. These candidates will vie for 100 seats in the upper house. Only 25-candidates had registered before the final frantic weekend of canvassing. The last-minute rush to file suggested that most parties had trouble collecting supporting signatures. Public interest in the elections appears to be low. Poll results published in Rzeczpospolita on 26-July showed that 55% of the respondents discuss the elections rarely and 24% not at all. Only one of the Senate candidates-the wealthy businessman Aleksander Gawronik-admitted to working in the past for the communist secret police. All candidates are required to file a statement on past ties with the communist secret police or intelligence services. The deadline for registration for the Sejm elections is 10-August. -Louisa Vinton UNEMPLOYMENT: THE MAJOR CAMPAIGN ISSUE? AS THE SEJM DEADLINE APPROACHES, DISARRAY CONTINUES TO PLAGUE THE CENTER-RIGHT OPPOSITION PARTIES. Despite repeated reports that the two rival right-wing leaders, former Prime Minister Jan Olszewski and Center Alliance leader Jaroslaw Kaczynski, are on the verge of a coalition agreement, the Senate deadline passed without any announcement of a pact. The proportion of seats to be allotted to each group is the contested issue. The more stable parties have already chosen candidates and opened their campaigns. Unemployment appears likely to be the key issue. The Liberal Democratic Congress (KLD), which opinion polls still show to be struggling below the 5% threshold, is both the best organized and best funded. The KLD opened its campaign on 19 July with a march through Warsaw to the accompaniment of a brass band. An advertising blitz followed with the KLD's slogans: "a million new jobs in four years" and "no slogans, just facts." The Democratic Union, promoting its cadre of tested professionals, is arguing that economic growth is the best solution to unemployment. Meanwhile, the opposition parties have launched an assault on the economic reform principles pursued since 1989. The former communist Democratic Left Alliance (KPN) has adopted the slogan "it doesn't have to be this way any more," while the populist Confederation for an Independent Poland is promising full employment, along with the party's "open budget" combination of fewer taxes and more spending. The KPN's campaign slogan is: "enough destruction of the Polish economy." -Louisa Vinton SLOVAK GOVERNMENT APPROVES BORDER AGREEMENT WITH CZECHS. On 27 July the Slovak government approved a Czech-Slovak agreement requiring that citizens of third countries cross the Czech-Slovak border only at official crossings. Premier Vladimir Meciar reached the agreement with his Czech counterpart, Vaclav Klaus, on 17 July. Slovak media quote Foreign Minister Jozef Moravcik as saying that the wording of the agreement is the same as that adopted by the Czech government on 21 July. Under the agreement, Czech and Slovak citizens will continue to be able to cross the border at any convenient point without special travel documents. The new regulation is designed to limit the number of refugees entering the Czech Republic on their way to Germany. -Jiri Pehe NEW BORDER CROSSINGS BETWEEN SLOVAKIA, HUNGARY. Radio Budapest reports that an agreement in principle has been reached to open three new border crossing stations between Hungary and Slovakia. The agreement came at the first ever official meeting by the chiefs of the two states' customs administrations. The new stations will open this year. -Karoly Okolicsanyi WEAK WHEAT HARVEST IN HUNGARY. An Agricultural Ministry official said that Hungary had the weakest harvest in 20 years, Hungarian Radio reported on 23 July. With over two-thirds of the harvest in, in some places the average yield is only about 5 tons per hectare instead of the 9-10 tons expected. Drought, late sowing, bad quality fertilizers, and uncertainty about ownership rights were cited as reasons for the low yield. Some relief for farmers may come from state-guaranteed wheat prices that were announced the same day. -Karoly Okolicsanyi NEW RADIO STATION FOR SOUTHERN HUNGARY. Hungarian Radio reports that a private company has announced the start of FM broadcasting next week. Radio Drava will broadcast from Osijek, Croatia, in order to circumvent the Hungarian moratorium on assigning radio frequencies in force because the government and the opposition have been unable to agree on a new media law. The standoff has effectively blocked the establishment of private radio and TV broadcasting in Hungary. -Karoly Okolicsanyi ILIESCU IN ARGENTINA. Romanian president Ion Iliescu is concluding a two-day visit to Argentina, the first stop on his South-American tour. He is scheduled to visit the nuclear plant of Embalse before flying to Uruguay. On 27 July Iliescu conducted talks with president Carlos Menem, Radio Bucharest reports. -Michael Shafir GYPSY OFFICIALS PROTEST RACISM IN ROMANIAN MEDIA. At a news conference in Bucharest on 27 July, officials representing Romanian Gypsies protested racism in some media, RFE/RL and Radio Bucharest report. They compared the language used in some press articles to that used in the 1930s, "before 250,000 Romas were killed in [German] concentration camps." Among other examples, they cited articles appearing in Romania mare, a weekly published by Greater Romania Chairman Corneliu Vadim Tudor. The officials criticized journalists for stressing the ethnic background of Gypsy suspects in reports of crime. The protesters say they will present the Council of National Minorities with documentary evidence of their claims. -Michael Shafir LITHUANIAN ECONOMIC POLICY MEMORANDUM WITH IMF. On 27 July Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius noted that significant progress has been made in talks with IMF officials on the economic policy memorandum that is required to obtain loans, Radio Lithuania reports. The IMF delegation also had meetings with President Algirdas Brazauskas and Bank of Lithuania Chairman Romualdas Visokavicius. Slezevicius said that compromises had been reached on various IMF suggestions, the most difficult being reduction of inflation to 10% in 1994. The IMF Council still has to approve the memorandum, which is expected to be signed by the end of August. -Saulius Girnius LITHUANIA: GOOD MONEY AFTER BAD? ON 26-JULY KESTUTIS LYNIKAS, A CURRENCY EXPERT FROM AUSTRALIA AND ADVISER TO THE BANK OF LITHUANIA, SAID THAT LITHUANIA WILL RECEIVE COMPENSATION IN AN AMOUNT YET TO BE DETERMINED FROM THE AMERICAN BANK NOTE COMPANY FOR THE POOR QUALITY LITAS (THE COUNTRY'S NEW CURRENCY) THAT IT PRINTED, RADIO LITHUANIA REPORTS. Four high officials of the company held talks with Bank of Lithuania Chairman Visokavicius on 23 July. The company has agreed to print 10,- 20-, and 50-litas bills with 11 or 12-protection features to replace current bills that are less secure from counterfeiting. -Saulius Girnius DEBATE ON NARVA. Yurii Mishin, Narva city council member and leader of the Russian Citizens' Union, told the press in Moscow on 26 July that there are about 11,000 Russian citizens living in that city and that their number has doubled since 1 January. He noted that if a majority of Narva's residents were to obtain Russian citizenship, Moscow would have to consider the issue of having jurisdiction over the city transferred to Russia. US Ambassador to Estonia Robert Frasure told BNS the same day that he thinks Estonia is not large enough to be divided into autonomous areas and expressed the hope that the status of Narva and Sillamae after the referendums would be solved peacefully. In an article published in the International Herald Tribune of 27-July, Sweden's Prime Minister Carl Bildt praises Estonia for submitting its draft law on aliens for European examination and for changing the controversial passages. Bildt urged Russia to show its commitment to the independence of the former Soviet Baltic republics as a part of its integration into European institutions." This is the true test of its willingness and ability to abandon not only the practices of the Soviet past, but also the Russian imperialist ambitions of past centuries," Bildt writes. -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Bess Brown and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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